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Description: This highly significant map of the world eluded examination by modern scholars for nearly four hundred years until its re-discovery in 1901 by the Jesuit historian, Joseph Fisher, in the library of Prince von Waldburg zu Wolfegg-Waldsee at the Castle of Wolfegg, WA?rttemberg Germany. It had long been suspected that Martin WaldseemA?ller, a professor of cosmography at the school in St. The purpose of this little book is to write a description of the world map, which we have designed both as a globe and as a projection [tam in solido quam plano]. Martin WaldseemA?llera€™s Universalis Cosmographia secundum Ptholomei Traditionem et Americi Vespucci aliorum Lustrationes [A Map of the World According to the Tradition of Ptolemy and the Voyages of Amerigo Vespucci] was designed on a single cordiform projection and engraved on twelve wooden blocks (21 x 30 inches each; 54 x 96 inches overall) at Strasburg and printed at St.
In Plate IX of the map, numbering the plates from left to right, the top row first, WaldseemA?ller re-asserts that he is particularly delineating the lands discovered by Vespucci. A general delineation of the various lands and islands, including some of which the ancients make no mention, discovered lately between 1497 and 1504 in four voyages over the seas, two by Fernando of Castile, and two by Manuel of Portugal, most serene monarchs, with Amerigo Vespucci as one of the navigators and officers of the fleet; and especially a delineation of many places hitherto unknown.
Vespucci claimed that on his first voyage he made discoveries along the coasts of Honduras and the Gulf of Mexico.
In describing the general appearance of the world, it has seemed best to put down the discoveries of the ancients, and to add what has since been discovered by the moderns, for instance, the land of Cathay, so that those who are interested in such matters and wish to find out various things, may gain their wishes and be grateful to us for our labor, when they see nearly everything that has been discovered here and there, or recently explored, carefully and clearly brought together, so as to be seen at a glance. This mapa€™s greatest claim to immortality, however, is contained in the simple word of seven letters, America, the earliest known use of that name to describe the newly found fourth part of the world, placed on the southern continent (present-day South America) of the world map only by WaldseemA?ller.
More than four years had elapsed since Amerigo Vespucci announced what he claimed to be the discovery of an entirely new continent, and as yet that new continent had no satisfactory name.
In the first years of the new century, a group of scholars decided to produce a revised edition of the Cosmography of Ptolemy (#119) to meet the urgent need for new maps, according to the new discoveries.
Martin WaldseemA?ller, a native of Freiburg in the Breisgau and appointed Professor of Geography at St. Toward the South Pole are situated the southern part of Africa, recently discovered, and the islands of Zanzibar, Java Minor, and Seula.
The name appeared in Halmal, a semi-divine mythical forefather or ancestor of the Amelungen, or royal tribe of the Ostrogoths, which was called A–mlunger.
Returning to the map, it is curious to note that while the name America appeared on the new continent (South America) of the new hemisphere on the world map, WaldseemA?ller did not choose to use it on the small inset map of the western hemisphere, where South America is labeled Terra Incognita. By selecting the name America for a major portion of the new discoveries, WaldseemA?ller was not unaware of the contributions of Columbus and intended no denial of the credit properly due him.
Plate I, in the upper left-hand corner, contains an inscription that explains WaldseemA?llera€™s ideas as to the location of the lands discovered by Vespucci and Columbus. Many have regarded as an invention the words of a famous poet [Virgil] that a€?beyond the stars lies a land, beyond the path of the year and the sun, where Atlas, who supports the heavens, revolves on his shoulders the axis of the world, set with gleaming starsa€?, but now finally it proves clearly to be true.
Instead of a€?19 degreesa€? he should have written a€?29 degreesa€? which, when added to the 23 degrees of the tropic, would have made the a€?52 degreesa€? given in the a€?thirda€? voyage as Amerigo Vespuccia€™s farthest south. The remarkable geographical features of the WaldseemA?ller map are, however, more important than the giving of a name to one of them. These close approximations to geographical actualities were natural corollaries of Amerigoa€™s great a€?discoverya€™ of a a€?fourth part of the worlda€?.
WaldseemA?ller places a land to the west of Isabella Insula [Cuba], as do many of the other mapmakers of his time, La Cosa, Cantino, Ruysch and Caveri (#305, #308, #313, #307). To the south, the long attenuated form given to both Terra Ulteria€? Incognita and to America, the west coasts of which are, as it were, rolled back to indicate WaldseemA?llera€™s lack of knowledge of these areas. Leaving the New World discoveries, one cannot help but notice the striking resemblance between WaldseemA?llera€™s a€?Old Worlda€? outline and that presented by Henricus Martellus Germanus in his map of 1490 (#256). Although many of the ancients were interested in marking out the circle of the land, things remained unknown to them in no slight degree; for instance, in the west, America, named after its discoverer, which is to be reckoned a fourth part of the world. In addition to Caveri, Martellus and Ptolemy, other sources synthesized by WaldseemA?ller include the narratives of Marco Polo, whose data concerning the geography of eastern China and the adjacent islands, though already known to the world in the map of Fra Mauro (#249), the Catalan Atlas (#235) and in globes such as those of Behaim (#258), are now for the first time embodied in a popular printed sheet map; and the Northmen, whose explorations in Mare Glaciale and in the neighborhood of Greenland were known from the maps of Claudius Clavus and those of Donnus Nickolaus Germanus. Thus, derived chiefly from Caveria€™s map (#307), itself based in many particulars upon the Cantino world map of 1502 (#308), the WaldseemA?ller production of 1507 transmitted the features of both to an impressive list of succeeding maps, globes and globe gores reaching to 1520 and well beyond.
Of the same year as the map itself, and displaying its features, was the previously alluded to printed globe issued by WaldseemA?ller, known today only by two sets of globe gores on uncut sheets.
WaldseemA?ller, himself, continued his cartographic production beginning with a revised edition of Ptolemya€™s Geographia (eventually published by others), which included a Supplement composed of 20 maps claimed by some scholars to be a€?the first modern atlas of the worlda€™. The regression of WaldseemA?ller to the Columbian conception of Cuba as a part of the continent of Asia was without question confusing to those who saw the map of 1516 with its specific legend. One can hardly overemphasize the significance in cartographic history, therefore, of the printed WaldseemA?ller productions of 1507 - world map, insets, and globe gores. The name America (applied to present-day Brazil) appeared for what is believed the first time on Martin WaldseemA?ller's 1507 world map a€” the so-called Baptismal Certificate of the New World. AMERICA, we learn as schoolchildren, was named in honor of Amerigo Vespucci a€” for his discovery of the mainland of the New World.
Traditional history lessons about the discovery of America also raise questions about the meaning of discovery itself. And yet, despite the issue of who discovered America, we are still confronted with the awesome fact that it was the voyages of Columbus, and not earlier ones, that changed the course of world history. Carew is resurrecting the ideas of Jules Marcou, a prominent French geologist who while studying North America argued, as did other 19th-century writers, that the name America was brought back to Europe from the New World; and that Vespucci had changed his name to reflect the name of his discovery. Like Marcou, Carew wants us to believe that America was not named after Vespucci, but vice versa; that Vespucci had, so to speak, re-named himself after his discovery, gilding his given name by modifying it to reflect the significance of his discovery. Some scholars believe Vespucci was named after Saint Emeric, son of the first king of Hungary. As was the custom of the Florentine nobility, Vespucci received an education that featured special instruction in the sciences connected with navigation a€” natural philosophy, astronomy, and cosmography a€” in which he excelled. During the first half of the 20th century, scholars discovered further evidence that clears away the cloud of misunderstanding and ignorance by which Vespucci has long been obscured. The voyage completed by Vespucci between May 1499 and June 1500 as navigator of an expedition of four ships sent from Spain under the command of Alonso de Hojeda is certainly authentic.
Under Portuguese auspices he completed a second expedition, which set sail from Lisbon on May 31, 1501.
Vespucci not only explored unknown regions but also invented a system of computing exact longitude and arrived at a figure computing the earth's equational circumference only fifty miles short of the correct measurement. The new geography included in its appendix WaldseemA?ller's large, stunning map of the world, on which the New World is boldly labeled AMERICA a€” in the middle of present-day Brazil.
The baptismal passage in the Cosmographiae Introductio has commonly been read as argument, in which the authors said that they were naming the newly discovered continent in honor of Vespucci and saw no reason for objections. Even though the Latinization of Americus fits a pattern, why did the cosmographers not employ Albericus (hence the assumption that "Alberigo" was Vespucci's authentic Christian name), the Latinization that had already been used for Amerigo's name as the author of the Mundus Novus? Did America get its name through oral tradition when those who had sailed with Columbus or Vespucci circulated stories that gold was to be found in the Amerrique Mountains of Nicaragua? The coast at the foot of the Amerrique Mountains that faces the Caribbean Sea is called the Mosquito Coast, named for the Mosquito Indians, who live there still. The Caribs, traveling far from their Carib or Cariay coast, could see the Amerriques in the distance, and these mountains for them could have signified the mainland. Rodney Broomea€™s recent book, Terra Incognita: The True Story of How America Got Its Name (2001), in which he argues for the Amerike theory, is a very good read, but ultimately lacks the hard evidence to support the authora€™s claim.
An early version of this essay appeared in The American Voice (1988) and a section in Encounters (1991). In late May 2003, the Library of Congress completed the purchase of the only surviving copy of the first image of the outline of the continents of the world as we know them todaya€” Martin Waldseemullera€™s monumental 1507 world map. Martin Waldseemuller, the primary cartographer of the map, was a sixteenth-century scholar, humanist, cleric, and cartographer who had joined the small intellectual circle, the Gymnasium Vosagense, organized in Saint-DieI?, France.
Thus, in northeast France was born the famous 1507 world map, entitled Universalis cosmographia secunda Ptholemei traditionem et Americi Vespucci aliorum que lustrationes (A drawing of the whole earth following the tradition of Ptolemy and the travels of Amerigo Vespucci and others).
While it has been suggested that Waldseemuller incorrectly dismissed Christopher Columbusa€™s great achievement in history by the selection of the name America for the Western Hemisphere, it is evident that the information that Waldseemuller and his colleagues had at their disposal recognized Columbus's previous voyages of exploration and discovery. By 1513, when Waldseemuller and the Saint-DieI? scholars published the new edition of Ptolemy's Geographiae, and by 1516, when his famous Carta Marina was printed, Waldseemuller had removed the name America from his maps, perhaps suggesting that even he had second thoughts in honoring Vespucci exclusively for his understanding of the New World.
A reported one thousand copies of the 1507 map were printed, which was a sizeable print run in those days. The Library of Congress's Geography and Map Division acquired in 1903 the facsimiles made of the 1507 and 1516 maps. Library of Congress and specialists in the Library were encouraged to investigate the opportunity. The 1507 world map is now the centerpiece of the outstanding cartographic collections of the Library of Congress, as it would be for any world class cartographic collection. The Librarya€™s acquisition of the Waldseemuller map represents an important moment to renew serious research into this exceptional map, to determine the sources which made possible its creation, and to investigate its contemporary impact and acceptance. Through agreement with Prince Waldburg-Wolfegg and the government of Germany, the 1507 world map by Martin Waldseemuller is to be placed on permanent display in the Library of Congressa€™s Great Hall area in the Thomas Jefferson Building. DESCRIPTION: The existence of sets of gores for making into a globe had been surmised for some time from the discussion in WaldseemA?llera€™s CosmographiA¦ Introductio. That which adds special significance to this young Germana€™s representations of the new lands, so far as a study of globes is concerned, is the repeated recurrence of his particular outlines or contours in the globe maps of the first quarter of the century, produced by such cartographers as Johann SchA¶ner of NA?rnberg (#328), and by those of his school. In a little tract, printed in Strassburg in the year 1509, there appears to be a reference to a globe which may be that constructed by WaldseemA?ller. The twelve such gores, measuring 18 x 34.5 cm, corresponding very closely to those described by WaldseemA?ller were for a long time in the Hauslab-Leichtenstein collection and are now in the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis.
The world outline is a simplified reduction of WaldseemA?llera€™s large map of 1507 (#310) with relatively few names but (when mounted) sufficient for illustrative purposes. Martin WaldseemA?ller, theologian and cosmographer, and Matthias Ringmann, a humanist poet, were brought to the monastery of St.
Although it is likely that the simple globe gores, their model or a€?Marquettea€? of the New World view, would have been available with each issue of the Cosmographiae, the large 12 sheet wall-map, would have been too expensive to be sold as widely. Considerable speculation, misinformation and some misunderstanding has surrounded these globe gores and the large world map.
Leading fashion designer Ma Yanli, also known as Mary Ma, says Chinese designers have no need to flaunt their Chinese origins in the clothes they produce.
The 41-year-old former supermodel and actress says they should aim instead to be as individualistic as Western designers. Ma, once described as China's answer to American model Cindy Crawford, was speaking at the Kerry Hotel in Beijing, ahead of the launch of her new clothing range that combines the simple look of a white blouse with blue jeans. The blouses, which will be available online later this month, will range in price from 399 yuan ($61) to 2,500 yuan.
Ma, who studied design at Shanghai-based Donghua University, launched Maryma Haute Couture in 2005. Earlier this year, her company was chosen to design outfits for Chinese Premier Li Keqiang as well as leaders of five Asian countries for the welcome dinner of the 1st Lancang-Mekong Cooperation Leaders' Meeting in Sanya in South China's Hainan province. The design on the blue tunic made for the event had a representation of the Mekong River with a flower to mark each of the six countries that surround it. Ma says fashion in China is now beginning to reflect the "new normal" of slower growth and the general economic climate, and she expects black and gray to be a feature of what people wear this summer in Beijing, Shanghai and elsewhere. She was on course to be a national rowing champion but injured her back badly in a boat accident. Then, by chance, while out shopping in Shanghai, she was spotted by a modeling agent looking for talent.
After being entered in the Shanghai International Modeling Competition in 1995, she went on to become China's first supermodel and had a successful career, resulting in her being the face of many advertising campaigns in China. She then combined this with an acting career, featuring in the TV comedy drama Marriage Battle and the 2010 movie Love in Cosmo, where she played a fashion magazine editor based on Cosmopolitan editor Anna Wintour.
She was recently approached about reviving her acting career with a role in a movie based on the Chinese reality TV show Metamorphosis, where children from wealthy backgrounds swap homes with those in poorer areas and vice versa. Ma, who is divorced, lives with her 12-year-old daughter, Lang Ma Qin Ge, who attends the primary school attached to the Central Conservatory of Music in Beijing.
Ma, whose clients have included football star David Beckham and musician Quincy Jones, says the Chinese fashion industry has made huge strides in the past two decades.
Former supermodel Ma Yanli will launch her new clothing range that combines the simple look of a white blouse with blue jeans. The two worlds, which rarely interacted with each other a few years ago, are now integrating seamlessly.
Leading the trend is American wearable technology company Misfit, which recently held a fashion show in Beijing, showcasing its latest product Ray, a wrist fitness and sleep monitor. The company was recently acquired by Fossil Group, which makes watches for brands like Michael Kors, Diesel, Adidas, Karl Lagerfeld and Burberry.
While wearable devices have been in the market for a few years now, Vu says people are now expecting more things from them - like good design, fashion elements, customizability and the ability to remotely control things. While wearable technology is now mainly focused on tracking and notification, Vu says that in the coming years it will blend more invisibly into people's lives. And Ray, priced from about 800 yuan ($123), is now being sold in China through online retailers JD and Tmall, and Apple's physical stores. Luxury writing instrument brand Montblanc recently held its Montblanc de la Culture Arts Patronage Awards ceremony in Venice. The Beijing Caishikou Department Store recently held a jewelry exhibition called Reflection on the Author showcasing 30 pieces of fine jewelry made by Italian designers. His fame may be built on his work with Gordon Ramsay and his regular appearances on TV cooking shows, but after declaring independence in 2010 from his longtime mentor, Jason Atherton has now made up his mind to make a break with television, too. The Michelin-starred chef was in Shanghai to celebrate the sixth anniversary of Table No 1, his first independent dining venture after leaving Ramsay, and the third birthday of Commune Social, a tapas venue that is his second outpost in Shanghai. The Sheffield "donkey boy", as he is often called back in his home country because of his teenage part-time job helping his mother sell donkey rides, found his gift at 13.
Once while traveling with his wife and eating at a restaurant in the Philippines, he could sense that the food was cooked by a very old chef by simply tasting it. Having such a palate himself may have helped him become a king in the kitchen, but he credits an unstoppable pursuit of perfection - one of the biggest lessons he learned from Ramsay - for driving the growth of his own restaurant empire. Other chefs he admires include Thomas Keller, Alain Ducasse, and any chef who "turns the industry upside down". These days Atherton says he is busier than ever, working long hours but spending as much time as possible in the kitchen.
The food scene in Shanghai is really strong, he says, "but you can't just come here, make loads of money and then leave again.
While restaurants opened by Michelin-starred chefs have been mushrooming in Shanghai over the past few years, Atherton believes making his mark and staying true to it is essential for sustainability in the market.
There is nothing he would like to change for his two culinary satellites in Shanghai - but his two head chefs there, Scott Melvin and Christopher Pitts, are free to shake things up at least once a week, and they do. You may have seen his face today, grinning from the sides of Beijing delivery scooters, shopping centers and subway stations. Launched in 2012, the company now operates more than 30 restaurants in Beijing and about 10 in Shanghai, with plans to jump abroad for the first time this summer with a restaurant in Sydney. It was a Chinese entrepreneur groomed at Google and Baidu, 33-year-old He Chang, who saw potential innovation in the popular street food.
From the simple jianbing, He and his team quickly branched out into other quick-to-make fare. They also see themselves as part of an international world, an international mindset, he says.
In July 2014, he says while flipping through PowerPoint graphs, the company delivered 1,154 orders. The delivery drivers in bumblebee-colored uniforms are paid by the order, says Torres, "so they have an incentive to deliver on time".
American Jeff Torres makes jianbing at a kitchen of Huangtaiji, a food chain built on the humble egg pancake. Every Wednesday in May, The Hatchery will be screening an episode of the critically acclaimed television series Chef's Table, by David Gelb, the filmmaker behind Jiro Dreams of Sushi. A flower-based banquet theme shapes this year's Yunnan Food Festival at the Minzu Hotel through May 20. The young adult suffers from autism, which is a complex brain development disorder that leads to difficulties in social interactions, among other issues. He arrived at Mingzhi Zhi Jia (home for the wise), a private rehabilitation center for autistic people, in Northeast China's Jilin province, seven years ago. Wang Liying, founder of Mingzhi Zhi Jia, says her center aims to help young people with autism lead as normal a life as possible by enhancing their social skills and lowering emotional barriers. The center provides help to autistic children, teenagers and young adults through counseling, therapies, education and professional training. Wang's concern for autistic people emerged after she attended a charity program in 2006 while working for Shell China in Beijing.
Then, she got a chance to deepen her understanding of patients and found that most rehabilitation facilities in China targeted preschool children.
According to the China Disabled Person's Federation, a government association, some 135 public-funded institutes for autistic children took in around 55,000 patients from 2011 to 2014. Private-owned rehabilitation units collaborating with the federation now exceed 1,000, Jia Meixiang, an autism expert from Peking University Sixth Hospital, recently told Beijing-based Oriental Outlook magazine. Last year, the Jilin City Disabled Person's Federation helped about 140 autistic children younger than 6. Mingzhi Zhi Jia got government subsidies last year with 54 students meeting the criteria meaning the center received 540,000 yuan from the government. Wang has poured about 16 million yuan into the institution's daily requirements and maintenance in the past seven years. The underfunding issue was brought into focus by a National People's Congress deputy from Jilin during the two sessions in Beijing in early March. Taking challenges head on in 2015, Wang set up a new company that provides data for agricultural use to cover the costs of her institution. Staff members and youngsters play a game in Mingzhi Zhi Jia, a private rehabilitation center for autistic people in Jilin city. Guo, 40, works at the Maternity and Child Care Center of Xinyu, and has nearly 20 years of experience in obstetrics. She went on a Chinese medical aid program to Tunisia in November 2014, but was diagnosed with breast cancer in January this year after she returned home for a holiday. Today, as she stays hospitalized for treatment in Nanchang, the capital city of Jiangxi, she is keen to return to Tunisia to finish the program. Zhang Yue, director of international cooperation for the province's health and family planning commission, says Guo had volunteered to join the program in Tunisia.
Since 1973, the province, like many other Chinese provinces, has been sending medical professionals to treat patients at local hospitals and provide training to doctors there. Usually, more than 40 doctors and nurses from Jiangxi are selected to go to Tunisia and Chad every two years, but it is getting difficult to recruit team members, says Zhang. That is mostly because when a doctor comes back from such a mission in Africa, he or she will very likely lag behind colleagues at home, due to the fast development of China's medical sector.
As people's standard of living improves in China, the allowance and payment such projects give to team members are not as appealing as they used to be, he says.
During her work at a provincial hospital in Tunisia, she performed up to a dozen surgeries in a day as the department of obstetrics and gynecology there is really busy, Guo says.
Last July, she noticed a lump in her left breast, which grew larger by October, but she didn't pay much attention.
Xiong Qiuyun, a cancer specialist with the Third Hospital of Nanchang and Guo's doctor, says he is sorry that she didn't seek medical treatment earlier. Guo had surgery soon after the diagnosis, which was successful, but she then asked to leave the hospital before completing a chemotherapy session.
According to the National Health and Family Planning Commission, since 1963, China has sent about 24,000 medical professionals to 66 countries and regions to help, including 42 countries and regions in Africa, and millions of people abroad have benefited from China's international medical aid program. Guo Luping, an obstetrician, says she's proud to be part of a Chinese medical aid program in Tunisia.
The history of the Caribbean is one of migrations and with that came a fusion of cultures, traditions and flavors.
The event was part of the China-Latin America and Caribbean 2016 Year of Culture Exchange, which was proposed by President Xi Jinping at a meeting in Brasilia with regional leaders in July 2014. Michael Hinds, an award-winning Michelin-starred chef, and Paul Griffith, a celebrity chef in Hollywood, were the Caribbean chefs behind the festival.
Griffith says the event was "a good opportunity for people in China to taste Caribbean food, because obviously not a lot of (Chinese) people go to the Caribbean.
The region's fare is based on the lifestyle of workers on sugar plantations, where people tended to eat a lot of "heavy food" that would give them energy, such as sweet potatoes and yams. While Chinese food uses stir-frying a lot, Caribbean cooks favor shallow-frying, he adds, noting that both cuisines embrace fresh ingredients, use a lot of herbs and spices, and generally do not overcook vegetables. The China - Latin America and Caribbean 2016 Year of Culture Exchange, which features a series of activities including music festival, food festival, film festival and exhibitions will run till July.
Hers is one of many Thai families looking after elderly relatives at a cost that countrywide adds up to just under a third of household income. The number of families facing similar problems will balloon as the population ages at a rate among the fastest in Southeast Asia. The rising cost of care is an additional burden to households struggling with record debt that is a drag on consumption and stunting the economy.
Looking after her father costs at least 15,000 baht ($430) a month, she says, a little less than half what she earns.
A culture of filial piety in which families feel obliged to care for their elderly means more often than not they absorb the expense of looking after parents and grandparents. A poor savings culture has left many people ill-prepared to help themselves financially in old age, meaning they must rely on working family members. More than a quarter of the 66 million population has not saved for old age, according to a 2014 survey, one of many factors contributing to the government considering raising the age of retirement from 60 and urging businesses to hire more older people. Households caring for elderly relatives spend at least 7,620 baht on them per month, according to the Health Insurance System Research Office, a state agency under the Ministry of Public Health. Kangsadan Sagulpongmalee, 40, is a lecturer in Petchaburi province who is caring for her 70-year-old diabetic father.
Kangsadan plans to move her father to a house near her workplace once he has recovered so she can look after him. A lower cost of living in Thailand's rural areas means some who had moved to the city for work are considering going back to care for parents.
With two Oscar-nominated films and a hit animation movie in China under his belt, Mark Osborne can easily stay in his comfort zone. Mark Osborne, director of Kung Fu Panda and The Little Prince, gives a speech at the recently concluded 12th China International Cartoon & Animation Festival in Hangzhou. He wants to create "something new and different", he tells China Daily during a recent visit to Hangzhou in East China's Zhejiang province. Osborne was there with Disney Animation Studios' president Andrew Millstein and Oriental DreamWorks' chief creative officer Melissa Cobb, to give a class to Chinese animation film professionals at the just-ended 12th China International Cartoon & Animation Festival. Chinese fans first encountered the 45-year-old director and writer through the 2008 smash hit Kung Fu Panda, which was the first animation film to earn more than 180 million yuan ($27.7 million) in China, and top the animation box-office charts that year. Osborne says DreamWorks Pictures' story creators watched Chinese martial arts blockbusters Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon and Hero to develop panda Po's kung fu skills. He was in the news again last year for the French animation film The Little Prince, which received critical acclaim for its use of stop-motion and CGI (computer generated imagery).
The movie, adapted from French writer and pioneering aviator Antoine de Saint-Exupery's namesake novella, was released in the Chinese mainland in October.
Osborne says when he first saw stop-motion film shooting as an animation student in California in the early 1990s, he was fascinated by the technique and thought it was magical. Stop motion is an animation technique that manipulates a puppet or object to make it look like it is moving on its own.
Besides The Little Prince - which recreates the title role's fantasy universe through stop motion - Osborne's More is also made purely by stop-motion. The 1998 short film, which centers on a young inventor's encounter with capitalism, was screened at more than 150 film festivals across the world and gained an Oscar nomination for best animation short in 1999. While most of the present-day, big-budget animation movies are made using computers, stop-motion is a somewhat old-school option. Among the 57 animation films released in the Chinese mainland in 2015, only the British feature Shaun the Sheep Movie is a stop-motion flick. But Osborne is apparently the kind of filmmaker who insists on following his heart, regardless of whether it is the latest trend.
Osborne also says hard work is the best way for an animator to polish his skills, and he suggests that Chinese animators who have struggled for a long time with criticism over the quality of their work should do more than just improve visual effects. Interestingly, he says despite commercial success and festival-circuit honors, he is always discovering mistakes in his films. Osborne says his latest project is a no-dialogue musical piece, which may become a sole feature or a series. Since the success of Kung Fu Panda and The Little Prince in China, the world's second-largest movie market since 2012, Osborne frequently hears that Chinese filmmakers want to be a part of his movies.
Wu, 74, died of a heart attack in Beijing on March 4, 2014, just a month after he finished Song of Phoenix.
The film revolves around an elderly suona (double-reed horn) performer's aim to pass on the art form amid its falling popularity in modern China. Veteran directors Tsui Hark (second left) and Huang Jianxin (center), alongside Song of Phoenix's lead actor Tao Zeru (second right), promote the late filmmaker Wu Tianming's final feature in Beijing. He was a man who stood up for his belief in freedom, freedom of expression and great human freedom, says the Hollywood icon.
Wu's name may not be well known to younger Chinese viewers, but he is widely hailed as one of the most influential and significant figures in Chinese cinema. The former head of Xi'an Film Studio was instrumental in encouraging directors like Zhang Yimou and Chen Kaige after he took the position in 1983.
His studio reforms, which cut red tape, helped young filmmakers of that time to flourish and thrive. In 1987, Zhang ran out of money while shooting his directorial debut Red Sorghum - which became the first Asian film to win a Golden Bear at the Berlin International Film Festival in 1988.
Seen as the "godfather" of China's fifth-generation directors, including Zhang and Chen, Wu is also noted for his in-depth look at China's rural life.
Typical of the characters in his films, Wu stood out as a guardian of tradition who refused to sacrifice his art to cater to the box office. Veteran director Huang Jianxin, who was among those supported by Wu in the mid-1980s, says: "Song of Phoenix mirrors Wu's struggles in real life, his persistence and his seriousness when speaking up for China's traditional arts.
Hong Kong veteran Tsui Hark said Xu was "a brave and serious man who devoted his life to the Chinese film industry".
He made the comment at a recent event in Beijing, where he was with Huang to promote Wu's last movie. Jia Zhangke, a pioneering art-house director, says Wu's films were simple and effective, displaying his deft narration and editing skills. Several previews of Song of Phoenix have been held in Beijing, Shenzhen and Shanghai recently and the movie has received acclaim from both viewers and critics.
But industry sources are concerned that the art-house film may be squeezed to a small number of screens by its powerful rival Captain America: Civil War. The biggest blockbuster in Marvel's cinematic universe will open in China on the same day as Wu's film. The dialogue was in reference to Cai's often "What about it?" barbs at contemporary Chinese art, for what he calls the lack of innovation. In 2008, his "fireworks of giant feet" at the opening ceremony of the Beijing Olympics thrilled many. Cai's gunpowder drawing Homeland sold for 15 million yuan ($2.38 million) at a Christie's auction in Shanghai in 2013. While the Chinese art market has boomed since 2006, there is still a lot that artists can do in terms of their contributions to the art world, he says. Cai was in Beijing in April to talk about the exhibition he has organized for the Qatar Museums Gallery Al Riwaq in Doha - What About the Art?: Contemporary Art from China.


In recent years, many artistic works from China have set records at auctions and the art market in China is doing well, he says.
To find the answers, Cai and his team chose 14 Chinese artists and one artist-collaborative duo from more than 200 through a three-year process. The conversations with individual artists, together with Cai's discussions with curators and scholars from home and abroad, are part of a 500-page book by the same name as the Doha exhibition title. What About the Art?: Contemporary Art from China was published by Guangxi Normal University Press in March. Group exhibitions of Chinese art in recent years have presented different artistic forms: sculptures, painting, performance art and films, but that doesn't mean diversification of attitudes toward art or unique presentation skills in works, he says.
In the book, Cai introduced artist Li Liao, who used installation art to express his state of mind after his wife's affair came to light.
He gives an example of Chinese calligraphy to show that artists in ancient times paid great attention to form.
Another problem with contemporary Chinese art is that artists talk more about methods rather than methodology, the method of methods, the most fundamental question in art, Cai says. He applauds an artist's free spirit, warning that artists should avoid becoming "zoo creatures", and this might be why he chose to start the book with farmer-turned-artist Hu Zhijun, who became interested in sculpture in 2013 at the age of 61. The iconic artists have been confirmed for the Oct 7-9 concert at the Empire Polo field in Indio, in the California desert, an event being billed by music lovers as one of the greatest concerts ever.
Tickets for the event, which go on sale on Monday, will range from $199 to $1,599, concert promoter Goldenvoice says. Concert organizers say Dylan and the Stones would launch the concert on Oct 7, Young and McCartney would perform on Oct 8, and the Who and Waters will close the three-day event on Oct 9. The festival could mark a final appearance for The Who, whose members have hinted at imminent retirement. The group was scheduled to end their tour in May, but have already added June dates to appear at festivals in Europe. As a teenage actor of Zhe-jiang Kunqu Opera Troupe, he made his first trip from the country's east to Beijing along with the troupe's other performers, including Kunqu Opera veterans Zhou Chuanying and Wang Chuansong. With its roots in Suzhou, in East China's Jiangsu province, Kunqu is among the country's earliest operas.
Fifteen Strings of Coins tells the story of a respected legal figure in ancient China, who corrects a previously misjudged murder case.
Staged dozens of times in the city, it was attended by top leaders Mao Zedong and Zhou Enlai, and some 70,000 people during a 20-day stay.
The troupe also toured other parts of the country with nearly 100 shows viewed by another 140,000 people that year. Zhang was an apprentice of Zhou, who, along with five other Kunqu masters, remade Fifteen Strings of Coins in 1955 and established Zhejiang Kunqu Opera Troupe the following year. To celebrate the contemporary show's 60th year, Fifteen Strings of Coins will return to Beijing on May 12.
Artists from the three troupes have "witnessed history in the making" with the recreation of the Kunqu masterpiece, says Zhang.
In 2001, UNESCO listed it as a major masterpiece of oral and intangible heritage of humanity. Kunqu has also influenced other Chinese musical theaters, including its more famous cousin, Peking Opera.
According to Zhang, before the 1956 debut of Fifteen Strings of Coins in Beijing, Kunqu struggled to survive with a shrinking market and very few artists.
Since 1956, seven Kunqu Opera troupes have been established in the country and young performers have joined the Zhejiang troupe to learn from seasoned actors and actresses.
Liu Yilong, 73, and Ji Zhenhua, 76, both masters from Shanghai Kunqu Opera Troupe, were among those who trained at the Zhejiang troupe. According to Gu Haohao, director of the Shanghai troupe, the two artists rarely perform these days. Fifteen Strings of Coins has been performed more than 1,500 times in the past six decades by different Chinese troupes, she says. The youngest performer in the new production is 14-year-old Zhang Tangxiao, who is a fifth generation actor from the Zhejiang troupe. At the second anniversary of the opening of DrumTower West Theater, Zhuo Bieling, a female writer and critic, recounted an anecdote about the time when her friend Li Yangduo gave her a screenplay. The project turned out to be Black Coal, Thin Ice, which won the Golden Bear at the 2014 Berlin International Film Festival.
Li is the money and mastermind behind DrumTower West Theater, a 240-to-290-seat venue that used to be a derelict rehearsal hall for a State-owned performing arts organization.
Of the many such "small theaters" in the theatrically vibrant city of Beijing, hers is not the best located. For about seven years, Li was a Guangzhou-based producer and distributor of television dramas and TV movies.
Her first significant exposure to theater was Stan Lai's The Village, a 3.5-hour epic about the mainland diaspora in Taiwan.
Six years ago, Li moved north to Beijing, unarguably the epicenter of China's theater creativity. She picked Martin McDonagh's The Pillowman as the opening salvo, directed by Zhou Ke, a promising talent with a flair for staging uncompromising fare. Since then, theater lovers have been arriving in droves, sometimes as early as the afternoon, where the adjacent cafe, Empty Cup Coffee, offers a bohemian environment for idle chat on the serious art of drama, surrounded by rows of books and wall-to-wall posters of the performing arts.
The DrumTower West Theater, tucked away in a traditional alleyway, has become a favorite hangout for the city's young, hip and theatrically aspiring.
Meanwhile, Li attributes her choice of repertory style to a later offering, How I Learned to Drive. For her production of The Censor, a 1997 British play, to mark the theater's two-year anniversary, Li has turned to crowd sourcing. Ten of her friends joined in, including many media professionals who are fans of theater and her venue in particular. Chinese theater goers are accustomed to big-house shows that run for a couple of nights, but for an extended run that lasts 20-30 days she needs people who can spread the word to a larger clientele base.
Unlike some in theater circles, Li does not complain about the proliferation of lowbrow comedies on the Chinese stage. In fact, Li is contemplating a new lineup of comedies to add to her existing, mostly dark works.
Li is thinking of plays like The Housekeeper by American playwright James Prideaux, which centers on a writer and his new acid-tongued housekeeper, and builds towards a hilarious crescendo. She says her house broke even by the end of 2015 when her initial investment was amortized, but each production takes 40-50 performances to recoup its cost. The 2004 winner of the Laurence Olivier Award for best new play is about a writer who depicts violence against children, and is suspected to be involved in one case. This obscure one-act play, an early work by the American pioneer in the art of drama brought home its relevance to contemporary Chinese society, especially the notion of family as the societal core.
This perennial favorite in modern Chinese dramatic literature was given a new spin by Swedish director Mathias Lafolie, who approached the familiar tale as a discourse on morality and relationships. This black comedy, which won four Tony awards, portrays the acidic relationship between an ageing matriarch and her spinster daughter, something rare for the Chinese stage. This 1998 winner of the Pulitzer Prize for drama is based on an avuncular character and his influence on the coming of age of a teenage girl. This story of a female filmmaker of pornographic art and a middle-aged bureaucrat is so titillating that it could well lead to ratings for theatrical productions.
Directed by Mou Sen, an early practitioner in Chinese avant-garde theater, this is a French tale of a charity event gone awry, and illuminates a chasm between the haves and have-nots that defies political categorization. A winner of the 1983 Pulitzer Prize for drama, this extremely dark tale about a mother and her suicidal daughter is a serious look at the abyss of existential anxiety. The 2002 recipient of the Tony Award for best play touches on the taboo issue of bestiality in a well-respected middle-class family. Guo, 48, who started playing the erhu as a 4-year-old in Shenyang, an industrial city in Northeast China's Liaoning province, has so far released over 40 albums as a soloist and a band member in a variety of music genres, such as rock, jazz and classical music. He has also taken the unfamiliar sounds of the ancient Chinese instrument to nearly 2,000 concerts worldwide, working with hundreds of international musicians, including French jazz violinist Didier Lockwood and Chinese pianist Lang Lang. On April 25, Guo, who moved to Paris in 2000, was named a Knight of the Order of the Arts and Letters by Maurice Gourdault-Montagne, the French ambassador to China.
The honor, which was created in 1957, has been given to other Chinese artists, including actress Zhang Ziyi and film director Feng Xiaogang.
Trained by his father, Guo Junming (1940-2010), an erhu musician and educator, Guo Gan says that learning to play the erhu is a family tradition.
Besides the erhu, Guo also plays Western instruments, such as the violin, the cello and the piano.
By the time Guo graduated from the Shenyang Music Conservatory with a bachelor's degree in percussion performance in 1991, pop and rock music had started to blossom in China.
So, when he taught erhu and percussion at the Liaoning Music Conservatory from 1994-99, he founded his own jazz and rock bands. In 2000, Guo went to France to study percussion at the National Music School in Paris, where he founded another jazz band, Dragon Jazz, which won the second prize at a European Chinese music competition in Belgium in December 2002.
But despite these successes, he says that there was a time when he tried to escape from the erhu. After arriving in Europe, Guo began performing at events held by overseas Chinese communities as he struggled to make ends meet like many foreign students. His first break came in 2002, when he was invited to record music for the movie L'idole by composer Gabriel Yared, who won an Oscar and a Grammy Award for his work on The English Patient. He also made a guest appearance as a soloist at the opening ceremony of the Cannes film festival in 2002. In 2005, Chinese director Zhang Yimou invited him to play a series of concerts for the promotion of the film, The House of Flying Daggers, in Europe. While his pianist wife and two children live in Paris, Guo says that he plans to have more shows in China and work with Chinese musicians. This dual personality is presented at the Ninth Horticultural Exposition of Jiangsu Province that ends on May 10.
The feel that today's visitors are actually taking a stroll through an ancient scroll is no accident. The setting unfolds like the scenes artists render of Jiangnan, the region south of the Yangtze River celebrated for being as well manicured botanically as what could be expected of China's Eden. The settlement is also the ground from which Wu culture, a vital component of contemporary Chinese society, took root over 10,000 years ago. That legacy lives on in the city's Wuzhong district as classical gardens and water towns flourish to the soundtrack of Kunqu Opera and pingtan (Suzhou ballads). An exhibition at the event separate from botany showcases 70 places in Suzhou acclaimed for intangible cultural heritage. The horticulture exhibition should remain true to real life after the show since the venue will be used as a public park or resort once the expo is done, organizers hope. The country's breakneck development necessitates a fusion of modern architecture into gardening traditions to conjure cities with cultural foundations, he says.
The central government has introduced policies to encourage cities and regions to add more horticultural components into urban life. Suzhou was where China adopted its first national standards for what constitutes a horticultural city in 1992.
It could, perhaps, even be like walking through ancient Chinese paintings, the brushstrokes of which are actual flora rendered across urban landscapes today - and tomorrow. Gardens and pavilions revealing the biodiversity of Suzhou draw visitors during the Ninth Horticultural Exposition of Jiangsu Province that runs throught May 10.
Canada's tourism authority has partnered with Hainan Airlines to offer the flight three times a week from June 30 and four times a week from November.
The airport handles 250 daily flights to more than 80 destinations, enabling tourists to easily travel to other destinations in the province and country. A program has been launched to make the terminal user-friendly for Chinese through such amenities as Chinese-language signage and information, Poirier says. Roughly 59,000 Chinese arrived in or departed from Alberta in 2013, says the provincial tourism authority's CEO, Royce Chwin.
Western Alberta is flanked by the Rocky Mountains, while expansive prairies cover the east. Routes cover cities, national parks and other sites of interest across Calgary, Edmonton, the Canadian Rockies, the Canadian Badlands and southern Alberta. Hainan Airlines is working with travel agencies to promote diverse travel products to show the beauty of Alberta and the passion of its cowboys, says Hainan Airlines' senior director, Jason Liu.
Calgary now serves as a stopover for Chinese visitors to national parks, says Li Mengran, publicity manager of major outbound-travel operator Beijing Utour International Travel Service Co. The city has evolved exponentially over the past few years, says Tourism Calgary CEO, Cindy Ady. Calgary has also developed new pedestrian-friendly neighborhoods that offer walking tours featuring such new culinary experiences as East Village. Canada's first Nordstrom's opened at its Chinook Center two years ago, and Cross Iron Mills hosts a huge outlet mall.
Heritage Park is Canada's largest living historical village, and the Calgary Zoo is celebrated as one of the country's best.
The Calgary Stampede - a rodeo and festival acclaimed as "the greatest outdoor show on Earth" - runs every July. Calgary is uniquely positioned within driving distance of four World Heritage sites - the Rocky Mountains, Dinosaur Provincial Park, Head-Smashed-In Buffalo Jump and Waterton Glacier International Peace Park. Indeed, these destinations seem poised to embrace new waves of Chinese visitors as the new direct flights enhance ease of entry. Fisher found the only known remaining copy of this map securely bound up in an old book bearing the bookplate of the 16th century German mathematician and geographer Johannes SchA¶ner.
Die, located in the Vosges Mountains of France, had made a map of the world in the year 1507.
Die in a an original issue of about 1,000 copies (a thousand copies represented a large edition for this time, immediately preceding post-Columbian world maps, such as Juan de la Cosaa€™s, Cantinoa€™s and Caveria€™s (#305 thru #309 - were all manuscript maps). All this we have carefully drawn on the map, to furnish true and precise geographical knowledge. A Florentine cosmographer, he sailed in 1497 with a commission appointed by Ferdinand and Isabella to investigate reports that Columbusa€™ administration of Hispaniola was inept.
He also credited himself with three other voyages by 1503, when he made his last, an investigation of the coast of Brazil for Portugal. Taken together, these inset hemispheres form the most comprehensive and most nearly correct representation of the world displayed on any map known to have been constructed up to the year of 1507. Besides this world map, WaldseemA?ller also introduced the name America in two other media, in the previously mentioned Cosmographia Introductio and on his globe (thought by some scholars to be the so-called Hausslab-Linchoten globe (#311), both also produced in the year 1507). It happened that in the Vosges Mountains in the little town of Saint-Die, there was a college under the patronage of the studious Duke Renaud (Rene) II of Vaudemon, of Lorraine, the titular a€?King of Jerusalem and Sicilya€?, who was there resident. On Plate V (the Caribbean area) of his map, WaldseemA?ller wrote: These islands were discovered by Columbus, an admiral of Genoa, at the command of the King of Spain.
For there is a land, discovered by Columbus, a captain of the King of Castile, and by Americus Vespucius, both men of very great ability, which, though in great part lies beneath a€?the path of the year and of the suna€? and between the tropics, nevertheless extends about 19 degrees beyond the Tropic of Capricorn toward the Antarctic Pole, a€?beyond the path of the year and the suna€?.
Since Columbus never explored as far south as the equator, the words a€?it proves clearly to be truea€? are clothed with meaning only in the light of Amerigoa€™s voyages into the southern hemisphere, not at all in the light of the a€?firsta€? of the a€?four voyagesa€?, from which the dispute ultimately arose as to which could claim priority upon the shore of the new continent, Columbus or Amerigo Vespucci; for that a€?firsta€? voyage, like all the voyages of Columbus, was entirely north of the equator. In addition to the previously mentioned accuracy and a€?noveltya€™ of the hemispheric insets, and the picturing of the new southern continent, with its surprisingly correct general contour, the inset map presents a portion of the northern continent as well, and the two are correctly joined together by a narrow isthmus. One is tempted to loose sight of this revolutionary advance over the previously dominating world conception of Ptolemy in focusing all the attention to the single feature that has made WaldseemA?llera€™s map so famous, the first appearance thereon of the name America.
This area may represent the coast of China copied from Marco Polo, and placed here in the belief that the new discoveries were in and near Asia. In extending the South American coast to 50 degrees South (high-lighted by the implantation of a Portuguese flag), WaldseemA?ller avoids committing himself as to the possibility of a passage by sea around this new continent by continuing its land to the edge of, and actually into, the map frame (compare this abrupt treatment with his depiction of Africa, where he is willing to go outside of the preset form of his map frame in order to accommodate the full extension of the continent and thus substantiate the Portuguese proof of a passage to the Far East). As can be seen on the accompanying comparison illustration, except for the southern half of Africa, in both projection and general geographical contours the Old World of WaldseemA?llera€™s 1507 map seems to have been virtually copied from Martellus.
Another is, to the south, a part of Africa, which begins about seven degrees this side of Capricornus and stretches in a broad expanse to the south, beyond the torrid zone and the Tropic of Egocerus (Capricornus). At least twice Henricus Glareanus copied WaldseemA?llera€™s world map and insets in manuscript. Two maps in this Supplement show the New World discoveries, Tabula Terre Nove and Orbis Typus Universalis.
In his great and very important world map of 1516, WaldseemA?ller showed the landmass abutting upon the western border of the map, as in the two above mentioned maps, but here gives it the name Terra de Cuba Asie Partis.
The representation in these of the American continents separated from Asia by a broad ocean in the midst of which lay the island of Japan was a splendid synthesis based upon such known particulars as the narrative of Marco Polo, the voyages of the Portuguese to North America by way of the Atlantic and to India by way of the Cape of Good Hope, the discoveries of South America by Vespucci and Cabral, the Spanish discoveries in the West Indies and the Caribbean, and above all, perhaps, the notable manuscript maps of La Cosa, Cantino, and Caveri. The only known surviving copy was purchased, in 2003, by the Library of Congress for $10 million.
Further, other discoveries of America have been credited to the Irish who had sailed to a land they called Iargalon, the land beyond the sunset, and to the Phoenicians who purportedly came here before the Norse. Specifically, Marcou introduced the name of an Indian tribe and of a district in Nicaragua called Amerrique, and asserted that this district a€” rich in gold a€” had been visited by both Columbus and Vespucci, who then made this name known in Europe. To define it Carew echoes Marcou, who quotes from his correspondence with Augustus Le Plongeon.
He has been wrongfully portrayed as a crafty opportunist ever since the mid-16th century when Bartholomew de Las Casas accused him of being a liar and a thief who stole the glory that belonged to Columbus. Around 1490 he was sent to Spain by his employers, the famous Italian family of Medici, to join their business in fitting out ships. At the beginning of 1505 he was summoned to the court of Spain for a private consultation, and, as a man of experience, was engaged to work for the famous Casa de Contratacion de las Indias (Commercial House for the West Indies), which had been founded two years before in Seville. The first or traditional series consists of the widely published letters, dated 1504, purportedly written by him. After a halt at the Cape Verde Islands, the expedition traveled southwestward, reached the coast of Brazil, and certainly sailed as far south as the RA­o de la Plata, which Vespucci was the first European to discover.
It was, however, not his many solid accomplishments but an apparent error made by a group of scholars living in St.
This map is the first known map, printed or manuscript, to use the name America, and also the first to depict clearly a separate western hemisphere, with the Pacific as a separate ocean. But, as etymologist Joy Rea has suggested, it could also be read as explanation, in which they indicate that they have heard the New World was called America, and the only explanation lay in Vespucci's name. Their substitution of Americus for the well-known Latinization Albericus might mean that they wanted a Latinization that would fit and explain the name America which they had already heard applied to the New World.
The Indians in the Caribbean did have a word for the mainland, given in the LexicografA­a Antillana (Antillean Dictionary, 1931) as babeque and defined as the name that Columbus understood the Indians to say when they were pointing to a land beyond Haiti and Cuba. It constitutes an incredible Anglicization of the New World a€” and would, for obvious reasons, infuriate Carew. He purportedly gave one of the islands he explored to a friend, another to his barber, and also promised some Italian friars that they could be bishops. However, even if the name America were known in Bristol in 1497, Hudd has taken a majestic leap to suggest Ameryk's name as its origin.
That map has been referred to in various circles as America's birth certificate, and for good reasona€”it is the first document on which the name America appears. He was born near Freiburg, Germany, sometime in the 1470s, and died in the canon house at Saint-DieI? in 1522.
That map, printed on twelve separate sheets from wood block plates, when assembled would measure more than 4 1a?„2 feet by 8 feet in dimension. However, the group also had acquired a recent French translation of the important work Insuper aquattor Amerigo Vespuccii navigationes, Amerigo Vespucci's letter detailing his purported four voyages across the Atlantic Ocean to America between 1497 and 1504. Instead, in the 1513 atlas the name America does not appear anyplace in the volume, and the place of America is referred to as Terra Incognita (Unknown land). This single surviving copy of the map exists because it was kept in a portfolio by Johannes SchoI?ner (1477-1547), a German globe maker, who probably had acquired a copy of the map for his own cartographic work. Throughout the twentieth century the Library continued to express interest in and a desire to acquire the 1507 map, when, if ever, it was made available for sale. Through the combined efforts of several Library of Congress specialists, and many other members of the Library's staff over an 11 year period, the map has made its way to the Library of Congress. The map serves as a departure point in the development of the American cartographic collection in addition to its revered position in early modern cartographic history. The mapa€™s well announced acquisition provides us an extraordinary opportunity to appreciate the earliest of early depictions of our modern world.
The Library of Congress is proud to have obtained this unique treasure and is anxious to have this great cartographic document receive the public acclaim and the critical scholarly inspection that it so rightly merits. This call for further scholarship on the map, its impact, and the sources used to produce it is not meant to suggest that previous scholarship is lacking. Both the globe and the large world map were doubtless printed in large numbers and widely distributed. It is this reference that the Prince of Liechtenstein, as noted above, has taken as a reference to the gore map, a copy of which is in his collection. Although a text on WaldseemA?llera€™s later wallmap, the Carta Marina (1516), says that 1,000 copies of the 1507 wall-map were made, it is unlikely that this number were issued, given the survival rate of the one bound copy now in the Library of Congress.a€? The globe map and book had an enormous influence on other geographers, notably Appian, SchA¶ner and Fries, and advanced the science of globe-making and map making particularly in Germany and the Low Countries.
The Kraus-Bavarian State Library copy -- in 1960 at Sothebya€™s in London, a set of the gores was offered bound into a Ptolemy atlas of 1486. The Offenburg copy -- following the publicity regarding the acquisition of the copy above by the Bavarian State library in 1992, in 1993 two researchers, Dr.
The present example was discovered in February 2003 when the owner, on reading an article in the Frankfurter Algemeinen Zeitung on the Munich copy, realized he owned a similar map amongst his large collection of books and ephemera. To present the various strands of information relating to the genesis, execution and influences of the WaldseemA?ller gores, the following timeline brings together the principal events in the lives of WaldseemA?ller, Ringmann, Vespucci and their circles. Of course, designers reflect their personal influences and some of these may involve Chinese characteristics, but this is not what it should be about," she says.
She is the daughter of a middle school head teacher, although most of her wider family is into farming. We want to make products that are indistinguishable from jewelry," says Sonny Vu, co-founder of Misfit, who is also president and chief technology officer of Connected Devices at Fossil Group. Founded a year ago, Soiree is an internet-based fashion label that focuses on little black dresses.
That's when he "fancied a girl" at school and decided to win her heart through her stomach, though he won't say what food he prepared for this precocious wooing. The dishes were so great yet so simple, he told himself, that this man has to be cooking for a very long period of time. Atherton's The Social Company now boasts 17 outlets worldwide and annual revenues equal to 170 million yuan ($26 million). But I run it in my kitchen," he says, adding that he prefers to wear his chef's jacket whenever he's working - even at financial meetings, talks with CEOs and interviews. Don't expect a third one yet for Shanghai, but among his hot pot of ideas he is thinking about a fun and funky Japanese restaurant for the city. The market is too sophisticated for that." He compares Shanghai with places like Singapore, Dubai and Hong Kong, where he also runs restaurants.
The goal is to make the restaurants "relevant to the marketplace", which Atherton sees as critical.
The 30-year-old is the public face of Huangtaiji, a food empire built on the humble egg pancake.
With individual orders totaling as little as about 35 yuan ($5.37), the company was generating more than 6 million yuan in sales per month by December 2015. The second brand in the Huangtaiji family is Niu Dun, with a menu of stews and similar dishes.
That's one reason the frontman for the company is not the more richly credentialed He, but Geoff the laowai - a former English teacher with the gumption not only to sell egg pancakes to Chinese but to teach Chinese how to make them.
Huangtaiji mobilized about 1,000 drivers on scooters last year as well as a few black-and-yellow Mini Coopers that serviced catered events.
Later this month, for example, he hopes to be driving for Uber in a new promotion, ready to throw in a lunch deal with his rides. Starting at 8:30 pm, a favorite episode will be shown on the big screen with surround sound. A chef from the province will use seasonal ingredients including fresh flowers and plants from Yunnan, such as camellia, jasmine, azalea and bamboo.
The frustrations related to his disorder often got the better of him - he used to smash things. Wang's academic background in industry management helped her create Mingzhi Zhi Jia in 2009, when she quit her well-paid communications job at Shell and went back to her hometown, Jilin.
According to a 2014 report by the Chinese Society of Education, China's largest academic organization for the sector, it is estimated that the country has more than 10 million autistic children, with roughly one-fifth under the age of 14. We usually give the money to rehab centers," says Yang Lingyun, deputy director of the organization. In his motion submitted at the top annual political meetings, Guo Naishuo asked for enhanced financial support from the government for privately owned autism rehabilitation units so they may offer better training and education to children. She has also employed 11 students, like Sha Lin, who have finished their therapies and are being professional trained for jobs now.
So I took it up," says Guo, who has conducted about 4,000 surgeries and has won several awards at the Xinyu hospital for her service to patients.
There were too many patients and she was too busy to worry about "small problems", she recalls. That's why Caribbean cuisine represents a rich fusion of cooking traditions and flavors of the indigenous peoples as well as centuries of migrants from Africa, India, China, Europe and the Middle East, according to organizers of last weekend's Caribbean Food and Cultural Festival in Beijing.
He underwent spinal surgery in December and is recovering at Wellness City, a privately run complex for the elderly near the city of Ayutthaya, north of Bangkok. It reminds me of my childhood," says Osborne, in a hotel near White Horse Lake in southeastern Hangzhou. The weakest part of a film is the craft and skill, and the strongest section is the story and the meaning," he says. He deserves to be not only remembered, but celebrated," says American director Martin Scorsese, in a video promoting the movie. Thanks to his selfless efforts, we could become part of China's golden era of cinema," adds Huang, who shot to fame with his 1985 film The Black Cannon Incident. It showcases a strong belief in Chinese culture and a sincere love of the country," Jia said in Shanghai earlier. He used gunpowder to paint in his Projects for Extraterrestrials series (1989-2002) and to make social and political statements. A few years later, after his fireworks' performance in Paris, some 50 couples volunteered to engage in intimate scenes on the banks of the Seine. The exhibition, running through July 16, examines ideas in Chinese modern art and whether they influence the global scene.
If you see Chinese art today, you can barely tell which is whose work because the works tend to resemble one another," he says of what he describes as the lack of individual style. It instructs people to investigate the shape and layout of the mountains to decide the best location for a coffin," he writes in the book. Customers are limited to buying a maximum of eight tickets for the festival, which is being called The Desert Trip.
They were going to debut Fifteen Strings of Coins, a classic of the local opera, in the capital. Although I performed a small role in the show then, I couldn't fall asleep on the train to Beijing because I was too excited and nervous," he says. The production will gather generations of Kunqu artists from three established troupes - Zhejiang Kunqu Opera Troupe, Suzhou Kunqu Opera Troupe and Shanghai Kunqu Opera Troupe. Zhejiang Kunqu Opera Troupe was the only known such troupe in China back then and is credited with saving the ancient art form with Fifteen Strings of Coins.


But she has carved a niche with a repertory that can be called adventurous even in this city where new productions are in the hundreds every year.
She later dipped her toes in this part of showbiz by becoming a local presenter for some of Lai's shows.
Many were warm and uplifting, but I wanted something that was thought-provoking, something that shed light on the dark corners of humanity," Li tells China Daily. Not only was she fascinated by the work itself, with its subtle depiction of the suspicious relationship between an uncle and his teenage relative, but she enthused about Paula Vogel, the writer who came to Beijing and gave a mesmerizing lecture.
That is no small feat considering that some of the city's more established small houses have closed down in recent years. I'm surrounded by friends who are more knowledgeable than I am in this field," says Li, who cautions against giving short shrift to today's theater patrons. It became the breakout hit that pointed the way for the artistic aspirations of Li and her new house. However, for Chinese erhu player Guo Gan, the similarities between the two instruments don't end there. It recognizes those who have distinguished themselves through their work in the artistic or literary domain in France and the world. I am happy to see that the erhu, which is rarely appreciated in the West, can be used in so many different music styles," says Guo.
After all, horticulture is both an art and a science.]]> An ongoing horticulture exhibition in a city celebrated for its gardens has roots in the past yet sows seeds for the future. Over 20 gardens and 12 pavilions reveal the biodiversity of Suzhou, a city synonymous with Chinese gardening. They include such themes as family travel, marathons, golf, shopping, summer outdoor adventure, winter wonderlands, skiing, photography, recreational-vehicle camping, train travel and road trips. Alberta doesn't have a provincial sales tax, making it an affordable shopping destination, Ady adds.
The country's natural and cultural destinations anticipate waves of Chinese visitors as new direct flights enhance ease of entry.
This volume contained twelve sheets, each 21 x 30 inches, which when laid together disclosed a large map of the world 4 feet 6 inches by 8 feet, which was designated by one of its own inscriptions a carta marina, dated on its own face 1516, and bore the name of Martin WaldseemA?ller as author. Henry Harrisse had made this conjecture in his Discovery of North America, which he published when the world was celebrating the 400th anniversary of the discovery of America.
As farmers usually mark off and divide their farms by boundary lines, so it has been our endeavor to mark the chief countries of the world by the emblems of their rulers. While certainly not the only large world map produced during this dynamic era of exploration, the Universalis Cosmographia was one of the first large engraved and printed maps to depict the recent Spanish and Portuguese discoveries of the Mundus Novus. Much of what Vespucci claimed to have seen on this and other voyages was later called into question by both his contemporaries and, later, by historians.
He wrote a letter describing his third voyage that was circulated throughout Europe as a tract called Mundus Novus [The New World], and later was included by WaldseemA?ller in his Cosmographia Introductio (the Solderini letter, see illustration below).
To avoid confusion hereafter the main portion of the map will be referred to as the a€?world mapa€?, designating the two small representations of the eastern and western hemispheres, placed above the world map, as the a€?insetsa€?. The term used by some of the map-makers, Land of Brasil, was confusing, for Brasil was the name of an imaginary island located somewhere in the Atlantic, according to popular belief, when there had been no thought of a continent. Walter Lud, Secretary to the Duke, and a wealthy man, had established a printing press at St. And at the mouth of the Orinoco River is the following: All this is sweet water, a statement based upon the well-known story of Columbusa€™ discovery of the fresh water of the Orinoco River (there is the same reference found on the Bartholomew Columbus map (#304) which has Mar de aqua dolce along the northeastern shores of South America). In other words, on his 1507 map, WaldseemA?ller unmistakably showed that in his own mind he ascribed proof of the existence of the new continent to the Portuguese voyage of Amerigo (the a€?thirda€? of the a€?four voyagesa€?), and that Columbus never detoured from his conviction that he had actually reached the shores of Asia (accepting the longitudinally shortened world of Ptolemy, et al), and that it was the acceptance of Amerigoa€™s proof of its existence more so than Amerigoa€™s supposed priority which caused him to name the new continent America.
However, as can be seen above on Plate I of the world map, the two continents are inexplicably separated by a hypothetical strait, connecting the two great oceans.
Contarini (#308) and Ruysch (#313) distinctly record their belief on their maps that the contemporary explorers had reached China, as does the Columbus map and the letter of Columbus explanatory of his fourth voyage record the same view (#303, #304). Curiously enough, though, while accepting the Portuguese delineation of the New World and South Africa, WaldseemA?ller reverts to the Ptolemaic conception of North Africa and Asia as refined and expressed by Martellus, rejecting the more accurate rendering of contemporaries such as Caveri.
A third instance, in the east, is the land of Cathay, and all of southern India beyond 180 degrees of longitude. The transmission of the Cantino-Caveri concept through the members of this notable group created one of the mainstreams of interest in the history of cartography. Thus this ingenious geographer not only preserved the geographical concepts of WaldseemA?ller, but also carried the representation of hemispheres a step further by the experimental construction in 1510 of the first known maps of the northern and southern hemispheres on a circumpolar projection. The world picture in the maps and globe of 1507 - the representation, that is, of an American landmass widely separated from the Asian coast with Japan lying between the two - had become the accepted canon in geographic theory and cartographic expression. The new picture compiled from these varied elements and presented to the literate world in printed form became a factor of the highest importance in developing a new concept of the earth and its divisions, rendering obsolete the Ptolemaic geography that had been accepted and revered since the second century of the Christian era. In 2005, this treasured map was inscribed in UNESCO's Memory of the World Register, and is the first document in the United States to be so honored. By the time we are adults it lingers vaguely in most of us, along with images of wave-tossed caravels and forests peopled with naked cannibals. They were of course preceded by the pre-historic Asian forebears of Native Americans, who migrated across some ice-bridge in the Bering Straits or over the stepping stones of the Aleutian Islands. The 1497 voyage by John Cabot to the Labrador coast of Newfoundland constitutes yet another discovery of the American mainland, which led to an early 20th-century account of the naming of America, recently revived, that claims the New World was named after an Englishman (Welshman, actually) called Richard Amerike.
To rob people or countries of their names is to set in motion a psychic disturbance which can in turn create a permanent crisis of identity.
Vespucci was probably in Seville in 1492 when Columbus was preparing for his first historic voyage, as well as in 1493 when Columbus returned. In 1508 the house appointed him piloto mayor (pilot major, or chief navigator), a post of great responsibility, which included the examination of the pilots' and ships' masters' licenses for voyages. Pohl's biography, Amerigo Vespucci, Pilot Major (1944), and GermA?n Arciniegas's Amerigo and the New World (1955; tr. Addressed to his patron, Lorenzo de' Medici, the Mundus Novus (New World) a€” the title alone revolutionizing the European conception of the cosmos a€” was translated from the Italian into Latin, and originally printed in Vienna; the other letter, addressed to the gonfaloniere (chief magistrate) of Florence, Piero Soderini, was a more elaborate work. Since Vespucci took part as navigator, he certainly cannot have been inexperienced; however, it seems unlikely that he had made a previous voyage, though this matter remains unresolved.
In all likelihood the ships took a quick run still farther south, along the coast of Patagonia to the Golfo de San JuliA n or beyond. The entire New World portion of the map roughly represents South America, and when later mapmakers added North America, they retained the original name; in 1538, the great geographer Gerard Mercator gave the name America to all of the western hemisphere on his mappamundi. In ignoring the possible intention of these words as explanation, most scholars have ignored the simple fact that place names usually originate informally in the spoken word and first circulate that way, not in the printed word.
Why did they ignore the common law in the naming of new lands: the use of the last names of explorers and the first names of royalty? It is almost certain that Columbus first heard the name of the mountains pronounced by a Carib.
Las Casas believed for a while that this must be Jamaica, but later decided it was the name for the mainland.
No proof exists to substantiate his claim that Cabot actually honored the Welshman by naming America after him.
It is also the first map to depict a separate and full Western Hemisphere and the first map to represent the Pacific Ocean as a separate body of water. The large map is an early sixteenth-century masterpiece, containing a full map of the world, two inset maps showing separately the Western and Eastern Hemispheres, illustrations of Ptolemy and Vespucci, images of the various winds, and extensive explanatory notes about selected regions of the world. In that work, Vespucci concluded that the lands reached by Columbus in 1492, and explored by Columbus and others over the ensuing two decades, was indeed a segment of the world, a new continent, unknown to Europe.
In the1516 Carta Marina, South America is called Terra Nova (New World), and North America is named Cuba, and is shown to be part of Asia. That portfolio contained not only the unique copy of the 1507 world map, but also a unique copy of WaldseemuI?ller's 1516 large wall map (the Carta Marina) and copies of SchoI?ner's terrestrial (1515) and celestial (1517) globe gores. In 1999, Prince Waldburg-Wolfegg notified the Library that the German national government and the Baden-WuI?rttemberg state government had granted permission for a limited export license. The map provides a meaningful link between our treasured late medieval-early Renaissance cartographic collection (which includes one of the richest holdings of Ptolemy atlases in the world) and the modem cartographic age unfolding as a result of the explorations of Columbus and other discoverers in the late fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries.
Major segments of this world map have not received the concentrated scrutiny that the American segments have received. WaldseemA?ller states in a legend on his marine chart of 1516 (#328.1) that he had printed his map of 1507 in one thousand copies, but only one of which is now known to exist.
WaldseemA?ller and Ringmann started work on a new edition of Ptolemy's Geographia that was to combine Ptolemaic maps with a new set of modern maps. By 1890, it had been acquired by the Prince of Liechtenstein and studies by Gallois dated it to 1507 following the realization that it was the lost globe described in the St. References to accurate factual information are principally taken from 19th century sources, much of the 20th century work on the subject being a reiteration of earlier work by Humboldt, Da€™Avezac-Macaya, Fischer, Varnhagen and Harisse. So it's a good match," he says, adding that the brand will be even more fashion focused in the future.
One of the biggest local apparel companies, Eve is now building a bigger platform for new fashion brands with a focus on e-commerce, the company says.
This year's prize went to Giorgio Marconi for founding the non-profit Marconi Foundation for Contemporary and Modern Art. Enjoy the Pots & Pints special - 00 yuan for a pot of mussels with your choice of sauces plus house-baked bread and a beer - all while enjoying what promises to be serious food porn. Yunnan has a long history of cooking with flowers, which can be made into desserts and soup, or be pan-fried and mixed with other ingredients. They were willing to return because of the memories of working with the Zhejiang Kunqu Opera Troupe," says Gu. But Zhuo threw it into a drawer and forgot about it.]]> Of the many such theaters in vibrant Beijing, Li Yangduo's is not the best located.
She is also considering national tours for some of her pieces and venturing into bigger and more commercially suitable works for larger venues. There were twelve other sheets of the same size in the book, making another world map but containing no authora€™s name or date. And (to begin with our own continent) in the middle of Europe we have placed the eagles of the Roman Empire (which rule the Kings of Europe) and with the key (which is the symbol of the Holy Father), we have enclosed almost the whole of Europe, which acknowledges the Roman Church.
In that letter, Vespucci proposed that the new lands ought to be called a a€?New World, because none of those countries were known to our ancestors .
In the western hemisphere inset the two Americas are shown as a continuous landmass firmly joined together by an isthmus, unlike the representation in the world map where the two continents are inexplicably separated by a strait. Die that he prepared the treatise Cosmographia Introductio, which presented this description of itself: An Introduction to Cosmography, together with some principles of Geometry necessary to the purpose. Both the inset and the world map illustrate another important feature, the representation of a great ocean even broader than the Atlantic, between the New World and Asia. However, this view is not supported on the WaldseemA?ller map either by the place-names found in the area of the new discoveries, or by the overall visual image presented by the placement of the new discoveries as totally separated by some distance from Asia. One difference being that the WaldseemA?ller map is basically a a€?land mapa€™ and the interiors are somewhat filled-in, whereas the Caveri chart is basically a portolano, or nautical chart, with little or no interior detail. This Ptolemaic basis results in giving the map an extremely exaggerated representation of the eastern extension of Asia; in fact, the landmass of the Old World, alone, extends through some 230 degrees of longitude. All these we have added to the earlier known places, so that those who are fond of things of this sort may gaze upon all that is known to us of the present day, and may approve of out painstaking labors. In 1512 appeared, far away in Cracow, Poland, in the Introductio in Ptholomei Cosmographia of Johannes de Stobnicza, the inset hemispheres of the 1507 map, copied and reprinted by the Polish scholar without reference to their source (#319). From it evolved, indeed, today's concept of the geographical divisions of the continents and islands, and of the great waters that form our earth. A black African discovery of America, it has been argued, took place around 3,000 years ago, and influenced the development of Mayan, Aztec, and Inca civilizations. The naming of America, then, becomes essential to a full understanding of our history and cultural values a€” ourselves a€” especially when considered in terms of the range of theories about the origin of the name. Subsequently, according to Marcou's account, Vespucci changed his Christian name from Alberico to Amerigo. Amalrich, which literally meant work ruler, or designator of tasks, might be freely translated as master workman.
Moreover, as a reflection of national pride, a theory native to Hungary argues that the European explorers of the New World (or their priests) named it after this popular saint, in the old tradition of bestowing place names in honor of saints. He also had to prepare the official map of newly discovered lands and of the routes to them (for the royal survey), interpreting and coordinating all data that the captains were obliged to furnish.
Harriet de OnA­s) are among the best efforts that dispel the shadows to which he was relegated by those who maligned his fame. In the voyage of 1499a€“1500, Vespucci would seem to have left Hojeda after reaching the coast of what is now Guyana (Carew's homeland). His published letters had fallen into the hands of these German scholars, among whom was the young cartographer Martin WaldseemA?ller. WaldseemA?ller's 1507 map, lost to scholars until 1901 when it was found in a German castle, is now reckoned to be the first to show the name, and the earliest record of its use.
Moreover, to read the passage in the Cosmographiae Introductio as explanation lends credence to the theory, argued by Carew, Marcou, and others, that the early European explorers called the new continent Amerrique or, perhaps, another name with a similar pronunciation.
Their ignoring it, Rea claims, further supports the idea that they were trying to force an explanation and that the only one they could think of was a Latinization of Vespucci's first name. Columbus, who met the Indians of this coast, presumably heard the name Amerrique from them: he was looking for gold and the Indians gave him some, telling him he could get more to the west in the mountains there. Amerrique, therefore, must derive from a Carib word, possibly one of the Carib culture words a€” not a word in the Mayan language, which was not spoken in Nicaragua, though it almost resembles in sound the Quiche Mayan iq' amaq'el meaning perpetual wind.
The purchase of the map concluded a nearly century long effort to secure for the Library of Congress that very special cartographic document revealing new European thinking about the world nearly 500 years ago.
Waldseemullera€™s 1507 map was a bold statement that rationalized the modern world in light of the exciting news arriving in Europe as a result of explorations sponsored by Spain, Portugal, and othersa€”not only across the Atlantic Ocean, but around the African coast and into the Indian Ocean.
Because of Vespucci's recognition of that startling revelation, he was thus honored by the use of his name for the newly discovered continent. Sometime later in history, the family of Prince Waldburg-Wolfegg acquired and retained Schoner's portfolio in their castle in Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany, where it remained unknown to scholars until the beginning of the twentieth century when its extraordinary contents were revealed. Having obtained this license, which allowed this German national treasure to come to the Library of Congress, the Prince pursued an agreement to sell the 1507 map to the Library.
Although it is likely that the simple globe gores, their model or a€?marquettea€™ of the New World view, would have been available with each issue of the Cosmographiae, the large 12 sheet wall-map, would have been too expensive to be sold as widely. They were provided with at least six printed editions and certainly several manuscript versions of the Geographia.
The notoriety and mystery that has surrounded both the globe, map and large wall-map has often concentrated on the naming of America, but in truth, given that they named South America after Vespucci, who had sailed furthest around it, it is not unreasonable.
Vera Sack found a third example of the gores inserted into a copy of Aristotle published in Freiburg in 1541. Classic traditional dishes available at lunch and dinner include steamed pot chicken, morel with wrinkled pepper, and wild broccoli with garlic. It made me realize that it's better to make something imperfect than something perfect," he says. But she has carved a niche with a repertory that can be called adventurous in this city where new productions are in the hundreds every year.
The greater part of Africa and a part of Asia we have distinguished by crescents, which are the emblems of the Sultan of Babylonia, the Lord of all Egypt, and of a part of Asia. To the east of the continent in the inset is the Atlantic, to the west is another great sea with the island Zipangri [Japan, Marco Poloa€™s Zipangu] nearly in the middle of it but closer to the American continent than to the Asian.
Mundus Novus [New World] and Terra Incognita [Unknown Land] were less real names than descriptions, though for many years these last two terms were quite prevalent on maps showing new discoveries. The duke and several professors in the college used this press in their geographical project. The decision to display a large expanse of ocean west of the New World discoveries was, of course, pure conjecture on the part of WaldseemA?ller since, in 1507, the discoveries of Balboa and Magellan were still a few years off in the future.
On the other hand, navigators unknown to modern historians, may have sailed along the coast of Florida at this time.
This lack of any substantive modification, of the Far East especially, is understandable in light of the scarcity of verifiable reports from this region and the focus of popular attention on both Africa and the New World. This one request we have to make, that those who are inexperienced and unacquainted with cosmography shall not condemn all this before they have learned that it will surely be clearer to them later on, when they have come to understand it.
To question the origin of America's name is to question the nature of not only our history lessons but our very identity as Americans. The records of Scandinavian expeditions to America are found in sagas a€” their historic cores encrusted with additions made by every storyteller who had ever repeated them. The two men eventually became friends; Columbus later wrote that he trusted Vespucci and held him in high esteem. Vespucci, who obtained Spanish citizenship, held this position until his death in Seville in 1512. Nonetheless, both biographers disagree about the authenticity of his two published letters, key documents in a dramatic controversy: Arciniegas accepts them as genuine, whereas Pohl rejects them as forgeries.
In the first series of documents, four voyages by Vespucci are described; in the second, only two.
Turning south, he is believed to have discovered the mouth of the Amazon River and explored the coast of present-day Brazil. This voyage is of fundamental importance in the history of geography in that Vespucci himself became convinced that the lands he had explored were not part of Asia but a New World.
Inspired to publish a new geography that would embrace the New World, the group collectively authored a revision of Ptolemy, which included a Latin translation of Vespucci's purported letter to Soderini, as well as a new map of the world drawn by WaldseemA?ller.
Hudd opens with a reference to Bristol's 1897 celebration of the 400th anniversary of the discovery of North America by John Cabot (Giovanni Caboto), the Italian navigator and explorer who had sailed for England, laying the groundwork for the later British claim to Canada.
The map must have created quite a stir in Europe, since its findings departed considerably from the accepted knowledge of the world at that time, which was based on the second century A.D. It is remarkable that our entire Western Hemisphere was thus named for a living person; Vespucci died in 1512. Yet, cartographic contributions by Johannes Schoner in 1515 and by Peter Apian in 1520 adopted the name America for the Western Hemisphere, and that name became part of accepted usage. The uncovering of the 1507 map in the Wolfegg Castle early last century is thought by many to have been one of the most extraordinary episodes in the history of cartographic scholarship. In late June 2001, Prince Waldburg-Wolfegg and the Library of Congress reached a final agreement on the sale of the map at the price of $10,000,000.
Waldseemuller recognized the transition taking place, as the title of his map notes and his placement prominently of images of Ptolemy and Vespucci, next to their worlds, at the top portion of the 1507 world map denotes.
In 1949, the Liechtenstein map collection was bought en bloc by the famous New York dealer H.P. The Aristotle formed part of the Grimmelshausen-Gymnasium library given to the Stadtbucherei Offenburg.
The part of Asia called Asia Minor we have surrounded with a saffron-colored cross joined to a branding iron, which is the symbol of the Sultans of the Turks, who rules Scythia this side of the Imaus, the highest mountains of Asia and Sarmatian Scythia. Westward from that island is to be recognized the eastern coast of Asia, showing Catay, or Cathay, and other identifiable names.
But now the fact that there was a new continent beyond the western ocean had become nearly common knowledge throughout Europe, and there was everywhere a subconscious demand for an adequate name, a universally acceptable name. In all its forms the underlying meaning was that of work; as for example, the word for work in Hebrew is amal, and in old Norse aml, the consonant sounds of which were retained in the verb moil.
In this respect, WaldseemA?ller may have been led by the maps of La Cosa, Caveri, and Cantino to believe that this was at least a possibility, for he depicts a small portion of the northern mainland extending from the narrow strait in Central America to just north of Terra Ulteria€? Incognita [Florida]. Not many interior details are shown to speak of, but a large group of natives is shown at the Cape, and above them, a large vignette of an elephant.
As can be seen, Terra Incognita replaces America and it is placed up against a frame that avoids any speculation as to the size or shape of the new continent(s). It appeared in feminine forms in Amelia and Emily; its masculine forms were Amery, Emeric, and Emery.
In the face of the spurious charges that he was an ignorant usurper of the merits of others, the fact that Spain entrusted him, a foreigner, with the office of pilot major certainly bolsters his defense. Until the 1930s the documents of the first series were considered from the point of view of the order of the four voyages.
On the way back, he reached Trinidad, sighting en route the mouth of the Orinoco River, and then made for Haiti. Unlike Columbus, who, to his death, clung to the idea that he had found the shores of Asia, Vespucci defined what had indeed been found a€” and for this he has been rightfully honored.
He clearly never tried to have the New World named after him or to belittle his friend Columbus. Very different spellings for the same Carib word reflect variants that sound little like each other; thus, the variants of the name Carib are Canibe, Galibi, Caniba, Canibal and Caliban. For his achievement Cabot received a handsome pension conferred upon him by the King, from the hands of the Collectors of Customs of the Port of Bristol. In 1479, four Bristol merchants received a royal charter to find another source of fish and trade. The map sheets have been maintained separated (not joined, with each of the large maps comprised of twelve separate sheets) and that is the probable reason why they survived. In late May 2003, the Library completed a successful campaign to purchase Waldseemullera€™s 1507 world map, after receiving substantial Congressional and private support to achieve the terms of the contract. 37 (1985), 30-53, is an extensive airing of the date of the printing of the 1507 world map and other Waldseemuller contributions. But how you shall understand the globe and the description of the whole world you will hereafter find out and read.a€? Harrisse thinks it probable that a real globe accompanied and was sold with this little volume.
Ringmann, a supporter of Vespucci, had already published in 1505 an edition of Vespuccia€™s Mundus Novus, a vivid description of the New World which became a bestseller around Europe. The mystery of the globe map, its definition of Florida (before it was discovered by the Spanish), the Pacific (before any man had officially seen it), the coast of South America (before anyone had officially sailed along it) and the use of the name The Western Ocean in the Pacific, all suggest that the Portuguese may have been more active west of the Tordesillas Treaty Line before 1505. Kraus, however the globe map was retained and offered by the Prince at a special auction at Parke-Bernet in New York on 24 May 1950. There was no question whatever in the mapmaker's mind, therefore, as to the separate identities of the American and Asian continents. Here the northern coast terminates abruptly with open sea beyond approximately 50 degrees, with Newfoundland being shown as an island far to the east. While the shape his Africa resembles reality more so than Martellusa€™, WaldseemA?ller extends the continent to beyond its actual 34 degrees South in a similarly misguided manner as Martellus with WaldseemA?llera€™s Africa reaching an inexplicable 50 degrees plus. Gone, however, is that mysterious strait that had separated North and South America on the 1507 map. But the question concerning the authenticity of these historic letters remains fundamental to the evaluation of Vespucci's achievement. According to the conflicting theory to which Pohl and other modern scholars subscribe, these documents should be regarded as the result of skillful, unauthorized manipulations by entrepreneurs, and the sole authentic papers would be the private letters, so that the verified voyages would be reduced to two. Vespucci thought he had sailed along the coast of the extreme easterly peninsula of Asia, where Ptolemy, the 2nd-century Greek geographer, believed the market of Cattigara to be; so he looked for the tip of this peninsula, calling it Cape Cattigara. Nonetheless, the name America spread throughout Europe and quickly established itself through sheer force of usage. One of these officials, the senior of the two, who was probably the person who handed over the money to the explorer, was named Richard Ameryk (also written Ap Meryke [Welsh] on one deed, and elsewhere written Amerycke) who seems to have been a leading citizen of Bristol at the time. Not until 1960 did someone find bills of trading records indicating that Richard Amerike was involved in this business.
To us, the 1507 map appears remarkably accurate; but to the world of the early sixteenth century it represented a considerable departure from accepted views regarding the composition of the world. The portfolio with its great treasure was uncovered and revealed to the world in 1901 by the Jesuit priest Josef Fischer, who was conducting research in the Waldburg collection. And from that fragile first glimpse of the world, so adequately described by WaldseemuI?ller in 1507, the Library of Congressa€™ cartographic resources provide the historical breadth and cartographic depth to fill in the geographic blanks left by those early cosmographers. Works that have increased our knowledge about WaldseemuI?ller and the group in Saint-DieI? include: Joseph Fischer and Franz R.
They exhibit the Old World, in the main, in accord with the Ptolemaic idea, and the New World with a close resemblance to the Caveri map record (#307), and that of WaldseemA?llera€™s world map of 1507. By April 1507, WaldseemA?ller and Ringmann had completed the booklet, Cosmographiae Introductio, to accompany the globe and wall-map.
Such information would have been kept secret by the Portuguese, and it is perhaps here in this globe that the secrets were first drawn up for a wider audience, particularly since Vespuccia€™s allegiance to Portugal changed when he became a Spanish citizen. The catalogue published a reserve of $50,000, but it failed to sell and was sold privately in 1954 to James Ford Bell for approximately $45,000. They were offered for sale in 1991, and purchased by the Bavarian State library in Munich for approximately 2 million DM (in excess of $1million). A red cross symbolizes Prester John (who rules both eastern and southern India and who resides in Biberith); and finally on the fourth division of the earth, discovered by the kings of Castile and Portugal, we have placed the emblems of those sovereigns. This interpretation is similar to both Cantino and Caveri and helped keep alive the possibility of a northern access to the as yet unnamed Pacific and, of course, the riches of far Cathay. Over to the left, on Tabula Terra Nove, apparently referring to the Pearl Coast and perhaps to Honduras, we read the surprising inscription: Hec terra cum adiacentib insulis inuenta est per Columbu ianuensem ex mandato Regis Castellae [This land with the adjacent islands was discovered by Columbus of Genoa by order of the King of Castile]. Its appearance undoubtedly ignited a debate in Europe regarding its portrayal of an unknown continent (unknown to Europe and others in the Eastern Hemisphere) between two huge bodies of water, the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, and separated from the classical world of Ptolemy, which had been confined to the continents of Europe, Africa, and Asia.
Shortly after the appearance of the 1507 world map by Waldseemuller, Vespucci was appointed the first Pilot Major in the Spanish House of Trade (the Casa de la ContratacioI?n) in Seville, and in that capacity was responsible for navigational issues and concerns of Spanish shipping to the new western possessions, across the Atlantic.
In 1903 an elaborate set of facsimiles of the 1507 and the 1516 maps accompanied by a scholarly study by Josef Fischer and Franz von Wieser appeared. The North American region is nameless, but the South American region bears conspicuously the name America. And what is to be borne in mind, we have marked with crosses shallow places in the sea where shipwreck may be feared.
Gemma Frisius and Sebastian Munster edited versions of the latter, so that the WaldseemA?ller type, or Lusitano-Germanic Group, held the field until the advent of Mercator, Ortelius, and the Dutch school of the mid-16th century. A statement that is in obvious conflict with the thrust of both the graphic productions of 1507 (map and globe) and the text of Introductio CosmographiA¦ referred to earlier - both prepared more or less as a testimony to Amerigo Vespucci. As soon as he was back in Spain, he equipped a fresh expedition with the aim of reaching Asia.
But the Spanish government did not welcome his proposals, and at the end of 1500 Vespucci went into the service of Portugal. The Cosmographiae provided an introduction to the new geography of the world as laid out in the globe and wall-map, and included a Latin translation of Vespuccia€™s four voyages. A  I learned something from every man I met or exchanged emails with, and Lou taught me a few words in Spanish.A  Ole! We can take a little walk, maybe get our feet wet, and then lie on a blanket and listen to the waves. I do the same thing myself, when the mood strikes.A  And how about this for being an "in tune with women" kinda guy?A  A few days after I had ordered myself 2 new green dresses and several in black to add to my collection from a mail order company named Newport News, he sent an email asking:A  "So, what are you wearing right now? A  For Christ Sake!!A  How about saving the Taxpayers a buck?A  In addition to that $6 million you've already blown by hovering and covering me, and scheduling a proper Face to Base meeting in your office; at my convenience? Dramatic, but no drama.A  Short black skirt, or long black dress?A  Heels or boots?A  Camo, or commando? Until then, as in the end,there is much more to come.A A A  Once Upon a Time, a little mushroom popped through the moss covered ground of the Southeast Alaska Rainforest. Grant, Attorney at Law, Juneau, AK From Wedding Bells to Tales to Tell: The Affidavit of Eric William Swanson, my former spouse AFFIDAVIT OF SHANNON MARIE MCCORMICK, My Former Best Friend THE AFFIDAVIT OF VALERIE BRITTINA ROSE, My daughter, aged 21 THE BEAGLE BRAYS!
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