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Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. Democratic principles have not taken root readily in Latin America in part because spiritual inwardness, a necessary prerequisite of democracy that is inseparable from the Bible, has been lacking. The Meaning of Life: Christian Truth and Social Change in Latin America ePub (Adobe DRM) can be read on any device that can open ePub (Adobe DRM) files. At first glance, this picture does not seem to have a lot of symbolism or even a lot of meaning.
During the twentieth century Protestant workers like John Mackay (1889-1983) brought the evangelical message to that continent through lectures and writings. However, after reading your outline, it is astounding how much underlying meaning can be derived from this picture. This collection of John Mackay's early essays presents a range of his contributions, and the ideas in the essays are grounded in his clear understanding of the nature and dignity of human beings in the light of God. We don’t need little cover ups and temporary fixes, we need basic, fundamental changes in the country to address the issues at hand.
They tell us stories of man’s rise and growth from the Paleolithic age to the Neolithic age, then to the Stone Age and next to the copper age etc. The fruit of this teaching is self-confidence, courage, steadfastness, and other positive ethical attributes that accompany progress and success for individuals and peoples.
The call to action at the end is definitely beneficial, and I can’t wait to hear your speech!
On the stage of the world, scenes follow scenes, acts follow acts, and drama follows drama. No doubt change identifies a wide canvas or contour for development, progress transformation, growth, mobilisation and soon. The essays touch on religious, educational, literary, political, and philosophical themes in the service of Christian truth. He was of the opinion that there is no society which is closed (Caste System in India) and no society which is completely open (Class System).
They embody key ideas and strategic judgments related to the presentation of the Evangel, the most basic and first work of the church. He further contended that no two societies are exactly same in the amount of movement allowed or discouraged. The message balances spiritual and social aspects of Christianity to meet the needs of the people, and it accompanied progressive social and political changes in the region. The historical experience of Protestantism in Latin America is well worth recalling today by readers in North America and elsewhere. The conflict perspective can best be understood in terms of tension and conflict between groups and individuals and here change is viewed as an intrinsic process in society. In each case, a change in role between father and son provides the latter with more of the good things of life.The roles of lawyer, doctor and engineer require initiative, training and self- sacrifice.
Thus conflict acts as a creative force that stimulates change in society, constructive or destructive. Persons are motivated according to a complex variety of factors to work toward new roles, with their higher status and greater rewards.
While Karl Marx has identified class and class conflict based on unequal distribution of material resources, Daharendorf has identified the same in terms of unequal distribution of authority. The good things of life are scarce and individuals must compete, conflict and cooperate with others to gain them.We tend to assume that social mobility is positive rather than a negative value and that an open society is preferable to a closed one. According to Daharendorf, all groups in society are divided into those who have authority and those who do not and conflict arises because of unequal distribution of authority in society’.
A closed society, in which there is little social mobility, shelters the individual from the frustrations of unsuccessful competition. Only when it flows through and alters with changes, it is able to refresh and recreate.Change is an ever-present phenomenon.
To structural-functional theorists, society consists of interrelated parts that work together for the purpose of maintaining internal balance.
It perceives roles as locating individuals in social positions, and providing them with articulated sets of expectations specifying the rights and duties of occupants. Furthermore, it protects a person from the strain of adjusting to unfamiliar surroundings.The mobile individual must constantly adapt to socially unfamiliar situations a new class, new norms, new values. This perspective is oriented towards order and stability and preservation of the status quo. Durkheim has observed change in terms of change in the nature of division of labour in society. In other words, an open society, with its high degree of mobility, does not guarantee happiness.On the other hand, a closed society, in which there is little social mobility, is not very likely to become a world leader.
He believed that the change in labour from traditional society to modern society was the cause for social change.According to Talcott Parsons, society is a system surrounded by three other systems — personality, the organism and culture. Heredity does not guarantee that the son of a capable and wise father will be equally capable and wise. There is social equilibrium when the boundaries of the three systems are maintained and social change results from boundary breaking.
Ogburn’s theory reasons that societies operate as homogeneous mechanisms and that changes that upset the equilibrium in one part tends to produce compensating changes to restore that equilibrium.
At one period of time there would be one type of mobility and another period of time it can be another type. Incessant changeability is very inherent nature of human society.A social structure is a nexus of present relationships.
Each of the following types are not exclusive but they may overlap, it is only for the purpose of convenience and analysis they are given different labels.1.
Horizontal Mobility:Under this type of social mobility, a person changes his or her occupation but the overall social standing remains the same.
These theories posit that activities of people constitute the essence of change in society and modifications in the behaviour can facilitate change and play an essential role in social development.
Certain occupations like Doctor, Engineer, and Professor may enjoy the same status but when an engineer changes his occupation from engineer to teaching engineering, he has horizontally moved from one occupational category to another. But the existing social structure is influenced by many factors and forces that inevitably cause it to change.
Max Weber thought that modernity was replacing traditional views with a rational way of thinking.
But no change has taken place in the system of social stratification.In other words, horizontal mobility is the transition of an individual or social object from one social group to another situated on the same level. Society is thus subject to continuous change.The change of man and society has been the central and quite dominant concern of sociology right from the time when it emerged as branch of learning. In pre-industrial societies traditional views obstructed change, things were the way they were because that is what everyone believed and no one questioned it.In modern societies, things were questioned and answers were calculated. While explaining horizontal mobility we are mainly referring to movement of individuals from one position to another of more or less equal prestige. David McClelland focused his study on what he called need for achievement, symbolised by V achievement. When changes occur in the modes of living of individuals and social relation gets influenced, such changes are called social changes.Social change refers to the modifications which take place in life pattern of people. The individuals move from one place to another in search of jobs which may be of same prestige. Consequently, there is certain behaviour characteristics exhibited by people with this V factor, such as individualism, energetic innovative activity, drive for success and so on. Hence, social change would mean observable differences in any social phenomena over any period of time.Social change is the change in society and society is a web of social relationships. Vertical Mobility:Vertical mobility refers to any change in the occupational, economic or political status of an individual or a group which leads to change of their position. Our mission is to provide an online platform to help students to discuss anything and everything about sociology. When a big businessman meets with losses in his business and is declared bankrupt, he occupies a low status.
On the other hand, if a small businessman with occupational skills of money and manipulation becomes an industrialist he occupies a higher position in the social ladder. Hence his position improves in the hierarchical order.Vertical mobility is intensive in relatively open societies. He may not be able to change his caste but with his economic and political power he may move upward.
For example, Yadavs in India stand as a testimony to this fact.For the individuals involved, there are many social and psychic costs of upward mobility. In the course of his upward movement, the mobile man must leave behind many people and places.
He must leave the ways of thinking and behaving that characterized many of his earlier associations and he must learn, if he can, new ways of thinking and behaving appropriate to his new status.4. Downward Mobility:Downward mobility indicates that one loses his higher position and occupies a lower position. We can take the example of an individual, who is an Engineer and occupies a respectable position in the society because of his occupational position, education and may be caste.If he is caught for accepting bribe or has committed a sin or has done something wrong, he may be sentenced to jail or members of his caste may outcaste him and as a criminal or as an outcaste he may occupy a lower position vis-a-vis position he was occupying earlier. These two type of changes should not, however, be treated separately because a change in one automatically induces changes in the other.For example, a change in the attitude of the people may bring about changes in the social structure. Men who enjoy orderly -and consistent career tend to make a stable personal, family and community adjustment. Towards the close of the 19 century, there was a tendency in the countries of Western Europe for families to grow smaller in size. Lipset and Zetterberg are of the opinion that this type of mobility is due to interchange of ranks i.e. On the other hand, a change in the social structure may bring about attitudinal change among the members of the society.
Transformation of rural society into industrial society is not simply a change in the structure of society. Inter-Generational Mobility:This type of mobility means that one generation changes its social status in contrast to preceding generation. For example, industrialisation has destroyed domestic system of production.The destruction of domestic system of production has brought women from home to factory and office.
The attitude of independence instead of dependence upon men has become the trait of women’s personally. If the father is a shoemaker but his son after acquiring education becomes a clerk or a doctor or an engineer, this would be called upward inter- generational mobility.Similarly, a family of Brahmins may be engaged on traditional occupation of teaching and performing rituals but its younger generation is neither intelligent nor follows the family occupation. Hence, these two type of changes should not be treated separately but both of them should be studied together.The problem of social change is one of the central foci of sociological inquiry.
They become daily wagers then the younger generation has downward inter-generational mobility.With the improvement in economic position, people start changing their style of living by discarding the old practices and adopting the practices of those who are high in social ladder. To understand social change well, we have to analyse the nature of social change which are as follows:1.
Some occupations have moved up or down because of changes in the scarcity of workers willing and able to perform their tasks. Such changes in occupational structure has also effected the rates of mobility between generations.6.
Social relationships are understood in terms of social processes and social interactions and social organizations.Thus, the term social change is used to describe variation in social interactions, processes and social organizations. Intra-Generational Mobility:This type of mobility takes place in life span of one generation. Only that change can be called social change whose influence can be felt in a community form.
The changes that have significance for all or considerable segment of population can be considered as social change.2. In this way he moves up and occupies a higher social position than the one with which he had started his career.His brother may have also started his career as a clerk but did not occupy higher position in his life span and continued to remain at the same position. Hence, within the same generation we find that one brother changes his position and other brother does not.7. No society remains completely static.Each society, no matter how traditional and conservative, is constantly undergoing change.
When a person or a group of persons move from occupations of lower prestige to occupations of higher prestige, this is called Upward Vertical Mobility. We must keep in mind that society grants recognition, prestige and power not only based on economic returns from a occupation or profession but according to the skills of the individual which are valued most in the society.
A smuggler may be earning more than a clerk but his means of livelihood are not recognized in the society.Hence, he is placed lower in the social ladder. Now-a-days politicians with their political power occupy higher position irrespective of the means adopted. Occupational mobility, in short, stands for change of occupation of lower prestige to higher and vice-versa.The above noted forms of mobility are not comprehensive and do not include other types of mobility like accretive status achieved and vice-versa or spatial mobility or mobility under caste system. Our needs keep on changing to satisfy our desire for change and to satisfy these needs, social change becomes a necessity.

We cannot think of mobility in the absence of time and space.There are many factors which facilitate social mobility.
These factors may be attributed to individual motivation and efforts to improve or the institutions may work out new mechanism or the society at large may bring about drastic changes in the system of evaluation. Motivation:Each individual has a desire not only to have a better way of living but also wants to improve upon his social stand.
Here it grows and decays, there it finds renewal, accommodates itself to various changing conditions.Society is a system of social relationship.
This openness motivates people to work hard and improve upon the skills so that one can attain higher social status. Without such motivation and efforts on the part of the individual social mobility is impossible.2. Achievements and Failures:Achievement here refers to extra ordinary, usually unexpected performance, which attracts the attention of a wider public to the abilities of a person. From the dawn of history, down to this day, society has been in flux.Social change manifests itself in different stages of human history.
In ancient times when life was confined to caves (Stone Age), the social system was different from that of the computer age today.
For example, a poor man who has acquired wealth or an unknown writer who has won a literary prize will improve his status.Failures and misdeeds have a similar effect on downward mobility. Fraudulent bankruptcy will remove a member of the upper classes from blue books; he will receive no dinner invitations from his peers and he will become ineligible as a marriage partner. Social Change Involves No-Value Judgement:Social change does not attach any value judgement. But he will not become a member of the lowest stratum, although it will be difficult for him to find new association.3. Education:Education not only helps an individual to acquire knowledge but is also a passport for occupational position for higher prestige.
A correct decision on what is empirically true is not the same as correct decision on what ought to be.6.
It is through education that in modern India the members of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes are not only able to change their traditional occupation but have also started occupying jobs of higher prestige. In the modern industrial society in which statuses can be achieved, education is basic requirement.4.
Skills and Training:Each society makes provision to impart skill and training to the younger generation.
For example, the caste system which was a pillar of stability in traditional Indian society, is now undergoing considerable changes in the modern India.There was less industrialisation in India during 50s.
The reason is that the factors which cause social change do not remain uniform with the changes in time.7. When they complete their training, they are entitled to high positions, which are far better than those positions which they might have taken without such training.Society not only assigns higher social status but also gives higher economic rewards and other privileges to those persons who have these training.
Rate and Tempo of Social Change is Uneven:Though social change is a must for each and every society, the rate, tempo, speed and extent of change is not uniform.
Keeping in view these incentives people undergo these training with a hope to move up in the social ladder. In other words, skills and training facilitate in improvement of the position, this leading to social mobility.5. And in some other societies it occurs so slowly that it may not be noticed by those who live in them. For example, in the modern, industrial urban society the speed and extent of change is faster than traditional, agricultural and rural society.8.
Definite Prediction of Social Change is Impossible:It is very much difficult to make out any prediction on the exact forms of social change.
A thousand years ago in Asia, Europe and Latin America the face of society was vastly different from that what exists today. At new places, where they migrate, may have different openings and opportunities.These persons avail of these opportunities and improve upon their social position. But what the society will be in thousand years from now, no one can tell.But a change there will be. We can take the example of people belonging to the Scheduled Castes of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar, who migrate to the States of Punjab and Haryana to earn their livelihood. For example, industrialisation and urbanisation has brought about a series of interrelated changes in our family and marriage system.
Here they become farm labourers.After acquiring an accumulating money they go back to their villages and buy land. Hence, from traditional work of Chamars or scavengers, they improve their status and become owner cultivators. Social Change Shows Chain-Reaction Sequences:Society is a dynamic system of interrelated parts. People come to urban areas to acquire education and skills and occupy higher positions than their parents and brothers who continue to live in villages. For example, with the emancipation of women, educated young women find the traditional type of family and marriage not quite fit to their liking.They find it difficult to live with their parents-in-law, obeying the mother-in-law at every point. In this way we find that both push and pull factors lead to migration which subsequently facilitates social mobility.6.
Industrialization:Industrial Revolution ushered in a new social system in which people are given status according to their ability and training. Change in its one aspect may lead to a series of changes in other aspects of the society.10. In search of jobs they migrated to industrial towns.They acquired new vocational training and got jobs in industries.
Social Change takes place due to Multi-Number of Factors:Social change is the consequence of a number of factors.
A special factor may trigger a change but it is always associated with other factors that make the triggering possible. In the industrial society, the statuses are achieved, whereas in the traditional society like India, the statuses are ascribed according to birth. There is no single master key by which we can unlock all the doors leading to social change. Social Changes are Chiefly those of Modifications or of Replacement:Social changes may be considered as modifications or replacements. Urbanization facilitates social mobility by removing those factors which hinder social mobility.8. When Zamindari Abolition Act was passed, most of the tenant cultivators became owner cultivators which indicates improvement in their status i.e.
Similarly, the legal provision for reservation of jobs and promotion for the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes has also helped in social mobility.Reservation with regard to admission in professional colleges, job reservation and promotions have a large number of individuals from Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes to improve upon their status.
Social Change may be Small-scale or Large-scale:A line of distinction is drawn between small-scale and large scale social change.
Similarly, Hindu Succession Act has given equal rights to the daughter in the family property. Racial Anti-Discrimination Act of America has facilitated social mobility of persons of Black race as well as women. Moore, by small-scale changes we shall mean changes in the characteristics of social structures that though comprised within the general system identifiable as a society, do not have any immediate and major consequences for the generalised structure (society) as such.13.
Short-term and Long-term Change:The conceptualization of the magnitude of change involves the next attribute of change, the time span.
Politicisation:With education and greater exposure to mass media of communication as well as greater contacts have made people aware about their rights.
To achieve their rights people unite and force the authority in power to accept their demands. With the help of these new concessions and provisions, they improve upon their social status.
Social Change may be Planned or Unplanned:Social change may occur in the natural course or it is done by man deliberately.
A few persons may become political leaders, Ministers, Cabinet Ministers or Chief Minister of a State.Many such examples can be found in the present day Indian polity.
Unplanned change refers to change resulting from natural calamities, such as famines and floods, earthquakes and volcanic eruption etc.
Similarly, with greater political awareness with representatives in State assembly and Parliament they can (once the government to enact certain laws helping the lower segments of the society.10. The nature is never at rest.Planned social change occurs when social changes are conditioned by human engineering. Modernization:The process of modernization involves use of scientific knowledge and modern technology. Plans, programmes and projects are made by man in order to determine and control the direction of social change.Besides that by nature human beings desire change. With the improvement in technology, people engaged in occupations of low prestige like scavengers discard their traditional occupations and take up occupations which are not dirty and have no polluting effects.In this way, they change their position upward. Similarly, the level of development of a country also facilitates or hinders social mobility. The less developed and traditional societies continue with old system of stratification and with accretive statuses.Whereas the developed and modern societies paved the way for greater opportunities and competition, it is only in the developed countries that there is a greater possibility of achieved statuses. In other words, modernization facilitates social mobility.Aspirations for moving upward also results in frustration and different mental and psychological problems.
Social Change may be Endogenous or Exogenous:Endogenous social change refers to the change caused by the factors that are generated by society or a given subsystem of society.
But in reality this does not happens, his social background, birth in a race, ethnicity, facilitate or hinder his chances of social mobility.
Similarly, the nations which do not have avenues for social mobility also suffer from stagnation and lack of development.
For example, technological transfer and brain drain, political and cultural imperialism may lead to the diffusion of cultural traits beyond the limits of single societies.17. Evolution in biological science means the developing of an organism.It is a process by which a thing continuously adopts itself to its environment and manifests its own nature.
Anthropologists and Sociologists wanted to find a satisfactory and significant explanation of how our society evolved.They were very much impressed by the idea of organic evolution which explain how one species evolves into another, and wanted to apply the same to the social world.
The concept of evolution applies more precisely to the internal growth of an organism.Evolution means more than growth. We cannot speak of evolution when an object or system is changed by forces acting upon it from without. In the beginning, the most primitive stage, every individual lived an individualistic life, trying to know and do things about himself alone.Every man was more or less similar, in so far as his ignorance about organized social life was concerned. At that stage, neither they were able to organize their social life, nor could they work together.
The task of social organisation was taken on, division of labour was elaborated; and each found a particular type of work which he could do best.
Social evolution is on cultural or human aspect of the law of change of cosmic evolution.2. Hence, social evolution take place in the same way at all places and progress through some definite and inevitable stages.3.
When the town had been a small community, its management was the responsibility of a Panchayat or a town area committee.Now that the town has become a big commercial centre, its management is in the hands of a dozer different committees. One of them looks after the educational facilities, another looks after the sanitation, a third is deputed to look after the octroi, while a fourth manages the markets and so on. In this way, this differentiation increases with the evolution of the town.(ii) But without Integration, this differentiation cannot take one anywhere. Today, while new nations are coming into being in the human society, equally strong efforts are being made to create a world society by compromising these nations.(iii) By virtue of this double processes of differentiation and integration, the efficiency of the society is being constantly increased.
By an increase in the number of associations and institutions in society, work in various spheres is performed more successfully. Thus, Emile Durkheim has insisted on the preeminent importance of the social division of labour as a criterion of social development. For example in the development of languages, where the process of differentiation has been stressed, we have many disconnecting facts.The modern languages derived from Sanskrit Like Bengali, Gujarati, Telugu and Tamil cannot be compared in their structure with the richness and diversity of their origin.
Here the process is not towards differentiation but towards simplification.In the development of religion too, the transition from fusion to differentiation is difficult to see. On the whole we find that social evolution does not always proceed by differentiation.However in spite of the various difficulties, the concept of evolution still retains its usefulness. Maclver has given some arguments in favour of the reality of social evolution.He emphasizes, if we open the pages of History, we find that in the beginning there was no differentiation of institutions within human society or the performance of diverse functions. But latter on, as culture and civilization progressed, differentiation increased and it is even now increasing.
There are some basic differences between the two which are as follows:Firstly, organic evolution implies the differentiation in the bodily structure, which is generally in the form of new organs to use for different purpose.
Man is the centre of social evolution.He need not have to develop new organ to adjust himself with changed conditions of life.

Because man has the capacity of inventing tools, making instruments and devising techniques to control the forces of nature and to adjust himself with the natural conditions.
Here the changes are transmitted mostly through the mental ability and genius of man.Thirdly, in case of organic evolution only the descending generation is affected by the structural modification, alterations. For example, invention of new techniques and devices is influencing the present as well as the future generations.Lastly, the organic evolution is continuous. It is continuous because of the irresistible pressure within the organisation and of environment or natural forces.
When we speak of social change, we suggest so far no law, no theory, no direction, even no continuity. Many social theorists form Herbert Spencer to Sumner applied this conception of evolution in various ways to the interpretation of social change. But many modern theorists, particularly American, have abandoned the idea that social change takes place by evolutionary stages.Evolution describes a series of interrelated changes in a system of some kind. It shows not merely what happens to a thing but also what happens within it.Evolution is an order of change which unfolds the variety of aspects belonging to the nature of changing object. We cannot speak of evolution when an object or system is changed by forces acting upon it from without.The change must occur within the changing unity. Evolution is a process involving a changing adaptation of the object to its environment and a further manifestation of its own nature.
Consequently, it is a change permeating the whole character of the object, a sequence in which the equilibrium of its entire structure undergoes modification.According to Maclver, evolution is not mere change.
Sociologists such as Saint Simon, Auguste Comte and Herbert Spencer were the earlier exponents of the idea of progress. If it be remarked that such and such country has progressed, no meaningful information can be extracted from such a statement unless the direction towards which progress has been made be known.In this way, progress is not mere change.
For example, if the condition of agriculture in a particular country worsens and a famine results, it is undeniably a change, but it will not be called progress. Progress means moving forward in the direction of achievement of some aim.Different thinkers have defined progress in different ways.
Since progress means change for the better it definitely implies a value judgement of highly subjective character. For value, like taste, has no measuring rod.A particular social change may seem to be progressive to one person to another it may seem retrogression, because they have different values. When we speak of progress, we simply not merely direction, but direction towards some final goal. The nature of the progress depends upon two factors, the nature of the end and the distance of which we are from it.The modern writers today speak of social progress though they do not have a single satisfactory explanation of the concept. In order to have a better understanding of the meaning of progress, we have to analyse the following attributes.1. Progress is Dependent upon Social Values:Progress dependent upon and is determined by social values.
It means that progress does not have precisely the same meaning at all times and places, because values change from time to time.
Progress is Communal:Progress from its ethical point of view, may be personal but from the sociological point of view, is communal since sociology is that science of society. Only that change, whose influence can be felt on entire community or society for its betterment or welfare, can be called social progress.5.
Progress is Variable:The concept of progress varies from society to society, place to place and from time to time. That which is today considered as the symbol or progress may tomorrow be considered and treated as a sign of regress. For example, in India, free mixing of young boys and girls may be interpreted as an indication of regress, whereas the same may symbolise progress in the Western Countries.7. Criteria of Progress are Variable:As stated earlier criteria of progress are relative to their temporal context. For example, health and longevity have been considered as criteria of progress by some, while other have taken economic security, moral conduct as the criteria of progress.8.
Progress does not have a Measuring Rod:The term progress is very much subjective and value-loaded. Anything that cannot be demonstrated and measured scientifically cannot be rejected socially. It is especially true in the case of progress.To conclude, progress conveys the sense of something better and improved.
It was advancement only in a particular direction.The comprehensiveness of progress was missing. The extremes of poverty and health, of ignorance and enlightenment had continued to coexist as ever before.
But the term change is wholly neutral, only suggesting variation in a phenomena over, a period of time. The word progress means moving forward in the direction and achievement of some desired goal. Not all changes imply progress.But social change is a generic term, an objective term describing one of the fundamental processes.
It is true that some changes are beneficial to mankind and some are harmful.But social change is neither moral nor immoral, but amoral. The study of social change involves no value-judgement, while the concept of social progress implies values judgement.
For the social evolutionists of the nineteenth century from Auguste Comte to Herbert Spencer and Lester F. Modern sociologists, particularly Americans, do not hold this proposition.They point out that evolution does not mean progress, because when a society is more evolved it does not necessarily follow that it is more progressive. If it would have been progressive, Maclver and Page remark that people in the more evolved society are better or better fitted to survive or more moral or more healthy than those we call primitive. Hobhouse says, evolution means a sort of growth while .social progress means the growth of social life in respect of those qualities to which human beings attach or can rationally attach value.
In other words, it can be said, progress means change for the better not for the worse.It implies a value-judgement.
The evolutionary process may move in accordance with our notion of desirable change, but there is no logical necessity that it should.
Ethical valuations or ideas (Progress) are socially determined and hence determine the objective phenomena (Evolution) of society. Of course there is little consensus among the representatives of theoretical proposition on the sources.Besides, the linear as well as the cyclical theorists paid little attention to the determinations of factors involved in social change.
Morris Ginsberg has made a systematic analysis of the factors which have been invoked by different writers to explain social change.Here, our analysis is confined to sociological implantation of the origins and causes of change. Cause will be defined here as set of related factors which, taken together, are both sufficient and necessary for the production of a certain effect.Attempt has been made to take up each factors of social change by itself and find out the way in which it effects social change. In order to satisfy his desires, to fulfill his needs and to make his life more comfortable, man builds civilisation.The dawn of this new civilization is the single most explosive fact of our lifetimes.
Every technological advance makes it possible for us to attain certain results with less effort, at less cost and at less time.
Ogburn, “technology changes society by changing our environment to which we in turn adapt.
According to them, radio, for example, has influenced our entertainment, education, politics, sports, literature, knowledge, business, occupation and our modes of organisation.
The technological revolution enabled human kind to shift from hunting and gathering to sedentary agriculture and later to develop civilizations.Technological revolutions enabled societies to industrialize urbanize, specialize, bureaucratize, and take on characteristics that are considered central aspects of modern society. The factory system and industrialization, urbanization and the rise of working class, fast transport and communication have demolished old prejudices, dispelled superstitions, weakened casteism, and has given rise to the class based society.Ogborn even goes to the extent of suggesting that the starter in motor car had something to do with the emancipation of women in the America and Western Europe.
Development in transport and communication has changed the outlook of the people.Railways in India have played tremendous role in bringing about social mixing of the people. It has helped people to move out of their local environments and take up jobs in distant corners of the country.
Movement of people from East to West and North to South has broken social and regional barriers.There have come into existence new vocations and trades.
People have begun to give up their traditional occupations and are taking to work in the factories and in the offices-commercial as well as Government.
This has also made possible the vertical mobility.A person can now aspire to take up an occupation with higher status than he could have ever thought of in the pre-technological days.
It has made living worthwhile for the conveniences and comfort it provides, and has created numerous vocations, trades and professions. While, giving individual his rightful place, it has made the collectivity supreme.Technologies are changing and their social consequences are profound.
Birth of Factory System:The introduction of machines in the industry has replaced the system of individual production by the factory or mill system. It has led to the creation of huge factories which employ thousands of people and where most of the work is performed automatically.2. Urbanisation:The birth of gigantic factories led to urbanisation and big cities came into existence. Many labourers, who were out of employment in rural areas migrated to the sites to work and settled around it.
As the cities grew, so did the community of ‘labourers and with it was felt the need for all civic amenities which are essential for society.
Their needs were fulfilled by establishing market centers, schools, colleges, hospitals, and recreation clubs. The area further developed when new business came to it with the formation of large business houses.3. Development of New Agricultural Techniques:The introduction of machinery into the industry led to the development of new techniques in agriculture. In India, the effect of technology is most apparent in this direction because India is preeminently an agricultural country.4. Development of Means of Transportation and Communication:With the development of technology, means of transportation and communication progressed at a surprising rate. The development of the car, rail, ship and aeroplane made transportation of commodities much easier. Evolution of New Classes:Industrialisation and urbanisation gave birth to the emergence of new classes in modern society.
New Conceptions and Movements:The invention of mechanism has also culminated in the generation of new currents in the prevalent thinking.
Due to invention of birth, control method, the size of family reduced.Secondly, Industrialisation destroying the domestic system of production has brought women from home to the factories and office. It consequently affected every part of the family life.Thirdly due to technology, marriage has lost its sanctity.
Instances of divorce, desertion, separation and broken families are increasing.Lastly, though technology has elevated the status of women, it has also contributed to the stresses and strains in the relations between men and women at home. Many religious practices and ceremonies which once marked the individual and social life, have now been abandoned by them. Industry has been taken away from the household and new types of economic organisation like factories, stores, banks, joint stock companies, stock-exchanges, and corporation have been setup.
It has given birth to capitalism with all its attendant evils.Division of labour, specialization of function, differentiation and integration all the products of technology. A large number of functions of family, such as educative, recreation, health functions have been transferred to the State.The idea of social welfare State is an offshoot of technology. Transportation and communication are leading to a shift of functions from local Government to the Central Government. The technological conditions of the modern factory system tend to weaken the rigidity of the caste system and strengthen industrializations.
Culture is not merely responsive to changing techniques, but also it itself is a force directing social change.Culture is the internal life forces of society.
A culture gives cues and direction to social behaviour.Technology and material inventions may influence social change but direction and degree of this depends upon the cultural situation as a whole. The port to which we sail, the direction in which we travel, remains totally of a cultural choice.It should be noted that technology alone cannot bring vast changes in society. When the cultural factor responds to technological change, it also reacts on it so as to influence the direction and character of social change.It may be noted that culture not only influences our relationship and values but also influences the direction and character of technological change. According to Ogburn, material culture changes by a process which is different in pace from changes in non-material culture.The larger the technological knowledge of a society, the greater the possibility of a new combinations and innovations. Because society cannot develop methods of controlling and utilizing new technology before the technology is accepted and used. On account of his dogmatic beliefs and ideologies, he is not prepared to change his social institutions.

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