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19.06.2014
In the early 1980s at annual meetings of the African Studies Association, specialists in Mande culture, history, and other studies found themselves repeatedly drawn together to discuss their work and to exchange ideas. On November 1, 1986 in Madison, Wisconsin, the informal Mande group was invited by Gerald Cashion to Suite 619 of the Concourse Hotel to discuss the possibility of forming an organization devoted to Mande studies.
On the occasions of several African Studies Association meetings beginning with the one in 1981, Tom Hale and Paul Stoller organized a series of roundtable discussions on topics related to cultures of the Middle Niger River.
Kathryn Green consented to take minutes of the meeting, thus becoming the first MANSA secretary.
In 1988 MANSA was contacted by Carlos Lopes who was then Director of INEP, the largest and most active research institute in Guinea-Bissau. Second International Conference on Mande Studies: Bamako,Mali 1993a€?Planning what would be the second international conference on Mande studies (though the first to be conceived by MANSA), the principal organizer Kathryn Green and other participants were clear in their determination that it should be held on African soil in order to maximize the participation of African colleagues.
With its thirty-three papers presented on eight panels, the Bamako conference was modest compared to the one at SOAS twenty-one years earlier. Co-organized by Jan Jansen and David Conrad, the Leiden conference received substantial support from Germany's Bremer Stiftung fA?r Geschichte and several institutions of The Netherlands: the Research School CNWS, the Research School CERES, the African Studies Centre, the Rijks Museum voor Volkenkunde, and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, all of whom contributed generously in providing necessary funding, personnel and facilities. The Fourth International Conference on Mande Studies was held at the Senegambia Beach Hotel in Serrekunda, The Gambia, 13-17 June, 1998. The conference Keynote Speaker was Sidia Jatta, Gambian National Assembly MP for Wulli, Upper River Division (for the text of his speech see MANSA Newsletter 38, 1998: 7-8). The Sixth International Conference on Mande Studies was held in Conakry and Kankan, Guinea June 20-26, 2005. The Conakry segment co-organized by Mohamed SaA?dou N'Daou, and David Conrad took place at the Novotel, 20-22 June, and the opening session featured Djibril Tamsir Niane as the keynote speaker. MANSA Newsletter: The organization's newsletter reached its fifty-eighth issue in the spring of 2006.
At the annual meetings of the African Studies Association in Chicago (1988) and Atlanta (1989), several panels addressed issues concerning the roles of artisans and oral traditionists in the Mande social system. Among the themes engaging panelists at the Third International Conference on Mande Studies in Leiden were matters involving the consequences of intense step-brother rivalry in Mande society known as fadenya. Also featured at the Leiden conference was a round-table organized by the anthropological team of Mirjam de Bruijn and Han van Dijk. Ralph Austen's a€?Sunjata Epic Conferencea€? at Northwestern University in 1992 focused on the epic tradition that describes legendary people and events of the Mali empire, providing a centuries-old framework for Mande identity and cultural values. Like any large, extended family, MANSA has suffered its share of tragedy, periodically losing some of its members to accident, illness, and the passage of time. The Institut des Sciences Humaines (ISH) has long played an important role in the careers of many scholars of the Mande world, providing letters of invitation, research authorization, field assistance, and collaboration with Malian colleagues. The West African Research Association (WARA) was founded in 1989 for the purpose of promoting scholarly exchange and collaboration between American and West African researchers. In the summers of 1991 and 1992 the Mande Studies Association began establishing cordial and productive relations with faculty and staff at the universities of Conakry and Kankan, and at the National Archives in Conakry. Research by MANSA members in The Gambia is authorized and expedited by the National Council for Arts and Culture in Banjul. Second International Conference on Mande Studies: Bamako,Mali 1993Planning what would be the second international conference on Mande studies (though the first to be conceived by MANSA), the principal organizer Kathryn Green and other participants were clear in their determination that it should be held on African soil in order to maximize the participation of African colleagues.
In Bamako, one advantage of holding an international conference on West African soil proved to be the participation of doctoral students from Europe and the United States who happened to be doingA A  research in Mali at the right time. The 1995 conference at Leiden was such a success that in June of the same year in London, colleagues from SOAS were tentatively suggesting to the MANSA President several ideas for another international conference, this time to mark the twenty-fifth anniversary of the 1972 Conference on Manding Studies (MANSA Newsletter 28, 1995: 2).
The Fifth International Conference on Mande Studies was held at the Rijksmuseum voor Volkenkunde in Leiden, The Netherlands, 17-21 June, 2002. The American and French political wars of the late 18th century, while on the surface appearing to be very similar, were, in fact, quite opposite in their foundations, processes used to achieve freedoms, and in their ultimate consequences. The French saw the Americans as being willing to put the dreams of the philosophes into practice and gave them hope to do the same in France. The French Revolution (1789-1815) looked to the secular theories of the Enlightenment for its guidance and legitimacy. France suffered through a century of turmoil, revolutions, and political upheaval, in contrast to the stable government and society that was established in the United States.
The absolutism of the kings Louis XIV, XV, and XVI, the central figures of the French monarchy leading up to the French Revolution, led to the events that precipitated the Revolution that began in 1789.
The numerous and extensive wars conducted under Louis XIV (ruled 1643-1715) in the previous century had weakened the economy of the nation. In similar fashion, Louis XV took the throne when he was five years old (ruled 1714-1774), succeeding in 1715 his great-grandfather, Louis XIV. Increasingly the nationa€™s economy was built upon borrowed money obtained from loans granted by private financiers. From the reign of Louis XIII and his primary counselor, Cardinal Richelieu, continuing through the reign of Louis XIV and his finance minister, Colbert, a severe absolutism controlled the nation. In addition, the growing merchant and middle classes resented being excluded from participation in government, and during the reign of Louis XVI (picture right) there was no apparent change in sight. Increasingly the monarchy lost its charm, sense of loyalty, and honor among the French people. As an indication of how little Louis XVI understood his nation and how unaware he was of the dynamics sweeping France, in 1788, when members of Parliament complained of his dictatorial ways, he issued the Lamoignon Edict, abolishing the power of parliament.
Marie Antoinette was an Austrian princess, a nation resented and disliked by the i??French from the days of the anti-Austrian French foreign policy devised by Richelieu and promoted by Louis XIV. Essays and books by Descartes, Montesquieu, Rousseau, Voltaire and others were more widely read in France than in any other place in Europe (see Unit 20). The philosophesa€™ general disdain for the Roman Catholic Church resulted in a widespread suspicion of the clergy. This led to a requirement that all Catholic clergy sign an oath of loyalty to France (Civil Constitution of the Clergy, 1790) or be expelled from the country. The peasants were growing more aware of and were less content to remain in their disenfranchised state at the bottom of society. The third estate was comprised of the middle class (Bourgeoisie): merchants, lawyers, physicians, government workers, and everyone else in society, including the peasants. The social and economic gap between the peasants the land owning nobility, including the monarchy, grew greater. In lean years 90% of the peasants lived below subsistence levels and were hardly able to survive.
10,000 female market workers (a€?the Paris fish market womena€?) marched the thirty-five miles from Paris to Versailles in 1788 to protest the high cost of bread. Versailles had first been the site of a hunting lodge built by Louis XIV about ten miles to the north of Paris.
Eventually Louis XIV built a huge palace at Versailles and transferred the seat of government from Paris to Versailles. The French nobility resided in and around Versailles in order to be found daily in the French court. Riots had broken out in Paris over economic failures, the escalating price of bread, and the fear and frustration resulting from the two-year famine in many areas of France. The Bastille, an ancient prison now turned into a military armory, in 1789 was stormed by Parisians seeking guns and ammunition for their protests. To appease the growing unrest and to convince them, however, that new and higher taxes were necessary to address the nationa€™s problems, Louis XVI, called into session the Assembly of the Notables.This was a weak ruse by the king to gain their support for higher taxes. The weak king, counseled by strong-willed Maria who held to a strict absolutism for the monarchy, refused to share government with the nobles. The Assembly then demanded that Louis call into Session the Paris Parlement, which had not met since 1614! In desperation, Louis then called into session the Estates General, composed of representatives from each of the Three Estates. In frustration and anger, the Third Estate walked out of the meetings and refused to reassemble with the other two estates. When the third estates walked out, the king arranged to have the meeting place conveniently shut down a€?for repairs.a€? The third estate then took over the kinga€™s indoor tennis courts and held their own assembly, which became known as the Tennis Court Assembly. The nobility was abolished and a constitution was drawn up which would maintain a constitutional monarchy, with a strong Assembly and a weak monarch. Promoted the concept of a free market economy and abolished the former mercantilism of the prior kings. It approved and adopted the Declaration of the Rights of Man which featured for all French a€?liberty, equality, property, security, and resistance to oppressiona€?. Thomas Paine, author of the pro-independence piece, Common Sense, during the American War for Independence, had left America for France. The National Assembly dissolved itself in 1791 in favor of a new Legislative Assembly with representatives elected by the people.
The king and queen were brought to Paris and placed under palace arrest so that the French people could a€?keep their eye on them.a€? In 1791 Marie had attempted a secret flight from the country with her husband and children through a secret plan arranged with her brother, Emperor Joseph of Austrian. By Spring 1792 three things were evident: (1) attempts to fashion a constitutional monarchy under Louis had failed, (2) civil unrest was everywhere in France, and (3) the Revolution was going badly. Counter-revolutionaries in France in Austria were at work to restore an absolute monarchy under Louis and had the financial and military support of Leopold II, emperor of the Holy Roman Empire in Vienna.
Furthermore, there was wide-spread speculation that the king, himself, was on the side of the Austrian and Prussian armies that were driving from the north towards Paris. The National Convention, now controlled by the more radical members, viewed King Louis XVI as an enemy of the state, who would be, if he continued to live, even abroad, as a catalyst for enemies of the revolution. On January 20, 1793 the National Convention condemned Louis to death and he was i??executed the next day.
His wife, Marie Antoinette, during a purge of other suspicioned enemies of the revolution, was executed in October 1793, nine months after the execution of her husband.
Marie Antoinette gave birth to four children.A daughter died in infancy, a son died at age seven of tuberculosis, a daughter survived and was sent to Austria in a prisoner exchange, and the heir to the throne, Louis-Charles, suffered a horrible death. After his fathera€™s execution, Louis-Charles, born in 1785, stayed with his mother in prison. By June 1793 the crowds in the street, impatient with what they perceived to be the slow progress of the National Convention in pushing forward a radical reform, rioted.
In September 1773 the street crowds again rioted and demanded that even terror be used to bring about the social, political, and economic revolution that the street crowds envisioned.
Maximillien Robespierre had long argued for the abolishment of the monarchy, promoted the ideas of an assembly directly accountable to the people, promoted the end to the death penalty, and opposed war with Austria. Although initially an idealist committed to the rights of man as elaborated in the writings of the philosophes in the Enlightenment, Robespierre resorted to terror to maintain the course and direction of the revolution. In May 1794 Robespierre supported a decree that established a new national religion in France, the Cult of the Supreme Being. The French calendar was changed to include a new ten-day week in order to abolish from the minds of the nation a€?Sundaya€? or the Christian a€?first day of the weeka€? in order to eliminate all references to Christ and the Resurrection. The French also devised a new clock which measured not a 24-hour day but a 10-hour day, each hour divided into 100 minutes and each minute containing 100 seconds, with exactly 100,000 seconds per day. By 1794 most French churches were closed, 30,000 priests were either deported, killed, or shipped as prisoners to French Guiana, and no priests remained to conduct the sacraments. Finally, the treachery and evident emotional and mental imbalance of Robespierre was so apparent and the Reign of Terror so horrendous, that Robespierre himself was condemned to death. With the death of Robespierre, the nation was governed by a new team of leaders, The Directory. Napoleon ordered his cannons to fire into the protesters and quickly brought order to the streets of Paris. Considered to be one of the great generals and military strategists in history, Napoleon Napoleon defeated the army of Austria and proceeded to conquer Italy. Napoleon secretly had the desire to become the next Alexander the Great and saw Egypt as the first step towards establishing a new empire. Within a few short years the goal for a free France ruled by a representative government would again slip into absolutism. A French hegemony existed in Europe almost to the very eve of 1789.A  A hegemony is the strong influence of a people, culture, or nation over others.
Marie Antoinette was an Austrian princess, a nation resented and disliked by the French from the days of the anti-Austrian French foreign policy devised by Richelieu and promoted by Louis XIV.
TheA  peasants were growing more aware of and were less content to remain in their disenfranchised state at the bottom of society.
Versailles had first been the site of a hunting lodge built by Louis XIV about ten miles to the northA  of Paris. 1.The nobility was abolished and a constitution was drawn up which would maintain a constitutional monarchy, with a strong Assembly and a weak monarch. 1.Promoted the concept of a free market economy and abolished the former mercantilism of the prior kings. 1.It approved and adopted the Declaration of the Rights of Man which featured for all French a€?liberty, equality, property, security, and resistance to oppressiona€?. 1.The National Assembly dissolved itself in 1791 in favor of a new Legislative Assembly with representatives elected by the people.
On January 20, 1793A  the National Convention condemned Louis to death and he was executed the next day. Increasingly he became more radical, sought to eliminate all opposition to his leadership and ideas. A ghost gets angry at an impolite ghosthunter, supernatural dreams, both good and bad, plus more on this edition of Campfire! Casper is an online retailer of premium mattresses for a fraction of the price because everyone deserves a great night’s sleep.
Author Mitch Horowitz joins us to talk about the occult history of America on this edition of The Paranormal Podcast. CLICK HERE to get your first month of membership in my Paranormal Plus Club for only $3.95! Jay Weidner joins us to discuss his theory that legendary filmmaker Stanley Kubrick helped NASA fake the Apollo 11 moon landing.
From our career paths to our love lives to whether or not we become parents, we wonder how much of it is a result of one choice atop another choice atop another…or if we had no choice in any of it at all. I’ve been thinking about this subject a lot lately, recently feeling this pull towards certain people and situations that genuinely seem as though they were “meant to be,” all the while pondering with some frustration other situations I cannot seem to fix or change. The word “destiny” comes from the Middle English “destinee,” and simply refers to a predetermined course of events that are the result of an irresistible power or agency.
In order for a life to be predestined, it had to be predetermined, and this is where science, philosophers and religious and spiritual leaders have long struggled to explain exactly who, or what, predetermined it.
While scientists might say it was just random, the result of the Big Bang and its resultant physical laws that fell into place by some kind of brilliant accident, philosophers and religious thinkers sensed that there was something that started the whole chain of cause and effect that laid down the path of each human life, maybe even the earth itself. This sounds just like the Judeo-Christian concepts of reap what you sow and do unto others.
Yet over thousands of years, we have battled with the sense that both destiny and free will or choice play a huge role in our lives, and certainly in how the world around us came to be.
The Big Bang is often referred to as the starting point of our universe (we won’t even get into what came before it, or what first cause “caused” the Big Bang!), from which all the forces, laws and matter and form and energy and life came into existence. But there are those scientists who believe that the amazing sophistication and intricacies of how life came to be simply could not have been a lucky accident of chemicals and particles and gasses and heat and matter and energy all being in the right place at the right time, and in just the right amounts.
But if this is how we are creating our reality, as the popular Law of Attraction teachings tell us, with focus and intention and observing things into being, then how could anything be predetermined? Millions of people visit astrologers, palm readers, tarot readers, even love and relationship coaches wanting to know their destinies.
Love coaches will tell you that there are many soul mates out there for you, and not just The One, and that there might be someone destined for you in a sense that they will be the best fit, but they won’t be the only best fit out of billions of people on the planet.
But our main concern is with our own lives, more than how they play out in the natural world. Yet if we are honest with ourselves, many of us do feel called, as if we have a path, or a destiny, that we are moving towards. Much of investigating the paranormal involves looking at external effects and influences without any general understanding of the cause, or the forces behind them. A young boy is saved by a guardian angel, a deceased relative pays a visit and more on this edition of Campfire! Bender was not the first person to encounter one of the creepy MIB, but there’s no denying it was thanks to him that the enigmatic issue became known widely. A resident of Bridgeport, Connecticut, Bender was not just a devotee of all-things ufological. As Bender’s interest in UFOs expanded, he established his own journal – Space Review – which attracted a sizeable, worldwide audience.
Gray Barker – an author and publisher on matters relative to UFOs – was an acquaintance of Bender and ultimately became a friend. The purpose of this article is not to delve into all of the intricacies of the Bender controversy, but to demonstrate the incredible extent to which Bender’s account influenced the world of entertainment. The Invaders is hardly a solitary example of how the Men in Black have infected the world of on-screen entertainment.
Then, there’s the equally popular and successful Matrix movies, starring Keanu Reeves, Carrie-Anne Moss, and Laurence Fishbourne. There are also “The Observers” from Fringe, a sci-fi-themed show that ran on Fox from 2008 to 2013. In my view, and based upon my lengthy studies of the MIB phenomenon, the Strangers of Dark City are the closest fictional things to the real Men in Black. Dark City, Men in Black, The Matrix, The Invaders, and Fringe – and more – all owe a debt of gratitude to Albert Bender. One of the most prolific Fortean writers on the planet, Nick Redfern is the author of many books, including Men in Black, Chupacabra Road Trip, and The Bigfoot Book. The legendary Brad Steiger joins us to talk about all things paranormal including his latest work. Micah & Jim talk about a mysterious UFO sighting by commercial pilots, updates on the Loch Ness Monster, reincarnation, the universe as a simulation and more on this edition of The Paranormal Report!
On December 5th, 1945, five US Navy bomber planes were making their way over the waters of the Atlantic during a training mission. This is one of many tales surrounding the Bermuda Triangle, an extremely enigmatic area of the Atlantic Ocean, that when viewed from above, creates the shape of a triangle. While these theories all harbor serious debate and controversy, the mystery remains as to why this certain area seems so active with unexplainable disappearances. Stretching from Ludington, MI to Benton Harbor, MI, and then all the way to Manitowoc, Wisconsin, this triangular portion of Lake Michigan has inspired many anomalous events. The legend behind this mysterious triangle began to spread, and more and more stories began to be told of tragic accidents and unexplained phenomena surrounding the waters. The Burle Triangle is comprised of Mount Pilat, Mount Mezenc, and the small town of Le Puy, in France. One of the more peculiar aspects of many of these plane crashed were that of UFO sightings in the areas making up the triangle.
Whatever was happening over the skies of the Burle Triangle, it seemed that some sort of aerial phenomena didn’t want the planes there. Similar to the Bermuda Triangle, this area of water is located in the Philippine Sea off China’s eastern coast. These disappearances led the Japanese government to acknowledge the area as a danger zone and to send a team of scientists to study the triangle. Situated in southeastern Massachusetts, the town of Bridgewater sits smack dab in the center of an area whose points stretch from the neighboring towns of Abington, Freetown, and Rehoboth. Other areas of the Bridgewater Triangle have boasted high amounts of UFO activity throughout the years, including one in 1760 that could possibly be considered one of the first recorded UFO reports in history. Perhaps one of the more terrifying aspects of the Bridgewater Triangle were reports of cattle mutilations in the forested areas. While some of the activity in the Bridgewater Triangle has been documented, not all of it can be substantiated.
While no singular answer can explain the plethora of mysteries in each and every one of these areas, it is interesting to note that they all seem to run the sharp three lined path of a triangle. According to western culture, the orientation of a triangle can have powerful meaning as well. One could speculate endlessly as to why such mysterious and terrifying things have happened at each and every one of these locations. An entity seems to possess a woman, loved ones come through to their loved ones left behind, angel stories and more on this edition of Campfire. Each piece of SCOTTeVEST clothing is engineered with a TON of pockets to hold all of your gadgets and gizmos…everything from a memory card to a tablet!
A strange ball of light, a haunted childhood home, special messages from passed loved ones and a story revolving around a beloved pet are all part of this week’s Campfire! Since the years following World War II, “flying saucer” has been widely recognized as a household term. Descriptions of UFOs vary greatly enough, in fact, that no single explanation has ever been offered that accounts for all of the kinds of aerial phenomena observed over the decades. Among these are reports of the so-called “flying triangles”, objects which are typically described as large, silent, slow-moving triangular objects which are dark enough in color to nearly blend in against the night sky, save only for lighted portions which are often reported at the corners, as well as the center of the base of the objects.
Clearly, the FAS entry excerpted above does appear to reference the giant triangular UFOs which have risen to prominence over last few decades. Indeed, many have asserted that these strange aircraft are the result of some secretive U.S. Whatever their origins, as stated previously the “flying triangles” are indeed unique among UFO reports for the consistency they provide.
The first of these, which I collected from a South Carolina resident named “Aaron”, occurred in October 1998, just outside the town of Liberty, South Carolina. As I opened the door to get out of the car, I looked up, and at around a 45 degree angle to my line of sight was a black triangular object. At the time, I was 17 years old and thought that I had witnessed something extraterrestrial. I grew up in Enon and as a child there were B52s at this airstrip where the triangle was headed. The witnesses’s description that the object appeared to move more slowly than he did while traveling by car is not unusual, per se, at least as it relates to flying triangle reports. I’m hoping that one day soon the pentagon will take the wraps off these things so I can be vindicated in the eyes of my family. Note here the recurring sense the witness expresses that these aircraft are some variety of military aircraft, rather than being of exotic origins.


A final report for consideration here was supplied to me by a woman who, along with her late husband, observed a large, black triangular craft as it passed above them at low altitude in August, 2002. The witness noted that the object moved perfectly silently, and that she had been given the impression that she and her husband observed it for much longer than they realized, as it was nearly 2:30 AM when they returned indoors. Micah Hanks is a writer, podcaster, and researcher whose interests include history, science, current events, cultural studies, technology, business, philosophy, unexplained phenomena, and ways the future of humankind may be influenced by science and innovation in the coming decades. One of the many curious aspects of the UFO phenomenon is that relative to so-called “waves” and “flaps.” Over the years, there have been more than a few occasions upon which UFOs have intruded into our airspace to a significant degree. Even a cursory examination of the history of the UFO phenomenon demonstrates that sightings of so-called “black helicopters,” “phantom helicopters,” and even “silent helicopters” abound. Official documentation on the encounters has surfaced from the Air Force, the FBI, and the North American Air Defense Command (NORAD).
The odd saga proceeded to get even stranger: “…personnel reported the object as low as 200 ft. Of particular note is Unidentified Helicopter Sighted at Low Level Over Loring AFB, a file that adds further weight to the theory that there had been major, serious invasions of secure facilities – facilities that appeared to be not so secure, after all.
A NORAD document of November 11 provides the following, which demonstrates even more high-strangeness: “This morning, 11 Nov 75, CFS Falconbridge reported search and height finder radar paints on an object up to 30 nautical miles south of the site ranging in altitude from 26,000 to 72,000 feet.
Several years of informal gatherings took place in hotels and restaurants in such cities as Washington DC, New Orleans and Los Angeles. Barbara Frank and others recalled that in recent years Marie Perinbam had been a catalyst of the group, enthusiastically organizing informal gatherings (including a particularly boisterous one at a restaurant in New Orleans), so Perinbam was elected vice-president in absentia. Some of our members' relations with ISH pre-date MANSA's existence by many years, when the institute was under the direction of Mamadou Sarr and the offices were located in one of the buildings near the Place de l'Independence.
In 1992 the Senegalese government provided a site for the establishment of the association's West African Research Center (WARC), in Dakar. On June 21 shortly after arriving in Dakar to attend the conference, MANSA Vice-President B. The frequency of visits and cooperative projects markedly increased after 1992 with the comings and goings of a series of researchers on Fulbright fellowships. Lopes' initiative led to an informal affiliation between INEP and the Mande Studies Association (MANSA Newsletter 5, 1988: 1). The idea was well-received, and at the 1989 meeting in Atlanta, MANSA members began to talk about organizing an international conference. After nearly four years of concerted effort by MANSA members in the United States and Mali, the Second International Conference on Mande Studies was finally held at the Islamic Cultural Center in Bamako, 15-19 March, 1993. African colleagues residing in West AfricaA  were actively involved, with eight of the papers being presented by Malians and one from CA?te d'Ivoire. One result of the attendance by several European students was that in the next two years MANSA received an infusion of new energy from a surprisingly large and active group of scholars in The Netherlands.
In two days of sessions at the university, twenty-four papers were presented on eight panels, bringing the total for the entire conference to fifty-three papers on seventeen panels. Desiring to increase the accuracy of perspectives on relations between Mande and Fulbe peoples, de Bruijn and van Dijk addressed a topic that had already engaged the interest of MANSA members as early as their fourth annual meeting (Atlanta, 1989). Marie Nathalie LeBlanc, a€?Youth, Islam and Changing Identities in Bouake, Cote d'Ivoire.a€? Department of Anthropology. Edda Fields, a€?Rice Farmers in the Rio Nunez Region: A Social History of Agricultural Technology and Identity in Coastal Guinea, ca.
In order to maintain this status, one-third of MANSA's membership must be members of the ASA. Two key figures at the University of Conakry have been Mamadou Kodiougou Diallo, Vice-Recteur de la Recherche Scientifique and N'Fanly Kouyate, Directeur des Relations Exterieures.
At the next MANSA meeting (Orlando, 1995), members were open to the idea of another international meeting and to commemorating the SOAS conference, but they expressed the preference to meet again on African soil. Papers presented at ASA meetings, international conferences on Mande studies, and many other conferences the world over, eventually appear as articles in a wide range of scholarly journals.
The French Revolution ultimately enthroned, at one point, the Goddess of Reason as its central cult. The persecution of French Protestants forced most of their capable leaders to flee France, to the benefit of Holland, England, and the United States where they found new homes. French nobles had revolted against the Bourbon royal family and the early childhood of Louis was spent with his mother in hiding. And the French military effort under Louis XVI to assist the American colonists gain their independence from Great Britain virtually bankrupted France.
Louis XIV established one of the first secret service agencies ini?? Europe in order to stamp out dissent.
He dealt with dissenters harshly by means of lettres de caches (indefinite imprisonment without benefit of official charges, trial, or jury -- or the total absence of the English habeas corpus). She was the daughter of Maria Theresa of Austria, Marie Antoinette married Louis at age 15 and by the age of 20 was queen of France.
Their works championed social justice and participatory government and their ideas stirred up the middle and merchant classes to an intoxicating quest for some form of democracy. The big question asked whether the Roman clergy was loyal to France and the French Church or were they loyal to the pope in Rome? 50% of the clergy refused to sign the oath of loyalty, including the majority of the local, village priests. They owned 20% of the land, were 2-3% of the population, had access to the kinga€™s court, participated in government, and paid no taxes. They made up 96-97% or the population, but owned only 40% of the land, AND PAID ALL OF THE TAXES! But a severe drought in the spring of 1788 and a devastating hail storm in July ruined the wheat harvest.
The march turned into an ugly protest and the women armed with knives, shovels, and rakes, stormed Versailles seeking the hated queen.
It was soon discovered, however, that his trips to Versailles were not for the purpose primarily of hunting but for secret rendezvous with his mistress. It was considered an architectural masterpiece and during the period of the French hegemony was copied in many European capitols. One of the great honors of a nobleman during the reign of Louis XIV was to assist him to dress and to empty his chamber pot (the kinga€™s a€?toileta€?).
The French lost their reverence for the monarchy, gained new understandings of the worth and the basic rights of the individual in a more just society.
Hearing of the success of the Parisians in this takeover, the peasants revolted against the land owning nobility, destroyed fences, records of land ownership, seized manors, and killed many of the nobility. It did not work, however, because his new proposal included the taxation of the nobility, something from which they had traditionally been exempted! Out of fear of a major uprising, Louis called into session the Paris Parlement in 1789, made up of representatives from the 13 French provinces. The Estates General was in actuality the Parlement which had not been assembled since 1614. Their appeal for a€?one person one votea€? was rejected by the first and second estates because the representatives of the third estate represented 94% of the people, and the first and second estates were not about to give up their traditional power. The Communes invited representatives from the First and Second Estates to join them and to boycott the Estates General. They were captured at the border by French soldiers and taken back to Paris as virtual prisoners.
The National Assembly abolished the monarchy, the French Republic was proclaimed, Increased in-fighting, civil war, regional disputes, and the eventual lack of an emerging strong leadership, opened the door for a small group of representatives, the Committee of Public Safety, to take control of the Assembly.
In response, Revolutionary leaders on the other side declared war in April 1792 against the Holy Roman Empire with the hope that war against Austria and the Empire would unite France in a new national spirit.
In August 1792 a battle between revolutionaries and monarchists was fought at the royal palace in Paris and the monarchy was overthrown.
He was tried for crimes against the people and the National Convention declared France a Republic. The Committee of Public Safety passed the Law of Suspects, giving it broad freedom to seize and arrest anyone suspected to be an anti-revolutionary.
In the 1793-1796 civil war in western France between conservatives opposed to the excesses of the revolution and revolutionaries, it is estimated that up to 450,000 combatants from both sides died. He lead one of two major political factions in the National Assembly, the Mountain (so-called because they sat to the rear of the Assembly in rows higher up from the floor level), which was the more radical of the two. He purged the Committee of all opposition and conducted the execution of hundreds of remaining noble families. The house arrest of the king was the final sign on the wall of their own future if they stayed in France. In fact, each of the new months did not contain actual a€?weeksa€? but three decades of ten days each.The names of the months were also changed.
A grateful Directory rewarded Napoleon and approved his plan to build a stong military with the goal of invading Italy and Austria, Francea€™s two hated enemies--Austria because of its constant threats of invasion and Italy because of the Popea€™s constant attempts to interfere in Francea€™s politics. Instead, he convinced the Directory to allow him to invade Egypt as a first step to conquering India, as an attempt to break the financial and political empire of England which occupied both India and Egypt in its vast British Empire.
The French Revolution ultimately enthroned, at one point,A  the Goddess of Reason as its central cult. Styles of dress, architecture, literature, music, theater, vocabulary, technology are all avenues through which a hegemony develops. And the French military effort under Louis XVIA  to assist the American colonists gain their independence from Great Britain virtually bankrupted France. Louis XIV established one of the first secret service agencies in Europe in order to stamp out dissent.
Out of fear of a major uprising, Louis called into session the ParisA  Parlement in 1789, made up of representatives from the 13 French provinces. InA  August 1792 a battle between revolutionaries and monarchists was fought at the royal palace in Paris and the monarchy was overthrown. The event itself was turned into a major display and triumph for the Revolution.A  1,200 armed horsemen accompanied him from the prison to the place of execution, two hours away, with crowds lining the route. Social media and self-help gurus bombard us with contradictory claims that our lives are pre-destined, that Fate deals us the cards we will play our entire lives with, that whatever happens, happens for a reason. There are even goddesses that are responsible for giving out good fortune, such as the Greek goddess Tyche, and the Roman Fortuna, ruling out any role that choice might play in finding and keeping wealth, success and happiness.
This beginning of the chain is known as “first cause,” and without knowing first cause, we simply don’t know who or what destined us to our roles in life.
If each moment of our future, and the future of everyone around us, were already planned to the minutiae, then would there even be a purpose to life at all? Our religions are filled with stories and proverbs and quotes about having a destined role or a predetermined fate, such as Christ’s destiny to be betrayed by Judas. If we look at our own bodies, we can easily see that we have a genetic blueprint by which we became blond or brunette, green-eyed or brown-eyed, short or tall, big boned or small boned, and any other physical characteristics that were handed to us by our parents and their parents and their parents.
It was perhaps a blueprint of sorts, and yet many scientists will say that it did not have any kind of intelligent design behind it.
To these men and women of science, there indeed seems to be a destiny that started and directs the cosmos, and that the first cause behind it appears to have had some type of intelligence, though not necessarily human.
At the level of the quantum, we are told that particles exist in a suspended state both as particle and waveform, until they are observed and their wave function collapses, thus fixing the particle into a position or outcome. But the truth is, there are forces at play in our lives that are unseen except in the effects and influences we can observe. We have yet to be able to prove that ghosts are real, aliens exist or cryptids roam the backwoods. The same goes for whether our own lives are lived in a way that offer no choice, leading to sense of defeat at the “fixed” nature of it all…or whether we feel like the whole dang world is a peach tree of choices just ripe for the picking. Jones is the author of several books about the paranormal, metaphysics, and cutting-edge science (many coauthored with Larry Flaxman), including PSIence, The Deja vu Enigma, Destiny vs. When the “modern era” of Ufology kicked off in June 1947 – thanks to the famous encounter of Kenneth Arnold at Mt. He was also heavily involved in – and interested in – all manner of paranormal, supernatural, and occult phenomena. When he learned that Bender’s exit from Ufology was prompted by a series of chilling, intimidating visits from a trio of ghoulish men dressed in black – and with nothing less than glowing eyes and sporting fedoras – Barker knew this was a story that had to be told. Five years after Flying Saucers and the Three Men was published, ABC aired a short-lived, but well-remembered show called The Invaders.
In the show, the Observers dress in dark suits, wear equally dark fedoras and skinny black ties, and have pale skin and emotionless faces and characters. Had it not been for that strange and sinister series of encounters in Bender’s “Chamber of Horrors” in the early 1950s, it’s highly unlikely any of those shows and movies would have turned out the way they did. Lieutenant Charles Taylor was in constant communication with the base, updating them on the progress of the mission. Dating all the way back to 1891, a schooner by the name of Thomas Hume, and seven other men, were making their way across the lake to retrieve a shipment of lumber.
Eleven members of the Benton Harbor House of David were making their way across the lake in the Rosa Belle ship. Some even claimed that the triangle was some sort of inter-dimensional portal where ships were hopping in and out of time. The area was named after the extremely high winds and snow storms in the area, and it holds the French record for unexplained aircraft accidents; surely a record nobody wants to hold. One in particular occurred in 1943 when a fighter plane plummeted to the ground, leaving a sole survivor.
Their vessel, the Kaiyo Maru No, also went missing, prompting the Japanese government to abort the study. They include USOs (unidentified submerged objects), time warps, and electromagnetic anomalies. Unlike the other triangles that encompass mountain ranges or bodies of water, this triangle mostly stretches across land, and is littered with countless claims of paranormal activity. This is a five-thousand acre area that includes an eight-thousand year-old Native American burial ground. A multi-witnessed event occurred in 1968 when five people claimed to have seen a strange all of light hovering through the trees of Rehoboth. In 1970, there were various accounts of a seven foot tall hairy beast wandering through the area.
But one thing is clear; whatever is going on within the confines of this area is beyond unusual, and many paranormal investigators continue to travel its supposed points of origin, trying to narrow in on one of the most active paranormal hotspots on the planet. One can speculate endlessly as to why this may be, but perhaps the symbology of the triangle itself could bring us a bit closer to an answer. But one thing is for certain; we have, throughout many decades, shaped the narrative of these incidents around that of a triangle, almost fearing the word when tragedy strikes.
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However, within the broader range of UFO reports that have been collected over the last several decades, there are some reliable examples that have emerged, which also present consistencies from case-to-case, particularly in recent years. In fact, the prevalence of triangle UFO sightings has resulted in a number of books, articles, and television documentaries devoted almost entirely to solving the mystery of their appearances. Military project, with some further asserting that the triangles are likely a variety of platform blimp developed by DARPA. Over the years, this author has collected reports and corresponded with a number of individuals who have claimed to have had their own encounters, a few of which we will review here (though some of the names of the individuals who supplied these reports have been changed or omitted, due to requests for anonymity). As I came around a bend in the road my headlights malfunctioned causing me to stop the car.
In many instances, these objects appear to be capable of hovering, in addition to a number of other unusual airborne maneuvers that involve such things as clockwise rotation, as described by “Lance”, a contact who reported observing one of the craft behaving in this manner in the evening sky over Jacksonville, Florida, in 1999. We kept checking in that direction and watched as the now amber light kept coming straight at us. With his writing, he has covered topics that include controversial themes such as artificial intelligence, government surveillance, unconventional aviation technologies, and the broadening of human knowledge through the reach of the Internet. In part, it reads: “The past two evenings at one of our northern tier bases, an unidentified helicopter has been observed hovering over and in the near vicinity of the weapons storage area.
The site commander and other personnel say the object appeared as a bright star but much closer.
It was also agreed that the organization would publish a newsletter at least twice per year.
Gerald Cashion and Robert Launay agreed to serve as the first advisory board members (see list of officers and past officers elsewhere on this website).
Since WARA's founding there has been a close association between it and the Mande Studies Association. During those years, several students at the university served as valued research and translation assistants to the Fulbrighters. On 7 June, 1998, INEP's research endeavors were shattered by a war that flared up in Guinea-Bissau between veterans of the armed struggle for national liberation, and government troops supported by armies of neighboring countries. Despite the unfortunate timing of being held during Ramadan, many other Malians attended the panels, and the conference was well covered by L'Essor and Malian television (ORTM). A direct benefit of their participation was that only two years after the Bamako meeting, the Third International Conference on Mande Studies took place 20-24 March, 1995 in Leiden, The Netherlands at the Rijksmuseum voor Volkenkunde. The Rijks Museum voor Volkenkunde featured an exhibit on the city of Jenne in Mali, and there were presentations of the films Sanji--Water from Heaven directed by Paul Folmer and Salina Haledo, and Sunjata Banta, directed by Paul Folmer and Ed van Hoven. The following day in honor of their visit, the symposium a€?Democracy and Development in Malia€? was held at the MSU International Center.
Funding for the participation of African and some other colleagues was provided by the Embassies of the Kingdom of Netherlands in Abidjan and Dakar, by the Forest Service of the United States Department of Agriculture (thanks to Joe Tainter), and by two anonymous benefactors. Generous donations by eleven MANSA members funded five West African colleagues to attend the conference (one from Burkina Faso and four from Mali).
While the sessions were being held in the reading room of the university library, Mohamed Chejan Kromah and his assistant Sagno worked on a fourteen-panel mural of scenes from the Sunjata epic commissioned by MANSA, which they finished in the weeks following the conference. Het geheim van het masker Maskerrituelen en genderrelaties in de Casamance, Senegal [a€?The secret of the mask Mask rituals and gender relations in the Casamance, Senegala€?] Amsterdam: Rozenberg Publishers. MANSA suffered shocking losses two years in a row when on July 17, 1996, FranA§ois Manchuelle died in the crash of TWA Flight 800 (MANSA Newsletter 32: 1), MANSA Vice-President B. At the founders' meeting in 1986, it was decided that one of the organization's basic activities would be to sponsor Mande studies panels at the annual meetings of the African Studies Association.
In the early 90s, working with Louise Bedichek who was at that time (June 1987-September 1991) the extraordinarily effective Public Affairs Officer at the United States Information Service (USIS), Mamadou Kodiougou Diallo who was at that time Vice-Recteur de Recherche at the University of Conakry, smoothed the way for research authorization and began requesting and personally welcoming American scholars.
Abdoulie Bayo and Patience Sonko-Godwin of the National Council for Arts and Culture inA  Banjul were persistent in their requests that The Gambia be considered (MANSA Newsletter 29, 1995-96: 1-2). In addition, many individual members made generous donations toward the sponsorship of African colleagues to attend the conference.
But it can be noted here that several edited volumes are the direct result of members' presentations at various meetings and conferences since MANSA's founding in 1986. And it produced a weakened Catholic Church which rapidly lost the allegiance of the masses to the spirit of humanism and secularism.
France was at war three of every five years during his reign and participated in four major European wars. Defeat at the hands of Great Britain in the Seven Years War and the humiliation of the Treaty of Paris (1763) was blamed by the nation on Louis XV. The French hatred for the Austrians (resulting in wars under Louis XIV) and the British (Louis XV) drove France to the brink of national bankruptcy. The situation was so dire that lenders were no longer willing to loan the French monarchy money.
But by the time of the reigns of Louis XV and XVI, rule by terror and military might could no longer control the masses. Flour for bread, the sustenance of the French diet, became very scarce and drove the price of bread extremely high. It began to dawn on the more educated of the third estate that they could agitate for greater access to the government and that perhaps they could, in an organized effort, bring reforms to France.
The nobility refused to consider any new taxes unless the king gave them a major share of the government. He gave them the same sales pitch for higher taxes and got from them the same negative response. This was then reformed to become the National Constituent Assembly and existed from July 1789 to September 1791. A new government, the National Convention was declared in September which immediately declared that France was no longer a monarchy but a republic.
Marie was tried by the Committee for Public Safety and accused of holding orgies at Versailles, sending funds secretly to her brother, Emperor Joseph of Austria, and even committing incest with her son, so intent was the Committee on establishing guilt worthy of execution. But after his mothera€™s execution, Louis-Charles was given to a shoemaker and his wife to oversee him in a small prison cell. This opened the door for a committee of twelve to take control of the government, which shrewdly called itself a€?The Committee of Public Safetya€? to give leadership in the war effort against Austria and Prussia as well as to bring order to the streets of Paris. Armed militia from Paris spread out into the other provinces to root out whomever they determined to be an enemy of the revolution. The instrument of death was an invention created just for this period in the Revolution, the guillotine. Earlier the Paris Cathedral had been stripped of all Christian symbols and in November 1793 a large statute of the Goddess of Reason was erected in the cathedral.
It was not a popular move, however, because under the new calendar there were nine days of work separating each day of rest which occurred at the end of each decade, rather than after six days under the Christian calendar. The Rulera€™s Law of the Corsican general would merely replace the Rulera€™s Law of the Bourbon kings.
It eventually reverted back to a dictatorship under Napoleon, not very different from the a€?rule from the top downa€? of the French monarchy against which they had revolted. But by the time of the reigns of LouisA  XV and XVI, rule by terror and military might could no longer control the masses.
This opened the door for a committee of twelve to take control of the government, which shrewdly called itself a€?The Committee of Public Safetya€? to give leadership in the war effort against Austria andA  Prussia as well as to bring order to the streets of Paris. OR that our lives are what we choose them to be, that what we focus on expands and manifests according to some “Law of Attraction.” Or maybe it’s all just one big crapshoot. We put out the word of our desire for a new job, and someone calls with a lead the next day. While destiny implies that one has a bit of maneuvering room by which they can reach their destined end point, fate implies no such allowance for choice. Why would we not then be robots, born to eat, reproduce and die with no dreams or goals or feelings or emotions or consciousness at all?


Perhaps the Universe, including us, is nothing more than the program of a giant Cosmic Computer, yet one would still have to ask…who or what is programming the computer?
Particles have a range of possible or potential states and until an observer effect occurs, those states remain in superposition, or happening all at once so to speak.
We have yet to show in a purely scientific fashion that telekinesis or precognition or even remote viewing is real, although we do have some good data and even some hands on clinical testing to show they do happen. He was the man who thrust the Men in Black – and the mystery surrounding them – into the public domain in the 1950s.
Rainier on the 24th of the month – it prompted numerous people to get involved in the study of the phenomenon.
He even converted his attic-based abode into what he termed his “Chamber of Horrors.” It was a dark and foreboding place filled with paintings of demons, witches, ghosts, and more – even an “altar,” one that was designed to summon up who knows what from who knows where. Running for just two seasons, The Invaders told the story of a man named David Vincent (actor Roy Thinnes) who finds himself caught up in a nightmarish battle against hostile aliens. Of course, the most visible and obvious example is the incredibly successful trilogy of Men in Black movies starring Will Smith and Tommy Lee Jones. They’re known as “The Agents,” computer programs whose job it is to prevent anyone from getting close to the truth of the simulated world of the Matrix of the movies’ titles.
Would they have even existed without Albert Bender’s widely publicized run-ins with the MIB? Not unlike The Matrix in many respects, Dark City – which was released in 1998, one year before The Matrix surfaced – is an intriguing production.
The second traces down to San Juan, Puerto Rico and the remaining point to complete the triangle is none other than the island of Bermuda. And while no clear explanation can solve the puzzle, it has become a cautionary tale to steer clear of the Lake Michigan Triangle at all costs.
Supposedly, more than sixty people have died in miscellaneous plane crashes throughout the years.
This man went on to claim that he’d witnessed a multitude of small, multi-colored lights surrounding the aircraft before it made its tragic descent.
Could something more mysterious even be hiding the mountains, making this planes lose control and spiral to a fiery end? While may unusual explanations could attribute to the disappearances, seismic events seem to be the main culprit.
One of the most extensive studies on the area was done by author, Charles Berlitz, who ambitiously connected the Dragon’s Triangle to the disappearance of Amelia Earhart. When archaeologists stumbled upon a site of tombs, they noticed that the red ochre around the graves began to bubble, and then mysteriously disappeared. Another major event occurred in 1994 when an law enforcement officer reported seeing a triangular craft with red and white lights ominously floating through the night sky. Both Bridgewater and Massachusetts State Police conducted an extensive search for the creature, assuming it was a bear. But legend also has it that grisly murders of the human-kind have also taken place in the forest, attributing this to cult members as well. Could this possibly have something to do with why these triangles seem to form over bodies of water? He is the author of the upcoming book, “Somewhere in the Skies: A Human Approach to an Alien Phenomenon”, published by Richard Dolan Press. Air Force investigator Edward Ruppelt introduced the term “unidentified flying object”, or UFO, which was devised with hope of employing a more ambiguous, catch-all term that could be applied to a wide variety of alleged aerial phenomena.
While this may be a likely explanation for the origin of the objects, no conclusive data has been presented which helps confirm this.
It appeared to be about the size of a large commercial airplane, and had three dim red lights near each corner. As I have grown older, I have come to think that this may indeed have been very terrestrial in origin. When it was almost on top of us it was like we became frozen to the spot staring at this light that we could now see had a dark shape behind it. Whatever the case, the number of similar reports of these objects, now spanning several decades, does seem to support their existence… which is more than can be said of many other varieties of alleged UFOs which have traversed the public consciousness since the late 1940s. Micah lives in the heart of Appalachia near Asheville, North Carolina, where he makes a living as a writer and musician. Attempts to identify this aircraft have so far met with negative results.” In other words, something intruded upon the most secure part of the base and no-one was able to determine what was afoot or even why.
While the papers in question definitely suggest that a helicopter (or something that, superficially at least, looked like a helicopter) was the culprit, other reports are not so easy to explain. Nothing came of the idea then, but in 1986 during the first MANSA meeting, Hale and Conrad both recalled the earlier occasion and the latter agreed to try and make good on the original plan. Since MANSA's founding many of the staff at ISH have become active members, participating in projects with their visiting colleagues, conducting their own research, and presenting papers at various international conferences. Several MANSA members have served as officers in WARA, including Jeanne Toungara, Secretary (1995-1997), Thomas Hale, Advisory Board (1995-99), David Conrad, Advisory Board (1995-97), Fiona McLaughlin, WARC Director (1999), and David Robinson, Vice-President (1996-2002). WARA President Edris Makward dedicated the conference to our departed friend, and her MANSA colleagues who remained to carry on included Ferdinand de Jong, Cornelia Giesing, Kathryn Green, Lilyan Kesteloot, Kirsten Langeveld, Barbara Lewis, Peter Mark, Muhammad SaA?dou N'Daou, David Robinson, Jeanne Toungara, Vera Viditz-Ward, and David Conrad (MANSA Newsletter 35, 1997: 1-2). In 1994 MANSA members began contributing books to the new American Cultural Center Library, which at the time was directed by Mohamed Fofana. The war brought death and displacement to thousands of local citizens, and among the infrastructures most affected by the war's destruction was the building complex housing INEP which was located less than a kilometer from the initial frontline of the hostilities.
Other expenses were paid for by a generous contribution from Stephan BA?hnen's Bremer Stiftung fA?r Kultur und Sozialanthropologie (formerly the Bremer Stiftung fA?r Geschichte). Another generous donation along with help from the MANSA treasury funded the Sunjata mural in the library reading room at the University of Kankan.
In the nineteen ASA meetings since our founding (1987-2005), MANSA-members have organized more than fifty panels devoted to Mande studies. N'Fanly Kouyate, also of the University of Conakry, was the main force in acquiring a government apartment as residence and maison de passage for Fulbrighters and other American researchers at Boulibinet on the tip of the penninsula.
A total of eleven African colleagues (one from Gambia, five from Guinea, and five from Mali) were fully funded through the combined efforts of Dutch agencies and MANSA donors, with some extra help from the MANSA treasury.
Over 30,000 priests and nuns were eventually either killed, exiled, or sent to prison in French Guiana. Those early experiences embittered him against the nobles and resulted in his building an absolute monarchy. She had a distain for French culture, refused to learn or use the French language, was highly materialistic, vain, and considered by the nobility to be a snob. Crowds in Paris stormed the prisons and executed 2,000 prisoners, including many priests, nuns, and nobility.
War raged not only with Austria and Prussia, but a full-scale civil war was being fought against provinces in western France who rejected the radical government in Paris. Even former close friends and colleagues of the Committeea€™s leader, Maximillien Robespierre, were executed by the guillotine.
When 32 of the Girondist leaders were imprisoned, supposedly due to fear that they would work to reinstate the monarchy, Robespierre became the undisputed leader and virtual dictator. Louis requested and was accompanied by an English priest living in France, Henry Edgeworth, who Louis requested be with him prior to his death. War raged not only with Austria and Prussia, but a full-scale civil war was being fought against provinces in western France who rejected the radical government inA  Paris. Yet other times, life doesn’t go as smoothly and we wonder if we’re slamming up against the wall of fate, unable to break it and have our will no matter what we do.
Thus, some outside “agent” such as a God, Goddess or other entity was once thought to be the purveyor of one’s fate. One can easily see why the battle between destiny and free will has been an enduring one, just like the chicken and the egg.
He said it was his destiny, and he drank of that particular cup willingly, taking his final fate in his hands.
And yet, when it comes to behavior we seem to be able to make choices, both good and bad, and have some say in the course and outcome of our life path.
Those who claim to have died, and return to tell about it, often tell stories of being told by higher guides or divine beings on the other side that they must return and fulfill their roles, or destinies, on the plane of the living. We want to feel as though something good is destined to be; yet we hope that we aren’t fated for something bad.
I also dreamed of being a jockey and had I been short enough and not fallen off of horses too much, who knows? She has appeared on more than 1,000 radio shows worldwide, and on television, most recently on the History Channel’s Ancient Aliens series. It should be noted, however, that Barker omitted most of the really weird material, preferring instead to imply that the MIB were from nothing stranger than “the government.” Then, six years later, Bender came briefly out of “retirement” to pen his own book on the eerie affair, Flying Saucers and the Three Men.
In the movies, the primary characters are “J” and “K” (who were named after MIB pursuer and author John Keel, of The Mothman Prophecies fame).
It stars Rufus Sewell, Kiefer Sutherland, Jennifer Connolly, Richard O’Brien, and William Hurt.
The triangle, however, isn’t officially recognized by the United States Board on Geographic Names, nor acknowledged on any maps. Let’s take a look at several places throughout the world that also boast these three-pointed tales of mystery. When locals didn’t hear from the men for a few days, a search and rescue team were sent out for the crew.
Another similar event occurred in 1965 over Mount Mezenc, where two F-104 planes went down. Whatever was happening at the Burle Triangle remained a mystery, and continues it’s enigmatic lore even up until today. According to the myth, dragons live deep beneath the surface and their movement can suddenly churn up waves, whirlpools, thick fog, and sudden storms. The Dragon’s Triangle is a very volcanically active area, and were said to be the fault for the disappearance of the vessel of scientists. No matter the case, the myth of the Dragon’s Triangle continues, with more answers laying somewhere in the depths of the sea. At the culmination of a ritual, the summoning of some sort of spirit or entity is expected to appear within a triangle inscribed upon the floor. Even more interesting is that triangles that point downward symbolize the formation of air and fire.
He co-hosts both the Into the Fray and UFOmodPod podcasts, both available on iTunes & Stitcher. However, today the use of “UFO” is generally accepted as representing the presence of extraterrestrial spacecraft in our skies, despite a lack of any sufficient evidence that can support, without dispute, a belief in this exotic origin. With the book, Marler has, as described at his website, “collected, collated, and analyzed hundreds of reports. There are suspicions that at least some of the helicopters originate with so-called “black projects” that operate outside of the regular conventions of the military. Robert Launay suggested that the editor ought to have a respectable title to make it worth his while, and that is how Conrad became President of the fledgling organization.
More recently, MANSA preparations for the Sixth International Conference on Mande Studies that will be partly held in Kankan have been greatly aided by the dynamic support of the Recteur of the University of Kankan, Seydouba Camara. Occupation of the INEP complex by foreign troops resulted in near total destruction of the facility, including its library, research equipment and archives containing fifeen years' of painstakingly compiled audio, visual, and printed research documentation (MANSA Newsletter 38, 1998: 1-6). Kaba suggested that another international conference on Mande studies would continue the trend of reclaiming African history for the continent (MANSA Newsletter 10, 1989: 3).
Ambassador to Mali, David Rawson, who drew a warm response from the Malian delegation by including some remarks in Bamanankan.
A disease created by abuses of power and neglect of the peasants class was eating away at the inner core of the the nation.
However, he was also a man of the arts and culture, and during his reign French culture blossomed and became a hegemony throughout Europe. Furthermore, to strengthen his position militarily he had aligned France with its hated neighbor, Austria, and lost the economic benefits of a valuable alliance with Frederick the Great of Prussia. She hosted lavish parties at the palace, promoted gambling, and filled her closets with expensive clothing. The first and second estates traditionally voted in tandem, and usually against the third estate. By 1794 The Committee went so far as to deprive those accused of being not supportive of the revolution from legal counsel and the requirement that witnesses be present to give testimony against them.
While several factors led to the escalating price of bread, the government received the blame. This outside agent or force set down in stone how a person’s life would unfold, and there was nothing that person could do to change the course of events to come. We feel as though we have the ability to choose our spouses, our jobs, our homes, the kind of food we will have for dinner, and whether or not we will go to the movies on a Sunday night or just sit home and watch “The Walking Dead.” It’s up to us to decide.
These are subjective and personal experiences, but the fact that so many report them is something to be considered. Some readers will tell people that their lives, according to the stars or rune stones or cards, are in some ways predestined, and yet, they have considerable choice in how they will reach that destiny.
We choose, pay the consequences for our choices, and end up in a particular place in life because of that trajectory, any of which we could have changed for a different trajectory. But I felt “called” to write, and worked very hard towards that outcome, by making choice after choice that I felt would keep me on the path.
You can only observe the EFFECTS AND INFLUENCES of the gravitational force at play around you. Whereas Bender’s MIB were clearly supernatural in nature, in the movies the Men in Black work for a super-secret agency. The term was coined by author, Vincent Gaddis, in an article he penned in 1964 for the pulp-magazine, Argosy.
Witnesses in the area claimed to have seen six spheres, pink in color, surrounding the impact site.
These myths became startlingly true between the years, 1952 and 1954, when a total of five Japanese military vessels were lost in the waters of the triangle, racking up over seven-hundred people missing. The Wampanoag Tribe, of the Algonquian nation, avoid the area because of many supernatural occurrences, warning others to steer clear because it’s what they consider “the place where spirits dwell”. This could perhaps have something to do with the fiery plane crashes in the air that brought many pilot’s lives to a tragic end.
In the process, he has created a detailed profile of these objects and written a rich narrative of their history. I watched for about 1-2 minutes as it moved over the road, and it then began to accelerate and moved out of view. We sat transfixed as it seemed to take the triangle forever to pass overhead due to the extremely slow speed that it was travelling at.
There are even claims that the helicopters are “UFOs in disguise,” which is surely the most controversial of all the theories offered to explain the phenomenon! SAC also advises female civilian reports having seen an object bearing south from her position six miles west of Lewsitown.” The events were never explained. Early on, MANSA began receiving electronic bulletins from INEP Director Peter Mendy in Dakar via Cornelia Giesing who had taken refuge in Germany.
For this he was also called a€?the Sun Kinga€? because French language and culture dominated Europe.
I pardon the authors of my death, and pray God that the blood you are about to shed will never fall upon France.a€™ The executioners seized him, the knife struck him, his head fell at fifteen minutes after ten.
Government buildings generally sought to copy the architecture of Versailles (pictured below).
The founding father of political philosophy, Thomas Hobbes, states that freedom is the ability to do what we wish without hindrance or constraint. The truth is far more complicated and involving and I suck at math so I won’t even attempt to get into that! It is as if we must stay put until our pre-chosen destiny is fulfilled…even if we have to die and return to life again to find out.
An astrologer might say that yes, the stars influence your life, but you still have room to move about within the confines of those influences. There may be one destination we are moving towards, but we get to choose the route by which we get there.
The show is filled with MIB imagery: the aliens on The Invaders often drive black cars (as do the real MIB), they wear dark suits and fedoras, they are very good at dishing out threats and intimidation, and they can control the human mind – something which has been reported in many MIB encounters.
Nevertheless there’s no doubt that the Hollywood movies – based on Lowell Cunningham’s The Men in Black comic-book series of the 1990s – was, to some degree, inspired by Bender’s experiences. We get to meet the people who inhabit it, and we soon learn that the city is not what it appears to be. In the article titled, The Deadly Bermuda Triangle, Gaddis compiles many anomalous events that occurred in the boundaries of this area where many planes and ships in the water seemed to have vanished off the face of the earth. Even if this were so, not a single shred of evidence turned up any other ship, nor any reports of an accident of any kind. Another area of Hockomock Swamp is known as Anawan Rock, located along Route 44 in Rehoboth. But it was reports of an alleged creature in flight that caught the attention of many others. Could this practice hold some meaning in terms of the Bridgewater Triangle, and the Native American spirits said to haunt the area? And perhaps the best action we can take is to steer, swim, fly, or walk as far away from these areas as we can, knowing that some mysteries are best left unanswered. He tackles the arguments made by skeptics that dismiss these triangular UFO reports outright. The bulletins periodically updated progress of the hostilities, cease-fires and negotiations. Chaired by David Dalby, the official conference program lists 240 participants, ninety-four of which presented papers. However, she was the strength in the royal marriage and was a major source of energy and direction for Louis.
The Committee of Public Safety had hoped to use him as a pawn to trade to the Austrians in a prisoner exchange, as they had done earlier, with his older sister. Because there is no concept of God in Buddhism, this explanation suggests instead there is a linear fashion by which our lives are bound to happen. Even within the confines of our social, cultural, sexual and behavioral conditioning, complexes and needs, we can do whatever we choose. But the implication is exciting and has become the basis for hundreds of self-help and personal motivation books, empowerment tools and expensive webinars. A tarot reader might tell you that you will meet with danger next week, but you can still make the choice to be hyper-vigilant and avoid a terrible car accident while leaving for work.
In other words, there’s very little doubt that the Bender saga had a major influence on how the brains behind The Invaders chose to present the alien menace. Since then, the Bermuda Triangle has been the subject of countless books, television shows, and movies. There simply was no conventional explanation for the brutal damage to the ship, and missing bodies.
It is named after named after Chief Anawan, and is the site where he and his tribe had surrendered to the colonists during the First Indian War. Since the early 70’s, many reports have come in about unusually large black birds, with wingspans stretching well past eight feet. He also addresses the claims of so-called insiders who claim these objects are a creation of the U.S. As it was about halfway over I realized that the triangle was so massive that it filled my entire field of vision. That meeting included nearly every notable scholar in Mande studies at that time, along with many others who would later make significant contributions to the field.
That doesn’t mean that’s how they WILL happen…but only how they are bound to and that we can change something, and thus lead to a new life that is bound to happen as a result. Later philosophers added that perhaps freedom was not so much about being able to do anything one wanted to do, but to have the power to do anything one wanted to do.
Not fated, because someone could come along and yank them from the ground, ending their existence. Of course, because a human life is absolutely meaningless if it’s all fated and fixed from the get go. Not as bug-eyed little critters or as tentacle-waving monsters, but as emotionless men in suits. Theories on what is actually occurring in these waters range from magnetic vortices, space-time warp, electronic fog, UFOs, ancient technology from the lost city of Atlantis, methane gas hydrates, and even more unusual; the souls of slaves.
The angry spirits of Anawan’s men are said to haunt the area, dancing and starting fires. Perhaps the form of the triangle itself has prompted the unusual frenzy of the bizarre and strangeness that occurs there. Notably, and thanks to the provisions of the Freedom of Information Act, we can see just how seriously matters were taken. All of the problems that developed within France over the previous 100 years became his when he took the throne. Higgins, editor, The French Revolution as Told by Contemporaries, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1966, pp. We get some control here, but still move towards what feels to us like a “chosen path,” even if we are doing most of the choosing. But nature is filled with examples of things that seem to work under the triadic influence of all three: destiny, fate and choice. We’d never learn, never grow, never expand and fulfill the potentiality of who we can become. Many have reported hearing the sounds of the spirits echoing through the swamp, the flicker or fire being witnessed from the roads nearby.



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