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Background: A large proportion of adults in North America are not meeting recommended intakes for magnesium (Mg). Results: Serum Mg concentration was lower in women of both races and South Asians of both genders. Conclusions: These results suggest that the higher incidence of diabetes in South Asians increases their risk for Mg deficiency and that health conditions that increase Mg requirements have a greater effect on Mg status in women than men. Competing interests and funding: This research was funded by the Bureau of Nutritional Sciences, Health Canada.
Nutrition Research Division, Health Products and Food Branch, Health Canada, PL 2203E, Sir Frederick G. Magnesium (Mg) is an essential co-factor required for many biochemical reactions and plays an important role in glucose metabolism (1). Nutrition surveys show that a large proportion of adults in North America have inadequate Mg intakes (9, 10). Presently there is little information on the prevalence of Mg deficiency in Canadians, including in potentially vulnerable subpopulations. Total serum Mg, triglycerides, and glucose were measured with the Ortho Clinical Diagnostics Vitros 5,1 FS analyser (Johnson and Johnson, Piscataway, NJ, USA).
The serum Mg concentrations of women and men of South Asian and white European descent were compared (Fig. The relationship between serum Mg concentration and indicators of glucose control and insulin resistance was examined. Serum Mg concentrations were compared in participants categorized as having normal or abnormal values for fasting glucose and indicators of insulin resistance based on established cut-off values. Serum Mg concentrations of participants categorized as having normal (white bars) or abnormal (black bars) values for fasting serum glucose (a), fasting plasma insulin (b), QUICKI (c), HOMA-IR (d) and McAuley’s index (e) based on cut-off values for impaired glucose control and insulin resistance. A WHO expert consultation concluded that Asians generally have higher percentage body fat than whites of the same BMI (27). In total, 98% of participants completed a health questionnaire providing information on use of certain medications and specific chronic diseases. 4Data were analyzed using multifactorial ANOVA to test for effects and interactions of the independent variables (characteristic, race and gender) on serum Mg (dependent variable). Canada’s Capital Region has a diverse South Asian community with a large population of nearly 34,000. The hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp is considered the gold standard for evaluation of insulin sensitivity, yet the complexity of the procedure has led to development of more practical, indirect methods for use in larger epidemiological studies, such as QUICKI (30), HOMA-IR (31, 32), and McAuley’s index (31, 32).
A larger number of SM compared to SW had abnormal values for fasting glucose and indicators of insulin resistance, yet serum Mg was not lower in SM with abnormal values.
Obesity is a major problem in Canada, with approximately a quarter of Canadian adults considered obese (35). In this study, gender and racial differences in serum Mg concentrations were observed in adults living in Canada’s Capital Region. The authors thank Reiko Nagasaka, Claude Gagnon, Kurtis Sarafin, Isabelle Rondeau, Isabelle Massarelli, Winnie Cheung, Paula Roach, Patrick Laffey, Sylvie Faucher, Keith Snider, Marie-France Verreault, Marcia Cooper, Francoise Cain, Marcia LeBlanc, Judy Green, Sarah Hatt, Laura Kenney, Emilie Hebert, Danu Mohottalage, Medhani Mohottalage, Susantha Mohottalage, Denuka Samarawickrama, Charith Jayatilake, Chattali Jayatilake, Sajani Samarawickrama, Rajitha Widyaratne, Isuri Vidyaratne, Sasha Senarath, Dinu Heiyanthuduwa, Halima Eljack-Bansajaya, Udula Ratnayake, Ayesha Ratnayake, and Indee Ranasinghe for their assistance with this study. Serum and dietary magnesium and the risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus: The atherosclerosis risk in communities study. Magnesium intake is related to improved insulin homeostasis in the Framingham offspring cohort. High dietary magnesium intake is associated with low insulin resistance in the Newfoundland population. Type 2 diabetes in South Asians: similarities and differences with white Caucasian and other populations.
Magnesium requirements: new estimations for men and women by cross-sectional statistical analyses of metabolic magnesium balance data. Diagnosing insulin resistance by simple quantitative methods in subjects with normal glucose metabolism.
A comparison of novel and commonly-used indices of insulin sensitivity in African American chronic hemodialysis patients.
Associations of serum and dietary magnesium with cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes, insulin, and carotid arterial wall thickness: the ARIC study. Quantitative insulin sensitivity check index: a simple, accurate method for assessing insulin sensitivity in humans. Homeostasis model assessment: insulin resistance and beta-cell function from fasting plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in man. Background: Smoking plays a key role in increasing the inflammatory marker C-reactive protein (CRP).
How to cite this article:Ata MA, Shaikh SS, Iqbal T, Hina, Jamil D, Khan R, Qazi MB, Riwan T. He asked another Pfizer chemist, Willard Welch, to synthesize some previously unexplored tametraline derivatives. Welch then prepared stereoisomers of this compound, which were tested in vivo by animal behavioral scientist Albert Weissman.
We are your personal trainer, your nutritionist,your supplement expert, your lifting partner, your support group. Women and people of South Asian race may be at higher risk for Mg deficiency because of lower Mg intakes relative to requirements and increased susceptibility to diabetes, respectively.
Racial differences in serum Mg were not significant after controlling for use of diabetes medication. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, allowing third parties to copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format and to remix, transform, and build upon the material for any purpose, even commercially, provided the original work is properly cited and states its license. The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest regarding the publication of this paper.
There is evidence that higher Mg intakes and serum Mg concentrations may decrease the risk of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (2–7).
The Canadian Community Health Survey 2.2 (2004) revealed that more than 34% of adults over the age of 19 years had Mg intakes from food below the estimated average requirement (EAR), with percentages greater than 40% in several age and sex groups (10).
South Asians make up the largest visible minority group in Canada, accounting for 4.8% of the total population in 2011 (11).
Mg requirements for the North American population were set substantially higher for men than for women.

The objectives of this study were to compare serum Mg concentrations of South Asian and white Canadian women and men and to examine the relationship with diabetes, body mass index (BMI), and measures of glucose control and insulin resistance. Results from serum samples with level of hemolysis exceeding the threshold value for the assay were excluded from the analyses. A larger proportion of WW reported not taking medication for diabetes compared to SW and SM (Table 1). Whites of European descent make up the largest racial group in this region, accounting for almost three-quarters of the population. Although serum Mg has been reported to vary with age (18), age is an unlikely explanation for the observed differences. Furthermore, a larger percentage of SW compared to SM had hypomagnesemia, suggesting that women are at greater risk for Mg deficiency. In a multi-racial cohort of adults living in New York City, Hispanics had lower serum Mg concentrations compared to African Americans (28).
QUICKI and HOMA-IR are based on glucose and insulin measurements, whereas McAuley’s index is an insulin- and triglyceride-based method.
In women, serum Mg was markedly lower for users of diabetes medication and a large proportion of women using diabetes medication were hypomagnesemic.
Because only a small fraction (<1%) of total body Mg is found in the serum, serum Mg may not always accurately reflect intracellular Mg status.
The results suggest that South Asians and women are two vulnerable subpopulations for Mg deficiency. Appropriate body-mass index for Asian populations and its implications for policy and intervention strategies.
Aims: To examine inverse correlation between CRP and magnesium levels in smokers and nonsmokers. Inverse correlation between serum C-reactive protein and magnesium levels in smokers and nonsmokers. Relationship between serum magnesium levels and C-reactive protein concentration, in non-diabetic, non-hypertensive obese subjects. Consumption of trans fatty acids is related to plasma biomarkers of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. Narrative review: Assessment of C-reactive protein in risk prediction for cardiovascular disease. The prognostic value of C-reactive protein and serum amyloid a protein in severe unstable angina.
Production of C-reactive protein and risk of coronary events in stable and unstable angina. Relation of C-reactive protein and coronary heart disease in the MRFIT nested case-control study. In vivo modulation of coagulation and fibrinolysis by recombinant glycosylated human interleukin-6 in baboons. Measurement of whole body interleukin-6 (IL-6) production: Prediction of the efficacy of anti-IL-6 treatments.
Evaluation of the effect of smoking on complete blood counts, serum C-reactive proteins and magnesium levels in healthy adult male smokers. Magnesium intake, C-reactive protein, and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in middle-aged and older U. C reactive protein and its relationship to cardiovascular risk factors: A population-based cross sectional study. Lifetime smoking exposure affects the association of C-reactive protein with cardiovascular disease risk factors and subclinical disease in healthy elderly subjects. We provide the technology, tools, andproducts you need to burn fat, build muscle, and become your best self.
These data suggest a possible problem of widespread Mg deficiency in Canada, yet to date the physiological Mg status of a similar nationally representative Canadian cohort has not been determined. South Asians are more susceptible to major chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes compared to whites of European descent and other races (12–14).
When overall results were significant, Fisher’s least significant difference test was used to identify which groups differed.
After accounting for use of diabetes medication, the effect of race on serum Mg was not significant (Table 1).
Because the only inclusion criteria for this study were South Asian or white European descent and 20–79 years of age, it is likely that participants closely represent the general adult population of these two races living in this area. Mg requirements for the North American population were set substantially higher for men than for women (15). QUICKI and HOMA-IR have been shown to be valid surrogate indicators of insulin sensitivity in South Asians (33). In contrast, a much smaller proportion of men using diabetes medication were hypomagnesemic and serum Mg was not significantly lower in men using diabetes medication compared to non-users.
The higher occurrence of diabetes in South Asians likely increases their risk for Mg deficiency.
Materials and Methods: A total of 192 healthy adult male subjects were included in the present study, out of which 96 were smokers and the remaining 96 were nonsmokers having age range from 20 to 40 years, and all the subjects belonged to District Matyari of Hyderabad. Arch Gen Psychiatry -- Early Coadministration of Clonazepam With Sertraline for Panic Disorder, July 2001, Goddard et al.
Use of diabetes medication and indicators of poorer glucose control, insulin resistance, and obesity were associated with lower serum Mg in women, but not in men. Greater loss of Mg in urine secondary to glycosuria and insulin resistance as well as other factors have been proposed to explain this effect (8).
The higher prevalence of diabetes in South Asians may increase their risk for Mg deficiency. More recent data from balance studies have suggested that Mg requirements for healthy women and men may be similar (16). South Asian and white Canadian adults were recruited from Canada’s Capital Region through local advertisements. When the data were not normally distributed or group variances were unequal, the data were transformed and reanalyzed. None of the indicators differed between WW or men categorized in different groups according to serum Mg concentration (Fig. Because gender modified the effect of diabetes medication use on serum Mg, women and men were analyzed separately.

Differences between whites and blacks were observed in both genders and across many age groups (18). These results suggest that women are more vulnerable to reductions in Mg status caused by factors that increase magnesium requirements, such as insulin resistance and diabetes. A study in Canadian adults from Newfoundland and Labrador showed that Mg intake was more strongly associated with insulin resistance in overweight and obese participants (4).
Serum Mg is also influenced by several factors including renal function and albumin concentrations. The association of lower serum Mg with diabetes, insulin resistance, and obesity only in women suggests greater vulnerability of women to reductions in Mg status by factors that increase Mg requirements. Serum CRP was measured by NycoCard standard kit method and magnesium levels by DiaSys standard kit method in smokers and nonsmokers.
Similar Mg requirements for both genders would put women at greater risk for Mg deficiency because women have lower Mg intakes (9). If normality and equality of variances could not be achieved, the non-parametric Kruskal–Wallis ANOVA was used to determine differences among groups. The lower serum Mg and higher incidence of hypomagnesemia in women in this study may be explained by the lower Mg intakes for women relative to requirements.
Black Americans were shown to have lower Mg intakes compared to white Americans, which may explain, at least in part, the lower serum Mg (9, 29).
In addition, SW with abnormal values for these measures had lower serum Mg, corroborating the association between lower serum Mg and poorer glucose control and insulin resistance. Given the important role of Mg in insulin action (8, 34), it is also possible that the higher prevalence of hypomagnesemia in women contributed to poorer glucose control and insulin resistance rather than just being a consequence of the abnormalities. In the present study, obese women had lower serum Mg compared to normal weight or overweight women.
Serum Mg is linearly related to albumin concentrations at high and low albumin concentrations (37); therefore, hypoalbuminemic conditions may lead to spuriously low serum Mg concentrations.
This increased vulnerability may be explained by lower Mg intakes relative to nutritional needs.
Differences in proportions were determined by chi-square test or Fisher’s exact test.
A limitation of the present study is that information on Mg intake from food and supplements was not collected. It is unconventional, however, to adjust serum Mg for albumin concentrations and only one subject in this study reported having chronic kidney disease.
Given that a substantial proportion of women were found to be hypomagnesemic, further research evaluating the prevalence of Mg deficiency in the Canadian population is needed, including in minority racial groups that may not be captured in national-level surveys. At the time of blood collection, participants’ height and weight (in light clothing without shoes) were measured using a Seca column scale (Hamburg, Germany) with automatic BMI calculation (weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared).
However, Mg intake follows caloric intake and therefore would be expected to be lower for women. Serum Mg did not differ among BMI groups for men, suggesting that obesity is more detrimental to Mg status for women. This research will help to assess the health implications of the observation that many Canadians are not meeting the current recommended intakes for Mg.
Prior to attending the clinic, participants completed a demographic questionnaire to obtain information on date of birth, gender, and race. In a national US survey, lower Mg intakes were reported for women of white European, African, and Mexican descent (9).
It is important to mention that of the 32 subjects that reported taking diabetes medication, only 6 subjects (2 women and 4 men) had well-controlled fasting glucose levels (i.e. Results were similar when using the same BMI cut-off points for whites and South Asians or when using lower cut-off points for South Asians, given evidence suggesting that lower BMI cut-off points for some Asian populations may better estimate obesity-related health risks (27).
Since these variables are not direct measures of magnesium levels in smokers even then they clearly show that smoking decreases cellular magnesium concentration. For assessment of race, participants were asked to identify themselves as South Asian (e.g.
Obesity is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance and therefore can affect Mg status by altering glucose metabolism and insulin action. Indian, Sri Lankan, Pakistani, Bangladeshi, or Nepalese), white of European descent, or other race. All participants were also asked to complete a health questionnaire to identify participants taking certain medications and having specific chronic diseases.
Use of other medications or having specific chronic diseases did not affect serum Mg (Table 1). Further research exploring the effect of obesity on Mg metabolism and requirements in both genders will be important.
Women and men aged 20–79 years of South Asian or white European descent were eligible to participate in the study. A written consent was obtained from every subject who was involved in our study before taking blood sample.
The serum levels for CRP and magnesium were determined by standard methods using NycoCard and DiaSys kits, respectively. Comparisons obtained in present study were presented as mean ± standard deviation (SD).
Comparisons of mean values between smokers and nonsmokers were done by using Student's t-test.
Our study is also justified by the Song et al., [24] that magnesium intake is inversely related with the CRPs in plasma for the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. According to another study of Mendenhall et al., [25] smoking, cardiovascular disease, and BMI have a great association with CRPs and we also found similar findings in our results with smoking. We wish to thank Dr Syed Danish Haseen, Assistant Professor Biochemistry of Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi for his humbleness and greatfulness.

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