Social change model theory of change,meditating gods word verses,how do i get confidence intervals in spss,the secret film free 5.0 - You Shoud Know

31.01.2014
The Comprehensive Integrated Theory of Change Model is a general conceptual framework developed by the National Forum.
This model has been developed as a sophisticated national organizing strategy that reflects the complexity of interrelated political and organizational factors, and the radically different environments in which issues affecting undocumented students are considered. This strategy focuses on policy, practice and public will as interdependent but distinct components to be addressed in our research projects.
We'll start this section with some definitions that will help ground the ideas we are trying to get across. Next, we'll look at key partners in community efforts, and then, we will describe the model of change that is the focus of this section.
People may also consider themselves part of a community with others who have had similar experiences. Collaborative partnerships are alliances that are used to improve the health of a community. Community capacity refers to the ability of community members to make a difference over time and across different issues.
For example, if a member of your community is killed by a drunk driver, people might be really angry.
Or, if a community that develops a successful collaboration for substance abuse might decide later that rates of childhood immunization aren't high enough in their community, and also work effectively to improve those rates. Our belief, woven through the next few pages, is that collaborative partnerships are a powerful way to improve our communities. One reason for this is that issues that matter to local people, such as child health, academic success, or substance abuse, don't fit into neat categories. For example, take the case of a mother and father who both hold down several low-paying jobs. When developing these collaborative partnerships, who should be involved? It's important that the collaboration is as inclusive as possible. The most obvious member in a collaborative effort will be the community or state partnerships themselves -- the groups of people who are working directly to change their communities.
It's important to realize that while these organizations will be part of a larger collaboration with funders and support organizations, they are also collaborative arrangements in their own right. People from each of these areas will be able to promote child health in important, unique ways. The second partner in a broad collaborative partnership is support and intermediary organizations. Intermediary organizations can also help assess what the partnerships need and provide them with that support.
Finally, grantmakers and governmental agencies are also important members in these broad collaborative partnerships. However, this important contribution is only one way in which grantmakers and governmental agencies can contribute to a collaborative partnership. Grantmakers can use requests for proposals (RFPs) as a way to bring groups together around a common purpose. Finally, grantmakers and governmental agencies can also help make outcomes matter by awarding additional funding if groups attain their objectives.
With an understanding of all of these parts, let's look at how these partners can work together to improve their communities. With these ideas in mind, let's look at the individual parts of this logic model or theory of action.
Within this context, people may come together to identify issues that matter to them, such as drug use, job opportunities, decent housing, or crime, to give just a few examples.
Later in the life of the community group, these can serve as benchmarks for detecting whether or not they are getting closer to their goals.
Similarly, efforts by a community partnership to take money from law enforcement and put it into substance abuse prevention will probably be opposed by the police and their allies.
By community change, we mean developing a new program (or modifying an existing one), bringing about a change in policy, or adjusting a practice related to the group's mission.
Our belief is that when these community and system changes occur, they should, taken together, change the environment in which a person behaves. Improvements in more distant outcomes, such as reducing violence or increasing employment rates and family incomes, are the ultimate goals of collaborative partnerships. As we discussed earlier in this section, data on community-level indicators can help you determine just how much progress you have made towards your ultimate goals.
It's probably a combination of things -- support at home, a good teacher, and good (or not so good) materials to use.
In the last few paragraphs, you have seen what we believe to be a workable model for building healthier communities.
For improving the health and development of a community, we have found seven features that seem to be very important in determining whether a community effort fails or succeeds. Having a clear focus -- that is, a targeted mission -- is one of the most factors in whether or not a community group is effective. A mission statement is your organization's statement of purpose; it tells what the organization is going to do and why. Action planning, as we noted earlier in this section, means identifying specific changes in the community or broader system, and related action steps to bring them about. When partnerships develop a plan of action, they are consistently more successful in changing their communities. Involving competent, inspired leaders with a clear vision for the organization helps change to occur more rapidly.
The downside of this, of course, is that when such leaders leave an organization, groups accomplishments often suffer. One thing that is very clear is that there need to be people who act as catalysts--community mobilizers who will really get things going in the community. To know whether a community group's efforts are really making a difference, it is important that the group documents efforts and results.
Documentation should occur for intermediate outcomes, such as the community and system changes we discussed earlier.
Good leaders work to attract competent people with skills that complement those of other people in the organization. Outside help, which may take the form of technical assistance, can be a breath of fresh air for your organization.
The goal of technical assistance should always be the same: to build the community's ability to take care of the things that matter to its members.
Finally, grantmakers and governmental agencies can help those they support by clearly stating and rewarding desired results.
Throughout this section, we have talked about the three groups who are the important players in collaborative partnerships: local members of state and community partnerships, support organizations, and grantmakers and governmental agencies. The marketing plan should help convince community members that working together to solve public problems should become an important part of their daily lives. The social marketing campaign should use different methods of communication to reach the greatest number of people.
Partnerships should involve both people who have power and those most affected by the issue. Grantmakers should try to invest in the same place and permit work across the normal boundaries. Support organizations should develop a model of change (such as the one outlined in this section) to help guide community work.
The focus of action planning should be on transforming the environment to make behaviors than promote health and development more likely to occur.
By gathering pertinent information about risk and protective factors, partners in the collaborative effort can better focus their efforts on new programs, policies, or practices that will cause positive changes in the environment. Some of the community changes should try to reach the whole community; others should be targeted at people who are at a higher risk.
Fund community partnerships long enough to make a difference (for example, for 5 to 10 years). Offer many opportunities for people involved in community work to meet and learn from each other. Use distance education to give people the opportunity to learn with others doing similar work in different places. Use the Internet to distribute "how-to" information for developing the core competencies of community work. Link newer community partnerships with those more experienced, and connect established leaders with newer generations of leadership.
Leaders of initiatives should work with representatives from support organizations to develop meaningful ways to present and use data on community and system change. Honor organizations and individuals that bring about significant changes in their communities.
Researchers should examine trends in community and system change to identify the factors that might affect community change.
Use an annual state-of-the-partnership report to encourage accountability of members of community partnerships.
Establish and report on intermediate and more distant outcomes--such as high rates of important community and system changes for community-determined goals. Make renewal of community investments (for example, the continuation of a grant) conditional on evidence of progress by the group. Develop broad collaborative partnerships among diverse organizations that truly represent the entire community. Employers throughout our communities should modify their structures to support everyone's involvement in public problem solving. Community partnerships, intermediary and support organizations, and grantmakers and governmental agencies should all act as catalysts for change. Examine whether and how lessening poverty and improving education affect community-level indicators of health and development. Examine the conditions under which community and system change are associated with improvements in long-term goals. Let people know what works--what are promising practices for building healthier communities. A healthy community is a form of living democracy: people working together to address what matters to them.
Building healthier communities blends the local and the universal, the particular and broader contexts.
The work of building healthier communities takes time: our time, that of our children, and that of our children's children.
Emerging Action Principles for Designing and Planning Community Change is from Community Science and shares what science and practice have taught us about strengthening community. Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 United States License. Scarcity is more than an economic idea of there being limited resources to meet everyone’s every need. They illustrate the scarcity and tunneling problems through reference to several studies in both the laboratory and in the field of how poverty is a major contributor to reducing bandwidth. Scarcity, and the cognitive load it puts on people who dwell on immediate concerns to the detriment of other issues, literally makes us dumber and more impulsive. A related paper by Datta and Mullainathan (2012) also discusses ideas of scarcity in a policy development context. Scarcity of cognitive capacity - Cognitive resources available to people at any moment are limited and can be depleted by their being used for other activities. Scarcity of self-control - Think of our self-control as a psychic “commodity” of which we have a limited stock, so that using up some for one task (continuing to exercise when you really want to stop) depletes the amount available for other tasks (resisting the dessert at dinner after your workout). Scarcity of attention - Think of attention as another precious commodity – people do not have unlimited attention and might not pay attention to the ‘right’ things – they are busy paying attention to others. Scarcity of understanding – People’s mental models of how the world works may be incomplete; not all underlying causal relationships are correctly or accurately understood.
Behaviour is generally easier to change when habits are already disrupted, such as around major life events. That was the challenge given me by the Society of Nutrition Education and Behavior for a webinar I did this week. I start with Duncan Watts, a physicist and sociologist, who presents two problems that bedevil people faced with the challenges of large and complex puzzles. The second problem Watts (2011) discusses is the micro-macro problem: one that goes at the heart of the social marketing dilemma. To bring this problem back into the social marketing world, believing that social change will happen “one person at a time” does not conform to what we know about emergence in many other disciplines. These words sum up how important it is for us to have ways to explain facts and make sense out of them.
All social change efforts involve different actors known by various labels such as audiences, influencers, stakeholders, consumers, suppliers, partners and policymakers. Everyone has assumptions and explanations for how and why people think and behave the way they do; these are often referred to as naive theory or folk psychology. Many social change agents are familiar with the challenges of addressing other people’s cultural beliefs as they relate to health and social behaviors. This is why many social marketers stress the need to base programs to improve health, social welfare and the environment on empirically-validated models and theories.
Many social marketing programs, and most public health ones, have shied away from working with their customers or members of their priority groups. We would view the launch of our smoking cessation effort as the continuation of a conversation with them.
Is it time for more of us to loosen our grip on the 4Ps of the marketing mix as a necessary ingredient or benchmark for social marketing programs? The internal orientation of the marketing mix in which the four elements are controlled by the producer of goods, services and behavioral offerings and has little involvement or interaction with customers.
The rise in services as primary drivers of economic activity that have their own unique character not addressed by the traditional 4Ps - for example, People or Participants, Physical Evidence (of their value), Processes (of service delivery), the intangible nature of their offering and demonstrated value to customers, as well as unique legal and professional restrictions on providers of many services (licensure of health providers, lawyers and general building contractors being just a few examples).
Most of these debates have been on theoretical grounds rather than based on empirical studies; it is also true that most marketers continue to practice as they were taught in college marketing classes (Constantinides, 2006). What S-D Logic shows us is that a tangible (product) or intangible offering (service, behavior) has value only when a customer ‘uses’ it.
The premises of S-D Logic (see below) guide us away from trying to create what we believe will be of value to people to a customer perspective that reminds us that it is how people utilize our offerings and experience rewards or value for adopting behaviors that should be our critical concern.
Many of the biggest policy challenges we are now facing – such as the increase in people with chronic health conditions – will only be resolved if we are successful in persuading people to change their behaviour, their lifestyles or their existing habits.
That statement appears in the Foreword of a new joint publication by the Cabinet Office and the Institute for Government MINDSPACE: Influencing behaviour through public policy.
The contrasting model of shaping behaviour focuses on the more automatic processes of judgment and influence. So MINDSPACE becomes a methodology for, as they put it, changing behavior without changing minds. The differences in the social marketing approach became even more pronounced in the international community where social marketing became synonymous with the marketing of products for family planning, HIV prevention and malaria control while various other groups organized themselves around concepts such as behavior change communication, health communication, development communication and community mobilization to name a few. A hybrid approach developed independently in North America to reunite community with social marketing was coined as community-based social marketing (CBSM; McKenzie-Mohr, 2000).
The True Justice System is an integrated set of programs and practices that provide the comprehensive, compassionate caring support necessary to facilitate the achievement of healthy healing. When victims receive the comprehensive, compassionate caring that empowers them to achieve healthy healing, this has a powerful impact on the effects of violence in the entire community. Breaking the Silence Interventions allow survivors who have achieved healthy healing toshare their stories with the community. The volunteer program is the cornerstone of the Center’s ability to provide services. It is very important for traumatized people to receive appropriate support after the sudden, unplanned changes to their lives that were forced upon them by violence.


THE CTJH ACTION STEP CHANGE MANAGEMENT MODEL is a system that gently nurtures and facilitates the unfreeze-change-refreeze dynamic of healthy healing. This model is based on the social change theory of Kurt Lewin (Lewin, 1947; Schein, 1999) and on Judith Hermana€™s definition of trauma as a€?events that overwhelm the ordinary systems of care that give people a sense of control, connection, and meaninga€? (Herman, 1997, p. New and promising possibilities are there, but when their lives have been shattered by trauma people become stuck in a no-win situation when the paralysis of fear and the natural resistance to change prevent them from adapting to the new situation in an effective way.
When we are exposed to too much danger and too little protection it causes damage to all areas of life (Bloom, 2013, p.
Violence and the effects of violence are a major epidemic affecting individuals, families, communities and countries. We want them to be safe from violence and illness; we want neighborhoods that are alive and that work well. Our belief is that communities are built when people work together on things that matter to them. Then, we'll look at the advantages of collaborative efforts: why we believe it makes sense for people to work together to solve problems they share.
We'll supplement that model with principles and values that we believe should influence how community efforts unfold.
We often use this term for people who live in the same area: the same neighborhood, the same city or town, and even the same state or country. For example, we may talk about the business community, the labor community, or the child advocacy community. Capacity isn't a one time thing; like learning to ride a bike, it's not something that disappears once you've experienced it.
For a few weeks -- or even a few months -- people might work together to stop people from drinking and driving. By translating what they learned while developing the substance abuse coalition (for example, ways to recruit members or to work with the media) they should be able to do a good job and effectively improve the immunization rates. The things that make one issue likely to become a problem usually affect other things as well.
They don't have much time for their children, and they may smoke cigarettes to cope with all of their stress.
This means individuals from the different parts of the community for example, representatives from schools, business, and the government.
That's because collaborative partnerships link organizations drawn from different parts of the community.
Some local, regional, and statewide organizations can provide technical assistance for community partnerships. For example, state and county health departments can assist community groups by developing health data systems that provide county-level data (for example, the percentage of children without proper immunizations).
That's because foundations and governmental agencies can help create the conditions for community partnerships to be successful.
For example, an understanding of the community context and planning should guide community action, which should affect community and system change, and so on. For example, improvement in more distant outcomes, such as reduced rates of violence, should lead to a renewed cycle of planning and action for these or other issues that matter to members of the community. By the context, we mean people's experiences, their dreams for a better life, and what makes them do what they do.
They may then document the health or development of the community with community-level indicators, which are used to measure the extent of problems at the local level. For example, they can look at the level of violence and see if it has decreased since the partnership has been in existence.
Bringing about these changes is an important step towards achieving your organizational goals. A business might implement its child-friendly practices throughout its operations nationally.
They are aspects of a person's environment or personal features that make it more likely (risk factors) or less likely (protective factors ) that she will develop a given problem. Our belief is that by reducing the risk factors (and enhancing the protective factors) for the issue you are trying to address, you will affect the bottom line. Information to see if efforts are working in different areas could even be organized together in an annual community "report card." This could let people throughout the community know how things are going, including information on community-level indicators, important community changes, and success stories. Quite simply, within a framework that almost all students have, different events often mean the difference between success and failure. In our research, each of the following "factors" has been related to the rate of community change.
The mission describes your special task, and it tells what specific motivation binds together all those people who want to make a difference. Such leaders see community partnerships as a way to mobilize the community, draw out everyone's strengths, and to celebrate members' accomplishments. Finding a way to ease transitions and groom leadership within the group is an important factor in having groups that have long, successful lives. They are the ones who will start the ball rolling on the actions that the group decides to do. Such information about the group's accomplishments -- for example, the amount or duration should be used to improve the group's ongoing efforts. Tracking these changes, as well as the "bottom line" of achieving groups' long term goals, can help the collaborative partnerships understand, celebrate, and improve their overall efforts. That's because the core competencies necessary for community organizations often transcend the variety of targeted missions and specialties people work in. However, all of these groups can work together and help create conditions under which it is more likely that community efforts will be successful.
Working with community partnerships, grantmakers and governmental agencies should develop a social marketing plan to promote involvement in community work. For example, messages to teenagers should be delivered differently than messages to older adults.
Success stories and profiles of people who have done fantastic work should be shared with the community.
For example, it might use posters, notes on the Internet, and editorials in the local newspaper, to give just a few examples. By having a broad partnership, the community will have a structure that is strong enough to make a real impact on different community problems. For example, it's often the case that one group in the community will receive a grant to prevent substance abuse, another will receive a grant to improve education, and so on. Provide information to help focus efforts on issues with the greatest effect on community health and development. Annual action planning retreats can renew the group's efforts and be supplemented by regular adjustments. For example, a "bag it" program that allows young people to call in orders for contraceptives and have them discretely wrapped in a paper bag might increase contraceptive use dramatically among at-risk youth in a small community.
Provide investments in collaborative partnerships that are large enough and last long enough to make a difference. Be sure to develop and celebrate "small wins" milestones that will regularly reward everyone's efforts. Groups that have proved their worth should be rewarded with continuing efforts by funding partners. For example, if a community has fewer teen pregnancies because of the efforts of a local coalition, give the coalition some of the money saved by the state by not having to pay for the teens' costs.
Develop collaborative partnerships to increase the support for people working to improve their communities. Members of the partnership should share the risks, resources, and responsibilities for community improvement. For example, corporations might have a flextime policy that allows employees to volunteer in their community.
Future research should help understand and improve the factors that affect community health and development. This can be done through a variety of different media (such as print and broadcast media, professional associations, and the Internet).
As citizens, we have a duty to shape the basic conditions that affect our lives with others in transforming communities, we are guided by shared values and principles that bind us in common purpose. Such efforts are grounded locally: the family, the neighborhood, and other familiar communities. Unpublished paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Society of Criminology, San Diego, November, 1997. Having less than what we perceive we need – whether it is food, money, friends or time – is having less than we feel we need.
It extends the insights from behavioral economics beyond the nudges and defaults we are now so familiar with to how we think and feel when we have too little; it changes our thoughts, choices and behaviors. Consider some unsuspecting shoppers in a mall who were asked to imagine a scenario in which they either had (a) a $300 estimate, or (b) a $3,000 estimate to repair their damaged car of which their insurance would pay half the cost. Think about that the next time you wonder why people who are poor do some of the things they do – to your utter exasperation.
They talk more about the limited resources imposed by perceptions of scarcity and suggest some ideas about how to address each of them in program design. So increasing the cognitive demands of social change programs (cover more material, require more time spent in classes) may in fact be designing them to be less likely to succeed.
Good points to be reminding ourselves of as we talk with people among our priority groups and set out to design programs that will help them solve their real problems. This is the reason I spend time talking about different theories and models of behavior change.
What dramatically illustrates the power of a theory, and its drawbacks, is to break the workshop (or class) into five smaller groups. We have a strong tendency to go with the default or pre-set option, since it is easy to do so. Making the message clear often results in a significant increase in response rates to communications. Financial incentives are often highly effective, but alternative incentive designs — such as lotteries — also work well and often cost less.
We are embedded in a network of social relationships, and those we come into contact with shape our actions. We often use commitment devices to voluntarily ‘lock ourselves’ into doing something in advance. We are more influenced by costs and benefits that take effect immediately than those delivered later. You might also note that none of these methods have direct counterparts to any of the variables in the theories I presented above. Some of the countries outside the US that were there included Canada, Columbia, Czech Republic, Spain, Indonesia, Israel, Italy, Malta, Mexico, Pakistan, Romania, Somalia, Turkey and Uganda. This theory has guided many marketers’ approach to discovering what the desired behavior might be, its possible determinants, the context in which it occurs - or not, and the consequences that people and society incur. This dilemma emanates from our desire to achieve macro outcomes, ones that involve changes among large numbers of people, among population segments, or in society as a whole. It is analogous to believing that consciousness can be explained by the action of a neuron or even many neurons; it may be convenient to think like this, but throughout his book, Watts (2011) takes on these logical fictions with data.
But even more so, the lyric reiminds us of why it so important to have facts to back up one's theory.
Depending on the actor and the objective of the program, social marketers and change agents may be trying to increase some behaviors (healthy eating, physical activity, recycling), decrease others (tobacco use, risky sexual behaviors, energy use), encourage participation in social change activities (citizen engagement, social mobilization) or gain support for environmental change (adopt policies, redesign physical entities such as automobile safety features or entertainment content). Stories and case studies have a limited place in moving us closer to understanding and solutions. Yet, agreeing on a common approach to thinking about and addressing wicked social and public health problems is a major point of contention when working with partners. Our role is to facilitate value creation as they quit smoking: they must integrate what we (and perhaps others) are giving to them as an active creator of value, not a passive recipient of benefits (Gronroos, 2011).
Rather, we should view exchanges as mutual sharing of knowledge and resources among the social marketing agency, the priority group or customers and other actors or stakeholders (co-creation of value-in-use). This shift requires marketers to understand customer constructions and evaluations of value, be more flexible in their approach, engage with customers over longer periods of time, and innovate and adapt to changing market conditions - especially those related to technology and communication. People bring skills and competencies to encounters they have with us, and thus are always a co-creators of value, not passive recipients of what we judge they need or want. Fortunately, over the last decade, our understanding of influences on behaviour has increased significantly and this points the way to new approaches and new solutions. This shifts the focus of attention away from facts and information, and towards altering the context within which people act. It certainly provides something for us to think about when we try and use policy-making as a way of changing behaviors.
Lefebvre & Flora (1988) laid out the defining features of the social marketing approach based on experiences they shared directing community interventions for cardiovascular disease reduction.
Responding to this fracturing of resources and talent, McKee (1991) wrote a book that he hoped would enhance the understanding of social mobilization, social marketing and community participation amongst communicators who sometimes set up unnecessary barriers between their various fields.
They are guided through the healing process until they can create a victim impact statement that reveals the true effect of violence on their life and on the community.
This helps both the victims and their community to rebuild after a crisis and help them to have confidence that the criminal justice system can do more to protect them. Support group sessions are set up in such a way that they do double-duty as training sessions for volunteers. Their lives too are injured by the traumatic event, and they too need support and information to create healthy healing. It provides the support and safety needed to overcome the paralysis of fear so that shifting, changing and establishing a new equilibrium can take place (Levine, 2010).
Fear, stress and feelings of powerlessness impede constructive change unless there is positive and supportive intervention. A person who has experienced healthy healing after trauma is empowered to develop all areas of their life again: Physical, mental, social, emotional, financial, and spiritual. Overwhelming, life-destroying acts of violence create a plague of silent pain and anger in co-victims and victims. Interventions to Change Health Behavior Health behaviors are shaped through a complex interplay of determinants at different levels. For example, an effort to improve education might involve school officials, teachers, business people, youth, and older adults. But if that's all that happens if those efforts fade away, and people go back to what they see as their "normal lives" -- that's not building community capacity.
A community has demonstrated strong community capacity when it can bring about community changes over time and across concerns. Defining our problems as being connected to other issues (and people) helps us to see the many ways in which we are linked together. Their children are exposed to second-hand smoke and other health hazards, such as cockroaches and lead paint in their poor housing.
It also means representatives from different levels for example, representatives from the neighborhood, the county, the state or province, and even the broader region or nation. These intermediary organizations can help community partnerships build on the "core competencies" that are necessary for working on community issues. They and other related support organizations can also offer other information useful for making decisions. In a healthy community, working together for the good of the community is a constant part of everyone's lives. For example, records of assaults at school are one community-level indicator of violence in the community; nighttime single-vehicle car crashes are often used as an indicator of the level of substance abuse in a community. Even a relatively harmless effort to fix up low-income housing may be resisted by local officials, who delay needed construction permits. For example, the police might deny requests for information; others might cast doubt on the capability of members of the partnership to get the job done.


Another example is a change in grantmaking policy to award cash incentives to grantees that reach their objectives. That's true whether your bottom line is lower rates of teen pregnancy, higher rates of immunization for small children, or any other topic. And different events that happen within the framework make it more or less likely that a community group will succeed. By hiring or recruiting community mobilizers, groups consistently make more changes happen.
For example, action planning will be important to community work on environmental advocacy, child abuse, mental health, or almost any other community issue. The Community Tool Box contains over 100 sections that can support technical assistance efforts.
Based on the model we discussed above, we propose ten specific recommendations to assist people who are trying to change their communities for the better.
We suggest grantmakers work together to offer larger grants to community partnerships that can work on several of these interrelated issues at the same time. If that proves to be the case, that program should be promoted in newsletters and through word of mouth, so that similar organizations can do the same thing. For example, money has been saved in hospital bills the state would have paid for uninsured parents, as well as the costs of welfare for teen parents, and their children, and so on. To be effective, however, we must also bring diverse groups of people and organizations together to transform the broader conditions that affect local work. Using empowerment theory to support community initiatives for health and development. American Journal of Community Psychology, 23(5), 667-697. What makes scarcity an important idea for social marketers and other change agents is that it captures the mind; scarcity changes the way we think. While we recognize how scarcity can make us more attentive and efficient in managing immediate needs – think of the last deadline that was looming over you – it also reduces what the authors refer to as ‘bandwidth.’ They consider bandwidth as a short-hand for our cognitive capacity and executive control that are currently available for use.
Do they get the car fixed, or take the chance that it will continue to run a little longer? Scarcity forces people to engage in trade-offs; having slack in money and time (disposable income and free time) makes decision-making (and life!) so much easier. The prescription: simplify choices people have to make and encourage rules-of-thumb (heuristics) for decision-making. In workshops that I facilitate, I use this slide to illustrate some of the main ideas from some usual, and not so typical, theories that I find are employed by many social change agents.
All of the groups are given the same behavior change challenge and asked to come up with one or more priority groups to focus on, what research questions they would want to ask of them to learn more about the problem, and what potential solutions can they quickly generate (brainstorm). In particular, it’s useful to identify how a complex goal can be broken down into simpler, easier actions.
Similarly, policy makers should be wary of inadvertently reinforcing a problematic behaviour by emphasising its high prevalence. Governments can foster networks to enable collective action, provide mutual support, and encourage behaviours to spread peer-to-peer. Policy makers should consider whether the immediate costs or benefits can be adjusted (even slightly), given that they are so influential. A proven solution is to prompt people to identify the barriers to action, and develop a specific plan to address them. The ideas and tools are designed to stimulate innovative approaches to nutrition education. I offer that to fully develop the discipline of social marketing and its promise to be a positive force for social change, we must think about change as it occurs among groups of people (segments, social networks) and at different levels of society (organizations, communities, physical environments, markets, and public policies)…[Ed Note: See Transformative Social Marketing (pdf)]. Both of these problems highlight the need for social change programs to adopt theoretical perspectives that are broader than individual determinants. Yet these outcomes are driven by the micro actions of individuals (for example, it is individuals whose voting behavior determines the outcome of policy options, individuals’ behavior that sets the tone for an organizational culture, and individuals who connect through social network sites to organize and plan social action). Changes in complex social systems involve interactions between people and systems, just as neurons must be connected and interact with each other in systematic ways to create what we refer to as consciousness.
For social marketers, social innovators and people who are working with social and mobile technologies for health and social change, the song should become a chant. Who is the focus of these activities, and what they are asked to do is largely a function of the framework (or theory of change) that we bring to the task. Because people often only have only one or two frameworks or theories they use for problem solving, these conversations quickly devolve into the city of Babel or attempts to convince the other side that our POV is the correct one. Constantinides (2006) summarized over 40 papers that have been critical of, or presented alternatives, to the 4Ps marketing mix framework. It moves us from being ‘customer-focused' not just in the beginning of a project when we conduct formative research, but throughout the process - especially when people discover or create the value of change for themselves. Are we, in fact, simply applying our old prejudices for rational decision-making and persuasion by implementing policies that mandate the delivery of more information (think about BMI report cards in schools, restaurant menu-labeling programs for example)? Yet, even by the early 1990s, we can recall where social marketing and community development components of Health Canada could not find common ground for collaboration. This is a grueling task for a survivor; it requires great courage and determination to overcome the excruciating grief and anger that are natural symptoms of violent injury. The community becomes safer, healthier, stronger and empowered to solve more of its own problems.
The experience, training, and support that survivors and co-victims receive as they work toward writing their victim impact statements also give them the knowledge and skills needed to pursue a career as a victim service provider if they choose.
This system helps them to develop and navigate an individualized, trauma-informed path to healthy healing.
The guidance and support it provides reduce the risk of additional loss (re-victimization), decrease the natural resistance to change, and help people to discover a personal vision of new possibilities, hope, and transformation.
Like the Sanctuary Model, it is founded on the principle that healing from trauma is dependent on sharing and integration with others to receive the social support and guidance that are critical to human development and healthy healing (Bloom, 2013, p. The fear and brokenness caused by the trauma no longer keep them paralyzed and unable to live a meaningful, self-actualized life.
It is the vision of The Center for True Justice and Healing that individuals, families and communities will someday experience the effects of a truer system of justice a€“ a system of justice that creates healthy healing and empowers victims and co-victims to develop stronger, healthier, more peaceful communities in which people can thrive and grow. For example, physical activity is influenced by self-efficacy at the individual level, social support from family and friends at the interpersonal level, and perceptions of crime and safety at the community level. Because these partnerships bring people together from all parts of the community, their efforts often have the weight to be successful.
For example, a university research center might give advice on such topics as community assessment, strategic planning, advocacy, leadership development, and evaluation. Certainly, by providing the financial resources needed by partnerships and intermediary organizations.
Together, they clarify or develop the group's vision, mission, objectives, strategies, and action steps.
For example, if drugs are readily available in your community, then easy accessibility is a risk factor. Students have the same framework to work in each grade has the same learning objectives, for example.
It's important to remember, though, that programs often need to be adapted to fit local conditions. This requires courage, doubt, and faith: the courage to trust those outside our immediate experience, the doubt to question what is, and the faith to believe that together, we will make a difference.
Scarcity causes us to ‘tunnel’ – to adopt a mindset that focuses only on what seems, at least at that moment, to matter most. Simply put, when scarcity captures our mind it helps us focus on doing a better job with our most pressing needs; yet it also makes us less insightful, less forward-thinking and less controlled. They were given a test of cognitive ability, the Raven’s Progressive Matrices, before being given the scenario and then a few minutes after considering their response. The frame problem proposes that it is impossible to know all the potentially relevant facts and determinants of a puzzle, given the overwhelming number of possibilities and combinations of variables. This problem is embedded in definitions of social marketing as changing individual behaviors in order to achieve social good. Theories, whether based on common sense, past experience or empirical evidence, create frameworks for our work.
And the use of the wrong theory to understand a problem and develop strategies to address it is one of the primary sources of program failures.
That is, the notion that we conduct research to unearth the ‘benefit’ that will compel people to exchange with us is misguided; we cannot presume to be the final arbiters of ‘value’ – the user must create or find that value as they engage with the behavior, product or service we are offering. They may surprise us by noting that over time they are experiencing other benefits that are now more important to them. In this post, and the following one, I extend the S-D Logic to social marketing (and thank Bob Lusch for his review and comments on an earlier draft). People will behave differently only if they find the new behavior (or discontinuing an old one) leads to self-defined value (benefits) when they engage in it (put it to use).
The presumption is that citizens and consumers will analyse the various pieces of information from politicians, governments and markets, the numerous incentives offered to us and act in their best interests (however they define their best interests, or - more paternalistically - however policymakers define them). Or are we focusing on changing the context in which judgments and decisions about health behaviors are made? As more practitioners appropriated social marketing as the basis for the development of ‘new’ health communication campaigns, the term became associated (and in some quarters still is) with mass media campaigns that segmented their audience, pretested materials and considered the 4Ps only in the context of communication planning, not marketing.
True Justice is achieved when their story becomes a testimony that enlightens both the criminal justice system and the community about the true effects of violence.
Victims are empowered and encouraged to become leaders in the organization, in their communities, and in the field of victim services. They have a new vision for their present and future life because the traumatic memories no longer keep them hostage to the past. Kurt Lewin's Change Theory in the Field and in the Classroom: Notes Toward a Model of Managed Learning. Finally, the probability of a good job is lowered dramatically for the parents, their children, and for their children's children. The bad news is that the associated reduced bandwidth can lead to more scarcity as we continue to ‘tunnel,’ or neglect other, less immediate concerns that then becomes tomorrow’s, or next month’s or next year’s pressing need. Not so easy.] The point of EAST is that these are methods to apply after your learn about the people you intend to serve with your program and have selected the specific behavior you want to focus on with them - regardless of the theory you bring to the table. Consequently, it is then difficult to selectively focus on only certain ones and ignore the others, to look for example at only psychological determinants or to consider only solutions that employ persuasive communications. Although the intentions are commendable, the actual process of moving from individual behavior change to changes at the societal level is ignored, as if this transition will occur automatically - that it is simply a matter of increasing the numbers of people practicing the behavior. Marketers who attempt to imbue their products or services with value, or benefits that consumers will find attractive, are reflecting ‘goods dominant’ logic. Within the larger networks in which we operate, the S-D Logic also involves creating value propositions for stakeholders and partners.
Yet, how frequently, if ever, do we understand if our offerings actually result in value for people who use them (whether that value was what we proposed, or what the value is they 'created' or discovered when they used or practiced it themselves)? And should we also be asking how we can expand the frame for policy-making even more and focus on the marketplace itself to improve health behaviors by increasing access and opportunities to healthier behavioral options, products and services?
Similar to Peter Levinea€™s method of Somatic Experiencing (Levine, 2010), this system provides safety and support to assist traumatized people in gradually overcoming the fear and paralysis of trauma so they can shift and change, transforming the trauma and building new lives. For example, social support for exercise from co-workers may interact with the availability of exercise equipment at the worksite to lead to increased physical activity.
Many groups rely strongly (if not completely) on funding from grantmakers or the government to survive.
The intended effect of environmental change is widespread behavior change large numbers of people in the community engaging in behavior related to the group's objectives. It is the tunneling phenomenon that is the central culprit for poor decision-making and behavior choices. The authors’ explanation is simple, yet may provide the insight for many programs serving the poor: the $3,000 scenario got poorer people to consider their own money scarcity (“How could I come up with that?”) and this tunneling (or preoccupation) carried over to their performance on the Progressive Matrices in the post-test. Unfortunately, as many of you have no doubt discovered, all of the health and social puzzles we tackle rarely conform to one theoretical model. Frameworks, or heuristics, such as EAST and the 4Ps, help you make the shift from being a problem describer to a solution seeker. What the frame problem poses to social marketers is that we cannot know for certain whether we have selected the right set of variables when we choose a theory, or frame, to guide us in thinking about our puzzle. As Watts (2011) notes, how micro behaviors become macro solutions is a puzzle in search of an explanation in many disciplines, and this puzzle cannot be simply dismissed or explained away as inconsequential.
Rather, social marketing can be thought about as facilitating customer experiences or discoveries of value when using the product, trying the service or practicing the behavior. As with customers, the value for organizations to participate with us comes from their investment of information and resources to co-create value in the partnership (it is not something that is simply handed over, or exchanged, with them). Because the classic analysis of exchanges has focused on the immediate exchange of money for products, the value the product provides to a person (the customer) after the transaction is completed is ignored. The alternative proposed by S-D Logic is to think about exchanges of knowledge and skills, not one-way offerings; that the people we serve become producers of value for us as well as for themselves (co-value producers).
Our sense of own reality and our connectedness with other people is broken; we can feel worthless, helpless, and hopeless. As someone who has navigated this pathway, they also contribute to the resilience of their family and community. Traditionally, and especially in clinical settings, strategies to change health behaviors have focused on individual-level factors such as knowledge, beliefs, and skills. A primary source of failure of interventions is the use of the wrong theory to understand and address the puzzle.Behavioral economics is one domain that has captured the interest of policy-makers and social marketers alike. In short, value is uniquely experienced by each customer when they use our offering – not in how persuasively or creatively we ‘sell it’ to them. Since the early years of social  marketing, many people have struggled with how to apply the logic of economic exchanges to social marketing ones - usually without much success. The value of an S-D Logic perspective for social marketers includes asking what do we learn from our customers, are we open to changing ourselves and offerings as a result of their input and response, and have we created opportunities for them to participate in a reciprocal process? As ecological thinking has gained currency, intervention strategies have broadened to target factors at other levels of influence such as organizational policies and the built environment. The authors note that these differences correspond to a drop in IQ of 14 points (a shift in an intelligence score of this magnitude can result in a person of average intelligence being reconsidered as ‘borderline deficient’ – just because of the bandwidth tax imposed by thinking about one’s tight financial situation). The point Watts is making is that many disciplines work with many different scales of reality and they are difficult to integrate. The S-D Logic perspective encourages marketers to suggest what the value might be - value propositions (“we think you may like this because it…satisfies a need you are experiencing now, solves a problem for you, facilitates your getting a job done, or helps you reach a goal”) - that customers must then validate through their experience of using the offering (product, service or behavior) in their lives. This recognition of the complex range of factors that shape health behaviors can make the selection of intervention strategies daunting. The same effect, they show in another study, holds true for farmers in India before harvest (when times are lean) and then after it (they have now been paid for their crops). This perspective on how value is created by users means we must design interactions (or service touch points) to facilitate value-in-use and feedback. This is not because they are less capable, but rather because part of their mind is captured by scarcity” (p. Instead, biologists and other scientists invoke the idea of emergence to describe the shifting from one scale of reality to the next, and use ideas such as complexity, interactions, and systems to consider more than one scale at a time (an atomic scale versus a biochemical or physiological one).
In a classic social marketing approach, the first task would be to understand from the potential customers’ perspective, and there may be several segments of them with different perspectives, what benefits and barriers they perceive in quitting smoking. Then we would incorporate smokers into every facet of our discovery, design, creation and rollout of the program – not just invite them into focus groups and testing sessions.
Finally, we would treat our value offering as a proposition and not be so sure we have actually ‘made value’ for a smoker who is trying to quit (see above for 4 possible approaches).



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