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11.10.2015
Most people today, know Persia or Iran through its carpets, its caviar, its costly war with its neighbor Iraq, or through its importance as one of the world's major oil-producing nations. For more than three thousand years Persia was a melting pot of civilizations and demographic movements between Asia and Europe. Persia's first vigorous growth began in the Neolithic era, and by the third millennium B.C. These monuments had been built to testify to the absolute power of the Achaemenian Empire, and yet they were razed to the ground in just one night by Alexander, who conquered Persia and begun the Hellenistic period. The Elamite civilization in Iran, first developed in the Susian plain, under the influence of nearby Sumeria and Mesopotamia in the Tigris-Euphrates valley.
In 3000 B.C a group of people called the Akkadians drifted into the northern Sumerian territory.
The Guti, among other tribes living in the mountainous areas controlled many of the routes that crossed western Iran. Throughout the centuries that followed, the Assyrian Empire continued to fight for control of the region, at times succeeding with great force.
The Persians eventually settled in the province of Fars and in the Bakhtiari Mountains, while the Medes occupied the Hamedan plain.
The Persians achieved unity under the leadership of Achaemenes, whose descendant Cyrus brought the Achaemenian Empire onto the centre stage of world history.
After the death of Darius, the immense empire established under the first Achaemenian rulers was threatened, as Persian authority could no longer contain the rebellions of the satrapies. The Greeks were then in possession of the ancient world from Egypt to Indus, and from Oxus to the Danube. The main difficulty that the Seleucid rulers faced was how to maintain the unity of an empire composed of a mosaic of different cultures and ethnic groups, and governed by independent-minded satraps. The Seleucids tried on several occasions to force out the Parthians who had moved into northern Iran. In addition to the nomads that were a constant menace on its eastern frontier the Parthians also had to face another powerful adversary, Rome.
Within twenty years, Ardeshir I (224-241) created a vast empire that stretched as far as the Indus. His son Shapur I (241-272) continued this expansion, conquering Bactria, and Kushan, while leading several campaigns against Rome.
For nearly four centuries, foreign wars and internal struggles gradually exhausted the Sassanian Empire and a new enemy, the Hephtalite Huns, defeated them.
Abu Bekr, the first successor of the Prophet Mohammed, was head of the Moslem community from 632 to 634. The Abbasid Dynasty (750-945) established its capital at Baghad, near the old Sassanian capital. From the second half of the 9th Century a period of decline began, and by the middle of the 10th Century, the Abbassid caliphs at Baghdad had no real political control over Iran. While early on the Turks had an important role to play as soldiers conscripted to the personal guard of the Abbassid caliphs, soon they were no longer satisfied with this subordinate position.
In spite of the presence of the Turkish invaders, this era of Iranian revival, beginning with the publication of Ferdausi's Shah-namah,constitutes for Persia a period of intensely creative intellectual activity. By the second half of the 12th Century, the power of the Seljuks gave way to local dynasties set up by provincial governors. The Mongol conquest of the Persian world brought with it terrible destruction and large-scale massacres. During the same period as the Mongols and the Timurids, north-western Iran went through a different historical development. The Safavid dynasty takes its name from Sheikh Safi-od-Din of Ardabil, who was the ancestor of the Safavid kings and spiritual leader of the Safavid Sufi order, founded in 1301. The Safavid order was initially indistinguishable from the many other Sufi orders in existence in the Muslim world at that time. The Safavids adopted Shi'ism as their state religion, which had an important role in unifying the Persians against the strict Sunni Ottoman Empire. By 1722 the Safavid rulers had lost much of their power leading to rebellions within the empire.
Afghan rule in eastern Iran lasted only a short period of time (1722-1729); the second ruler, Ashraf Shah, was overthrown by a young chieftain from Khorassan, Nader Khan, who had rallied to the cause of the last remaining Safavid prince, Tahmasp. The Safavid Dynasty was briefly restored; however, Nader Khan (1736-1747) put a final end to its rule when he set himself on the throne in 1736. There followed half a century of civil war in Iran between the rival Zand and Qajar factions.
The 19th and early 20th Century was dominated by a growing conflict of interest between Russia and Great Britain.
Increasing dissatisfaction with the incompetence and corruption of the government together with resentment of foreign political and economic control, led to the formation and revolts by various secret societies and religious groups. During the Qajar dynasty, the Russians and the British fought for economic control of the area, and during World War I, Iran's neutrality did not stop it from becoming a battlefield for Russian and British troops. The country's pro-Axis allegiance in World War II led to Anglo-Russian occupation of Iran in 1941 and deposition of the shah in favor of his son, Mohammed Reza Pahlavi.
The sporadic war with Iraq regained momentum in 1982, as Iran launched an offensive in March and regained much of the border area occupied by Iraq in late 1980.
Mohammed Khatami, a little-known moderate cleric, former newspaperman, and national librarian, won the presidential election with 70% of the vote on May 23, 1997, a stunning victory over the conservative ruling elite.
Signaling a seismic change in Iran's political environment, reform candidates won the overwhelming majority of seats in Feb. By 2003, Iran was fanning much of the world's suspicions that it had illegal nuclear ambitions.
In June 2005, former Tehran mayor Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, a hard-line conservative and a devout follower of Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, won the presidential election with 62% of the vote. In December elections for local councils in Iran, moderate conservatives and some reformist candidates won the majority of the seats. Seit einigen Wochen bereite ich eine Prasentation auf Englisch zum Thema Britisches Imperium in Indien vor. Nun habe ich meine Prasentation meiner Lehrerin abgeben und sie war soweit zufrieden, jedoch fehle ein wichtiger Begriff in meiner GFS. Ich hoffe nun sehr, dass mir hier vielleicht jemand sagen kann, was man unter jenen Begriffen versteht, oder zumindest von wann bis wann welche Phase andauert. Wie im von Hyokkose verlinkten ersten Text am Ende geschrieben wird, ist die Amerikanische Revolution die Zasur zwischen den beiden Zeitabschnitten. Vergleiche die Karten des Britischen Kolonialreiches von 1763 (First Empire) und von 1914 (Seconde Empire).
Australien wurde eher so nebenbei mal als Straflingskolonie mitgenommen, darauf zielte keine wirtschaftliche Ausbeutung ab. So wie ich das sehe, liegen beim first Empire die Besetzungen hauptsachlich in Nordamerika, au?erdem war Bengal zu dieser Zeit schon unter britischer Herrschaft, ganz Indien jedoch noch nicht. Kann man in einem oder in zwei Satzen sagen, was genau das first Empire und das Second Empire ist? Wir hatten mal ein Mitglied[edit: Paul Germany] das sich im Gegensatz zu mir mit der Kolonialgeschichte der Philippinen auskannte.
Spanien verkaufte in diesem Zusammenhang seine ubrigen pazifischen Besitzungen an das Deutsche Reich, aber das nur nebenbei. Von 1762 bis 1764 gelang es den Briten, im Rahmen des Siebenjahrigen Krieges Teile des philippinischen Archipels vorubergehend zu besetzen. This was followed in less than two hundred years by the Parthian and then the Sassanian Empires.
They also used ploughs to till their land, and oars to propel their ships on the Euphrates river.
The Akkadians adopted some aspects of Sumerian culture and for that reason, the region is sometimes referred to as Sumer - Akkad. They waged war with deliberate frightfulness, sacking cities, and killing their inhabitants indiscriminately.
Those who settled in Iran were divided into tribes that were distinguished from each other by their different dialects.


The Medes, were fierce warriors and skilled horse breeders, and at first were organised as independent tribes; however, this changed under the tribal chief, Deioces. Cyrus was the descendant of a long line of Persian kings and should be referred to as Cyrus II, having been named after his grandfather. There were two battles, then Cyrus besieged and captured Sardis before going on to subdue the rich Greek cities. The city which had been capital of Mesopotamia for a thousand years offered little resistance, and welcomed Cyrus as a liberator. The respect he showed for the religions of others earned him the homage of all Babylonians; Syria and Phoenicia thus came under Achaemenian law. After a victorious campaign against Egypt, he annexed the country to his father's empire, but during his absence the throne was seized by the Magus Gaumata, and the King died mysteriously. Gradually, the immense empire disintegrated; the Greek cities in Ionia, Egypt, then Pheonicia and Syria broke away, followed by the regions to the west of the Euphrates. Alexander followed a policy of integration between the Greeks and the Persian communities, encouraging marriages and applying the formula of magnanimity and generosity, which had formerly brought success to Cyrus II.
The Ptolemaic Dynasty ruling Egypt, the Macedonian monarchy ruling Europe and Seleucus I ruling the east including; Mesopotamia, Iran, Syria and Bactria. A new menace was added to this, that of the Parthians, a nomad people of Iranian origin who had settled in the region between the Caspian and Aral seas. For almost three centuries, Rome and Parthia were to battle over Syria, Mesopotamia and Armenia, without ever achieving any lasting results.
224 Ardeshir, a descendant of Sassan and ruler of Fars and Kerman, rebelled against the Parthian king, Artabanus V, and established the Sassanian dynasty.
In 259, the Persian army defeated the Roman emperor Valerian at the battle of Edessa and more than 70,000 Roman soldiers were captured. It was not until the reign of Khosroe I (531-579), one of the greatest Sassanian rulers, that the Huns were beaten.
540, while Khosroe II, who had rebuilt the empire until it rivaled that of the Archaemenians, laid siege to Byzantium in A.D.
For a century, the empire experienced a time of unprecedented cultural, artistic and economic development, particularly during the reigns of Harun al-Rashid (786-809) and al-Mamun (813-833). The governors whom the caliphs had appointed to administer the frontier provinces displayed a tendency to establish virtually independent local dynasties.
During their 110 years of rule, the Buwayids seized all political power from the Abbassid caliphs. Often they took matters into their own hands and elevated themselves to positions of influence.
But the Ghaznavids were unable to prevent the arrival of yet another powerful force, the Seljuks. Biruni, the most knowledgeable scientist of the Moslem middle ages, was interested in history, mathematics, astronomy and the physical and natural sciences. One of these provinces, Khorassan was governed by the princes of Khwarezm (1153), who set up a kingdom extending from the frontiers of China to those of Afghanistan. In 1219, Genghis Khan's army attacked the state of Khwarezm, capturing Transoxiana, Samarkand (1220) and Khorassan (1221), while a detachment penetrated as far as Azerbaijan.
Once again, local chiefs took advantage of this to declare themselves independent: a Persian Shi'ite dynasty, the Sardebarians (1337-1381), settled in the northwestern part of Khorassan while the Mozzafferids (1340-1392) took control of the south from Fars to Kerman.
His invasion of Isfahan alone, led to more than 70,000 deaths where the heads of his victims were heaped up into pyramids.
But Junayd, who became the head of the order in 1447, transformed it into a revolutionary Shi'ite movement that aimed at seizing power in Iran.
The height of Safavid glory was at the time of the reign of Shah Abbas I (1571-1629), who encouraged contact and trade with Europe and transformed his new capital, Isfahan, into one of the most magnificent cities of Persia. A small force of Afghans, led by the Ghilzai chief Mahmud, took advantage of this, invading Khorassan, and capturing Isfahan. Finally in 1795 the Qajar leader Agha Muhammed Khan, emerged victorious and established the new Qajar dynasty. Russia hoped to reach the Persian Gulf and the Indian Ocean through Iran, and Great Britian wanted to protect its sea and land routes to India and to slow down Russian expansion.
This social unrest ultimately focused on the demand for a constitution, which was signed by Muzzaffer od-Din Shah on December 30th 1906.
Pahlavi's Westernization programs alienated the clergy, and his authoritarian rule led to massive demonstrations during the 1970s, to which the shah responded with the imposition of martial law in Sept.
Attempting to revive a stagnant economy, President Rafsanjani took measures to decentralize the command system and introduce free-market mechanisms.
Khatami supported greater social and political freedoms, but his steps toward liberalizing the strict clerical rule governing the country put him at odds with the supreme leader, Ayatollah Khamenei.
2000 parliamentary elections, thereby wresting control from hard-liners, who had dominated the parliament since the 1979 Islamic revolution.
In June 2003, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) criticized Iran's concealment of much of its nuclear facilities and called on the country to permit more rigorous inspections of its nuclear sites. 26, the most destructive earthquake of 2003 devastated the historic city of Bam, killing an estimated 28,000 to 30,000 of its 80,000 residents. 2004, conservatives won a landslide victory in parliamentary elections, a setback for Iran's reformist movement. Ahmadinejad was highly popular among Iran's rural poor, who responded to his pledge to fight corruption among the country's elite.
The results were seen as a sign of public dissatisfaction with President Ahmadinejad and his hard-line stances. Sprich auch: mit welchem jahr ich anfangen muss, und dann gibt es so viele namen und minister etc. Damit ware mir wirklich sehr geholfen, da ich befurchte, dass mir Inhaltspunkte abgezogen werden, sollte ich diese Begriffe nicht erlautern. Das Zentrum des ersten Empires lag in Nordamerika, genaugenommen Kanada und die soateren 13 Grunderstaaten der USA. Man kann also sagen, dass Gro?britannien im Jahre 1781 den wichtigsten Teil seines Kolonialreiches (die amerikanischen Kolonien) verlor. In Indien hatten die Briten zwar bereits Fu? gefasst, doch nun wurde ihr Einflu? auf das ganze Land ausgedehnt. Gro?britannien wollte eine durchgehende Kette von Kolonien schaffen, die Sudafrika (Cape of Good Hope) mit Agypten (Cairo) verband. Empires war der Indische Ozean, der von den wichtigen Kolonien in Indien, Afrika und Australien umgeben war. Successive invasions by the Greeks, Arabs, Mongols and Turks developed the nation's culture through rich and diverse philosophical, artistic, scientific and religious influences.
The Sumerians were the most advanced and complex civilization in the world at that time, and by 3100 B.C. The Persian king overthrew the Median empire and seized Ecbatana (Place of Assembly), which became his capital. Artaxerxes III (358-338) made one last attempt to reunite the empire, brutally taking back Egypt and quelling the revolt of the satraps, but a new power was already emerging in West-Macedonia. The splendour of Persepolis was short lived, as the palaces were looted and burned by Alexander in just one night. Then Omar, caliph (head of the Moslem community) from 634 to 644, initiated an explosive expansion of Islam. Persian scholars and artists played an important role in this intellectual activity; from the very beginning of the Abbasid Caliphate, they had been placed in charge of the highest court functions, and a large number of Iranian customs and traditions were rapidly adopted in Baghdad. Some of these included the Tahirids of Khurasan (820 - 873), the Samanids of Khurasan and Transoxiana (819 - 1005) and their offshoot, the Ghaznavids of Khurasan, Afghanistan and northern India (977 - 1186).
They derived their name from an ancestor called Seljuk, whose nomadic tribe was converted to Islam, and were themselves originally central-Asian Turks.
The poet, mathematician and astronomer Omar Khayyam, author of the famous Roubayyat, and the philosopher and theologian Ghazahli illustrate the wealth contributed by Persia to the sum of universal culture in the 11th and 12th Centuries.
In 1217, the Khwarezmi armies reached as far as the Zagros Mountains but were never able to consolidate their conquests before the arrival of the Mongols. In 1256, a second expedition led by Hulagu (1217-1265), Genghis Khan's grandson, subdued the whole of Persia.


But these dynasties were short-lived as a third invasion, this time by the Turko-Mongol nomads lead by Tamerlane, swept across the region. Nevertheless, after having established his capital at Samarkand, he drew artists, calligraphers, writers, philosophers, astronomers and mathematicians, from all parts of his empire, the majority of whom came from Shiraz and Isfahan.Thus, ironically, this ruthless warrior and appalling killer initiated a true civilization in the cities of Samarkand, Bukhara, Herat, Balkh and Mashad. Though the Safavid family itself was of Iranian origin, the bulk of its supporters were Shi'ite Turkoman tribesmen from Anatolia, Syria, Upper Mesopotamia, and Armenian highlands. The presence at the Safavid court of foreign envoys and the growing number of merchants and travellers in Iran was later to have a great influence on the arts and literature in Europe. Miniature paintings, Chinese and Arabic designs had an important influence in carpet motifs, and carpets became a major Persian export to Europe, India, and even the Ottoman Empire. He managed in the space of four years to conquer Afghanistan and to capture New Delhi, Bukhara and Khiva, thus creating a greater kingdom than that of Shah Abbas. Both obtained concessions from Iranian governments under Naser od-Din Shah (1848-1896) and his successor Muzzaffer od-Din Shah (1896-1907).
Although Iraq expressed its willingness to stop fighting, Iran stated that it would not end the war until Iraq agreed to pay for war damages and to punish the Iraqi government leaders involved in the conflict.
The parliament's reformist transformation greatly buttressed the efforts of Khatami in constructing a nation of lasting pluralism andIslamic democracy.Khatami walked a jittery tightrope between student groups and other liberals pressuring him to introduce bolder freedoms and Iran's military and conservative clerical elite (including Khamenei), who expressed growing impatience with the president's liberalizing measures.
Under intense international pressure, Iran reluctantly agreed in December to suspend its uranium enrichment program and allow for thorough IAEA inspections.
The hard-line Guardian Council had disqualified more than 2,500 reformist candidates, including more than 80 who were already members of the 290-seat parliament. France, Britain, and Germany called off nuclear talks with Iran, and along with the United States, threatened to refer Iran to the UN Security Council, a step avoided thus far.
Dies fiel mir nicht leicht, da ich schon immer gro?e Schwierigkeiten hatte, historische Ereignisse nachzuvollziehen, vorallem, wenn wie in den meisten Texten nur sehr oberflachlich berichtet wird. Von diesen Kolonien waren die 13 Grunderstaaten die reichsten und am dichtesten besiedelten. Indien war bei weitem die bevolkerungsstarkste und auch reichtse Kolonie des zweiten Empire. Sargon, ruler of the Akkad defeated Sumer and went on to conquer Elam and the mountainous lands to the east. He spared the defeated ruler, preferring not to indulge in the mass killings, which until then had been a feature of Assyrian victories. He now turned his attention towards his eastern frontiers and conquered a string of provinces one after the other, even crossing the Oxus in order to reach another river, the Jaxartes, which flows into the Aral Sea.
In the space of less than twenty years he had assembled the greatest empire the world had ever seen. Similarly, he had worked out the administration of the empire, appointing a governor, or satrap, to represent him in each province. He then continued the work of Cyrus, creating 23 provinces, or satrapies, and building the administrative and religious cities of Susa and Persepolis. However, the dynamic emperor Heraclius turned the tables, with the Byzantines invading Iran in 628.
He seized Syria, then Jerusalem and finally Damascus in 638 after having defeated Heraclius. Toghrul Beg, sultan from 1038, first defeated the Ghaznavids, then sacked Isfahan in 1051 and went on to seize Baghdad from the Buwayids in 1055.
In 1258, Baghdad was captured and the caliph put to death, bringing the Abbasid Caliphate rule to an end. In the time of Shah Rukh (1405-1447) and Oleg Begh the whole of Persia became covered with admirable monuments and the art of miniature reached its peak at Shiraz and Herat. However, there was a third dynasty, called the Safavids (1502-1737), that emerged in Azerbaijan, and had as its leader Shah Ismail (1487-1524).
The Qajar monarchs were incapable of establishing a sound fiscal policy, and to compensate for this, they progressively disposed of Iran's economic resources to foreign powers in return for small sums of money that satisfied their immediate financial needs. He subsequently did much to modernize the country and abolished all foreign extraterritorial rights. Khomeini refused all appeals, even a unanimous vote by the UN Security Council demanding immediate release of the hostages. On July 20, 1988, Khomeini, after a series of Iranian military reverses, agreed to cease-fire negotiations with Iraq. In June 2001 presidential elections, Khatami won reelection with a stunning 77% of the vote. The IAEA again censured the country in June 2004 for failing to fully cooperate with nuclear inspections. Russia and China, both of whom have strong economic ties to Iran, refused to endorse sanctions. Komischerweise sind mir diese Begriffe bei meiner bisherigen Recherche nicht begegnet und als ich nun gezielt danach gesucht habe, wurde ich auch nicht fundig.
So nur diese eingefarbt waren wie bei der vorherigen Karte, wird dadurch aber das Bild wohl etwas verzerrt und unser Fragesteller konnte auf eine falsche Fahrte gelangen.
Aber im Laufe des Empires sind doch standig neue Kolonien hinzugekommen und verloren gegangen, oder nicht?
Uberspitzt gesagt: Nach der Amerikanischen Unabhangigkeit mu?te Gro?britannien als Kolonialmacht quasi von vorne anfangen.
His empire spread from the Mediterranean Sea to the Caspian Sea in the north, and the Persian Gulf in the South.
On the contrary he brought nobles and civilian officials, both Median and Persian, into the government of his kingdom. A number of fortresses were then built for the purpose of keeping out the nomads of Central Asia.
He imposed an annual tax in the form of a tribute on all the races he conquered, to which the Achaemenian power owed much of its wealth and magnificence.
In 635, other Arab troops launched an assault on the Sassanian Empire, and crossed the Euphrates. Named protector of the caliph, Togrul Begh showed himself to be a vigorous defender of Sunni doctrine. He successfully conquered a vast territory which extended from Herat (Afghanistan) to Baghdad (Iraq).
16, 1979, and the exiled cleric Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini returned to establish an Islamic theocracy. However, soon after his son Cambyses had been entrusted with making the preparations for such a campaign, Cyrus himself was killed in battle on the eastern frontier of his empire. After his death, over a period of 14 years and twelve successive kings, the Sassanian Empire weakened considerably, and the power of the central authority passed into the hands of the generals.
The downfall of the empire was well underway when the Arab horsemen dealt the deathblow to the Sassanid dynasty and overran Persia first entering Ctesiphon in 637. Ahmadinejad has been defiantly anti-Western and venomously anti-Israeli, announcing that Israel was a disgraceful blot that should be wiped off the map.
In July a Security Council resolution was finally passed, demanding that Iran halt its nuclear activities by the end of August or face possible sanctions. Rico zusammen als letzte spanische Kolonien verloren (abgesehen von Aqautorialguinea und Spanisch-Marokko, wobei gerade letztere Kolonie mehr ein Nachspiel des spanischen Kolonialzeitalters war).
For more than half a century after the fall of Niniva, the Medes ruled over a vast empire with borders stretching from Afghanistan to Turkey. Nun verschob sich das Augenmerk nach Indien, daher eben auch die Unterteilung in first und second. They emerged victorious from the engagement at Nahavand in 642, which left the way open for them to enter the Iranian plateau.
Sie gingen zusammen mit Guam und Puerto Rico an die USA verloren, wahrend Kuba seine Unabhangigkeit (mehr oder weniger) erlangte. The conquest of Persia continued with the fall of Afghanistan (651) and then Transoxiana (674).



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