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Much of what we know about early Italy come from the Histora Naturalis by Pliny the Elder which was published around 77-79 A.D. Many people groups possess mythological descriptions of their origins, often contained in the form of totems -- ancient heroes, animals, or even plants and trees, from which that group of people emerged at first on earth. According to legend, the king of a small community in Italy ordered his twin sons to be thrown into the Tiber River. Romulus (hence the name a€?Romea€?) forged numerous alliances with neighboring peoples in order to fortify and protect a€?for eternitya€? the city which eventually gained the name, a€?The Eternal City.a€? The time period for this story is not ancient. They established an absolute monarchy with a Senate, a constitution, and a popular assembly. It was early Rome and not Athens that was to lay the greatest amount of groundwork for later democracies.
To ensure that a dictatorship or absolute ruler could not emerge, the Republic developed a series of assemblies, assuring that every class within society would have representation. The Senate, however, endured through the several sacks of Rome by the barbarians, and even functioned under several Germanic emperors. Plebian Council: each of the 35 tribes selected representative to the Council, which passed most laws, and served as a court of appeals. Magistrates: served as judges, overseers of legal affairs, enforces of an early form of habeas corpus (an accused persona€™s right to be heard and not held without sufficient evidence) were selected by the Assembly of the Centuries.
Consuls: were elected by the populace annually from among the magistrates, presided over the Senate and the Assemblies, had supreme civil and military powers, were heads of the Roman government, and when outside of Rome commanded an army. Roman society in the Republic developed a hierarchical format, dividing the people into two classes: the patricians (land-owning aristocracy) and plebians (eveyone else -- until slavery developed). As the Republic took on a more military-expansionist quality, success in warfare became connected with advancement in politics. Rome was originally a land army, but copied the ships of the Carthaginians, who at the time were masters of the Mediterranean Ocean. In addition, Antiochus ordered all Jewish worship to cease, killed those who disobeyed, and profaned the temple by offering pigs on the holy altar.
The unrest in Rome due to massive unemployment and the influx of new people led to the rise of radical rivalries. The appointment of Julius Caesar as dictator for life for all practical purposes marked the end of the Republic.
Having arrived in Rome Octavian, aided by Marc Antony, then pursued Julius Brutus the assassin of his uncle to Greece, where two battles at Philippi in northern Greece took place, Octavian defeated and killed Brutus.
The three members of the second triumvirate agreed to divide the Republic among themselves -- Octavian took the West, Antony took the East, including Egypt, and Lepidus took Spain and North Africa. Marc Antony, now residing in Egypt, soon made a romantic friendship with Cleopatra with whom he produced several children.
Octavian and Anthony despised each other and Lepidus, the third member of the triumvirate, was too weak a character to stand up to either.
Following the death of Julius, six emperors from his family line ruled successively from 27 B.
Claudius was a respected older Senator leader when he succeeded Caligula, his nephew, in 47 A.D. For instance, during one part of the siege laid by the Romans, the Zealots destroyed food supplies that were stored in the city in order to gain an advantage over their rival factions. Vespasian gained control of the Roman wheat supply in Egypt and North Africa and thereby announced his intentions. When Vespasian left with his troops to go north, the Jews, and especially the Zealots, saw this as a sign of weakness. Prior to the arrival of Vespasian, civil war was taking place inside of Jerusalem The Hellenized Jews, the Pharisees, the Zealots, and the ordinary people were locked in a chaos of robbery, intrigue, murder, and assassination.
For three generations the high priest selected to lead temple worship did not come from the line of Aaron, as prescribed in Scripture. These high priests were rejected by the conservative, religious party as political stooges of the Romans and certainly not lawfully selected high priests. Things became so desperate in the city that people resorted eating animal manure, and there is even a reported case of cannibalism. Finally, after months of siege, the Romans managed to scale the walls, burn the temple and burn the city. Jesus instructed his disciples and they in turn the other Christians in Jerusalem about this impending terror. The Christians were warned by the prophecy of Jesus to flee the city when they saw wars, rumors of wars, earthquakes and the other accompanying events. The temple worship in Jerusalem came to an end, as did the priesthood and the sacrificial system. It was Goda€™s final statement in the destroying of Jerusalem that the new Sacrifice had come, Jesus, the Lamb of God, He was now the High Priest. This dynasty brought excellent administrative leadership to the Empire through the absolute rule of Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, and Marcus Aurelius. A large system of aqueducts, sewer systems, and medicine improved the health of the empire. Julius Caesar developed a calendar containing 12 months and 365 days which was universally adopted in the domains of the Empire.
The Gregorian calendar has four months with a length of 30 days and seven months that are 31 days long. Central heating in homes was developed in construction methods that allowed for air spaces under houses through which hot air from furnaces could circulate.
Concrete was invented by the Romans, making possible the large construction projects--stadiums, theaters, basilicas, aqueducts, basilicas. Roman architecture first used domes in constructing temples, which made possible larger unsupported ceilings in public buildings.
Latin became the a€?lingua francaa€? throughout the empire and produced the foundation for the a€?Romance languagesa€? -- Italian, Spanish, French, Romanian. A successive line of emperors ruled absolutely from Rome over an empire that covered most of the known world. The Christian Church grew rapidly throughout the empire and very little opposition to the Church was experienced after the time of Trajan.
The elevation of Constantine marked the beginning of a new Empire, an Empire to be greatly impacted by the Christian Church. There will certainly be emperors who would be disappointed that they are not included in the chart below.
Due to a variety of factors, including geography, military strength, and leadership, the city of Rome was over time able to gain control over central and southern Italy. Rome was first governed by a monarchy which was replaced by a Republic -- the Republic provided a separation of powers and responsibilities, primarily concentrated in the Senate and among several important assemblies.
Tensions and conflict between the Patricians and the Plebeians escalated and broke out into hostilities which threatened the peace and security of Rome.
A first triumvirate was formed (Julius, Pompey, Crassus), seeking leadership and resolution to the conflict and granting authority. Juliusa€™ assassination on the floor of the Senate by Brutus resulted in the formation of the second triumvirate composed of Octavian, Marc Anthony, and Lepidus.
Although married to Octaviana€™s sister, Marc Anthony lived openly with Cleopatra in Alexandria, Egypt. The clash between Octavian and Anthony was settled at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC, with Anthony and Cleopatra driven back to Alexandria where both committed suicide.
The last of the Julian line, Nero, was emperor who killed the two apostles, Peter and Paul, in Rome in 67 AD.
Rome grew to a huge empire that controlled almost all of the lands bordering the Mediterranean Sea from the Euphrates on the East to the Atlantic Ocean on the west, as well as Gaul (France), Spain, and England. Most roots of Western civilization can be traced to elements that existed in the Roman Empire from about 27 B.C. Rome contributed roads, bridges, architecture, citizenship, language, republicanism, and culture to Europe -- producing the famed Pax Romana. The rise of the Roman Empire was foretold in the dream of the Persian king, Nebuchadnezzar, as interpreted by Daniel in his prophecy 2:1-45.
The Roman Empire provided the environment (language, roads) that enabled the Christian Church to grow throughout the known world.
Ultimately, the Christian Church conquered the Roman Empire through the faithful witness of Christians throughout the empire and with the conversion of the Emperor Constantine to the Christian faith. Describe the interaction between the Goths and the Romans, resulting ultimately in the sacking of Rome in 476 A.D. The small town was established on the banks of the Tiber River on an elevated site to give protection. Jerusalem had been under Seleucid control for many years.A  When they heard a false rumor in 167 BC that Antiochus Epiphanes IV, king of the Seleucids, had been killed in battle in Egypt, a rebellion broke out in the city.
While in Egypt Julius developed a relationship with Cleopatra, teenage ruler of Egypt, who subsequently bore him a son.
Octavian, nephew of Julius, was appointed by the Senate to a new triumvirate togetherA  with Marc Antony and Lepidus in 43 B.C. Having arrived in Rome Octavian, aided by Marc Antony, then pursued Julius Brutus the assassin of his uncleA  to Greece, where two battles at Philippi in northern Greece took place, Octavian defeated and killed Brutus. DESCRIPTION: This is the largest map of its kind to have survived in tact and in good condition from such an early period of cartography. These place names are in Lincolnshire (Holdingham and Sleaford are the modern forms), and this Richard has been identified as one Richard de Bello, prebend of Lafford in Lincoln Cathedral about the year 1283, who later became an official of the Bishop of Hereford, and in 1305 was appointed prebend of Norton in Hereford Cathedral. While the map was compiled in England, names and descriptions were written in Latin, with the Norman dialect of old French used for special entries.
Here, my dear Son, my bosom is whence you took flesh Here are my breasts from which you sought a Virgina€™s milk. The other three figures consist of a woman placing a crown on the Virgin Mary and two angels on their knees in supplication.
Still within this decorative border, in the left-hand bottom corner, the Roman Emperor Caesar Augustus is enthroned and crowned with a papal triple tiara and delivers a mandate with his seal attached, to three named commissioners. In the right-hand bottom corner an unidentified rider parades with a following forester holding a pair of greyhounds on a leash. The geographical form and content of the Hereford map is derived from the writings of Pliny, Solinus, Augustine, Strabo, Jerome, the Antonine Itinerary, St. As is traditional with the T-O design, there is the tripartite division of the known world into three continents: Europe, Asia, and Africa. EUROPE: When we turn to this area of the Hereford map we would expect to find some evidence of more contemporary 13th century knowledge and geographic accuracy than was seen in Africa or Asia, and, to some limited extent, this theory is true. France, with the bordering regions of Holland and Belgium is called Gallia, and includes all of the land between the Rhine and the Pyrenees. Norway and Sweden are shown as a peninsula, divided by an arm of the sea, though their size and position are misrepresented.
On the other side of Europe, Iceland, the Faeroes, and Ultima Tile are shown grouped together north of Norway, perhaps because the restricting circular limits of the map did not permit them to be shown at a more correct distance. The British Isles are drawn on a larger scale than the neighboring parts of the continent, and this representation is of special interest on account of its early date.
On the Hereford map, the areas retain their Latin names, Britannia insula and Hibernia, Scotia, Wallia, and Cornubia, and are neatly divided, usually by rivers, into compartments, North and South Ireland, Wales, Cornwall, England, and Scotland.
THE MEDITERRANEAN: The Mediterranean, conveniently separating the three continents of Asia, Africa and Europe, teems with islands associated with legends of Greece and Rome. Mythical fire-breathing creature with wings, scales and claws; malevolent in west, benevolent in east. 4.A A  For bibliographical information on these and other (including lost) cartographical exemplars, see Westrem, The Hereford Map, p. 10.A A  For bibliographical information for editions and translations of the source texts, see Westrem, The Hereford Map, p.
11.A A  More detailed analysis of these data can be found in my a€?Lessons from Legends on the Hereford Mappa Mundi,a€? Hereford Mappa Mundi Conference proceedings volume being edited by Barber and Harvey (see n. 16.A A  Danubius oritur ab orientali parte Reni fluminis sub quadam ecclesia, et progressus ad orientem, . 23.A A  The a€?standarda€? Latin forms of these place-names and the modern English equivalents are those recorded in the Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World, ed.
From the time when it was first mentioned as being in Hereford Cathedral in 1682, until a relatively short time ago, the Hereford Mappamundi was almost entirely the preserve of antiquaries, clergymen with an interest in the middle ages and some historians of cartography. FROM THE TIME when it was first mentioned as being in Hereford Cathedral in 1682, until a relatively short time ago, the Hereford Mappamundi was almost entirely the preserve of antiquaries, clergymen with an interest in the middle ages and some historians of cartography. Details from the Hereford map of the Blemyae and the Psilli.a€? Typical of the strange creatures or 'Wonders of the East' derived by Richard of Haldingham from classical sources and placed in Ethiopia. Equally important work was also being done on medieval and Renaissance world maps as a genre, particularly by medievalists such as Anna-Dorothee von den Brincken and Jorg-Geerd Arentzen in Germany and by Juergen Schulz, primarily an art historian, and David Woodward, a leading historian of cartography, in the United States. The Hereford World Map is the only complete surviving English example of a type of map which was primarily a visualization of all branches of knowledge in a Christian framework and only secondly a geographical object.
After the fall of the Roman empire in the 5th century, monks and scholars struggled desperately to preserve from destruction by pagan barbarians the flotsam and jetsam of classical history and learning; to consolidate them and to reconcile them with Christian teaching and biblical history. There would have been several models to choose from, corresponding to the widely differing cartographic traditions inside the Roman Empire, but it seems that the commonest image descended from a large map of the known world that was created for a portico lining the Via Flaminia near the Capitol in Rome during Christ's lifetime. Recent writers such as Arentzen have suggested that, simply because of their sheer availability, from an early date different versions of this map may have been used to illustrate texts by scholars such as St. Eventually some of the information from the texts became incorporated into the maps themselves, though only sparingly at first. A broad similarity in coastlines with the Hereford map is clear in the Anglo-Saxon [Cottonian] World Map, c.1000 (#210), but there are no illustrations of animals other than the lion (top left).
The resulting maps ranged widely in shape and appearance, some being circular, others square.
A few maps of the inhabited world were much more detailed, though keeping to the same broad structure and symbolism. Most of these earlier maps were book illustrations, none were particularly big and the maps were always considered to need textual amplification. From about 1100, however, we know from contemporary descriptions in chronicles and from the few surviving inventories that larger world maps were produced on parchment, cloth and as wall paintings for the adornment of audience chambers in palaces and castles as well as, probably, of altars in the side chapels of religious buildings. A separate written text of an encyclopedic nature, probably written by the map's intellectual creator, however, was still intended to accompany many if not all these large maps and one may originally have accompanied the Hereford world map. These maps seem largely to have been inspired by English scholars working at home or in Europe. The most striking novelty, however, was the vastly increased number of depictions of peoples, animals, and plants of the world copied from illustrations in contemporary handbooks on wildlife, commonly called bestiaries and herbals.
Mentions in contemporary records and chronicles, such as those of Matthew Paris, make it plain that these large world maps were once relatively common.
At about the same time that this map was being created, Henry III, perhaps after consultation with Gervase, who had visited him in 1229, commissioned wall maps to hang in the audience chambers of his palaces in Winchester and Westminster. The Hereford Mappamundi is the only full size survivor of these magnificent, encyclopedic English-inspired maps. An inscription in Norman-French at the bottom left attributes the map to Richard of Haldingham and Sleaford. Confessions of a Sociopath takes readers on a journey into the mind of a sociopath, revealing what makes the tick and what that means for the rest of humanity.
As Thomas argues, while sociopaths aren't like everyone else, and it’s true some of them are incredibly dangerous, they are not inherently evil. In The Teapot Dome Scandal, acclaimed author Laton McCartney tells the amazing, complex, and at times ribald story of how Big Oil handpicked Warren G. In giving us a gimlet-eyed but endlessly entertaining portrait of the men and women who made a tempest of Teapot Dome, Laton McCartney again displays his gift for faithfully rendering history with the narrative touch of an accomplished novelist. Immediately recognized as a revelatory and enormously controversial book since its first publication in 1971, Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee is universally recognized as one of those rare books that forever changes the way its subject is perceived. Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee is Dee Brown's classic, eloquent, meticulously documented account of the systematic destruction of the American Indian during the second half of the nineteenth century.
Using council records, autobiographies, and firsthand descriptions, Brown allows great chiefs and warriors of the Dakota, Ute, Sioux, Cheyenne, and other tribes to tell us in their own words of the series of battles, massacres, and broken treaties that finally left them and their people demoralized and decimated. The Progressive Era witnessed the most dramatic peaceful shift of power from persons and from the states to a new and permanent federal bureaucracy in all of American history.
Original, stunning, and provocative, How Civilizations Die shows the power of religion to save--or doom--a society and why, if we stick to our principles, we will emerge as leader of another American century. Past and present civilizations fail for many reasons, but the number one predictor of a civilization's survival is its sense of religion--or lack thereof. Why is it that we react to the world the way we do, not only in similar ways—turning our heads in the direction of a tap on the shoulder or a sudden movement in our peripheral vision, for example—but often in dramatically different ways as well? The answer, of course, is that each of us—whether a different person or a more recent model of ourselves—isn't reacting to the same world at all. Though the physical world we occupy may be identical, the reality we experience —the perceptions created when our brains combine the input from our senses with past encounters with those same inputs—is very different. Rich in science and potent examples and anecdotes, Sensation, Perception, and the Aging Process is a course that takes a distinct approach to the understanding of human behavior—which is, after all, always a reaction to a sensory stimulus. In 24 fascinating lectures, Professor Francis Colavita offers a biopsychological perspective on the way we humans navigate and react to the world around us in a process that is ever-changing. For example, children have many more taste receptors than adults, so they are more taste sensitive. One of the delights of this course is the balance of the real-life examples Professor Colavita gives and the crisp presentation of the physiological systems that explain those examples. How do our sensory systems gather and process raw information from the world, enabling us to see, hear, smell, taste, or touch?
How do our bodies create motor memories that allow us to learn and then automatically perform the most complex tasks—such as the laboriously practiced elements of a golf swing—in one smoothly executed motion, or run through a series of rapid gear shifts while driving on a winding mountain road?
What sort of sensory system allows us to feel pain but also works to protect us from its most intense levels? Whether exploring the complex structures of the brain or inner ear, explaining with compassion the animal experiments that have given us so much knowledge of sensory systems, or using humorous personal anecdotes to illustrate a point, Professor Colavita delivers a course that informs, entertains, and even prepares us for the changes that lie ahead. When Betty Farmer married double agent Eddie Chapman, Agent Zigzag, she knew her life would never be ordinary. In an age where women were still very much second-class, she became the perfect example of what, in spite of everything, was possible. Ben Macintyre weaves together diaries, letters, photographs, memories and top-secret MI5 files to create the exhilarating account of Britain's most sensational double agent. Detroit was established as a French settlement three-quarters of a century before the founding of this nation. Detroit: A Biography takes a long, unflinching look at the evolution of one of America’s great cities, and one of the nation’s greatest urban failures. From the dramatic find in the caves of Qumran, the world's most ancient version of the Bible allows us to read the scriptures as they were in the time of Jesus. The Dead Sea Scrolls Bible: The Oldest Known Bible Translated for the First Time into English is the first full English translation of the Hebrew scriptures used by the Essene sect at Qumran. Between 1947 and 1956, in 11 caves overlooking the Dead Sea, more than 800 manuscripts of two types were found. Translators Martin Abegg Jr., Peter Flint, and Eugene Ulrich have loaded this volume with scholarly notes and commentary, but their interpretations are formatted in a way that does not impede the general reader's enjoyment of the book.
In Science Set Free (originally published to acclaim in the UK as The Science Delusion), Dr.
In the skeptical spirit of true science, Sheldrake turns the ten fundamental dogmas of materialism into exciting questions, and shows how all of them open up startling new possibilities for discovery. An eye-opening account of how Congress today really works—and doesn’t—that follows the dramatic journey of the sweeping financial reform bill enacted in response to the Great Crash of 2008. The founding fathers expected Congress to be the most important branch of government and gave it the most power.
Act of Congress tells the story of the Dodd-Frank Act, named for the two men who made it possible: Congressman Barney Frank, brilliant and sometimes abrasive, who mastered the details of financial reform, and Senator Chris Dodd, who worked patiently for months to fulfill his vision of a Senate that could still work on a bipartisan basis. Act of Congress, as entertaining as it is enlightening, is an indispensable guide to a vital piece of our political system desperately in need of reform.
Why did a group from the Iraqi army seize control of the government and wage a disastrous war against Great Britain, rejecting British and liberal values for those of a militaristic Germany? Departing from previous studies explaining modern Iraqi history in terms of class theory, Reeva Simon shows that cultural and ideological factors played an equal, if not more important, role in shaping events.
This updated edition locates the sources of Iraqi nationalism in the experience of these ex-Ottoman army officers who used the emergent pan-Arabism to weld a disparate population into a nation.
In the tradition of great tales of men against the sea, Adak offers a compelling look at courage and commitment in the face of certain tragedy.
Fatal Dive is the first book that documents the entire saga of the ship and its crew and provides compelling evidence that the Grunion was a victim of “The Great Torpedo Scandal of 1941-43.” Fatal Dive finally lays to rest one of World War II’s greatest mysteries. These are the bold and critical questions that Latin America's Turbulent Transition explores, as the authors provocatively argue that although U.S. Immortalized in Churchill's often quoted assertion that never before "was so much owed by so many to so few," the top-down narrative of the Battle of Britain has been firmly established in British legend: Britain was saved from German invasion by the gallant band of Fighter Command Pilots in their Spitfires and Hurricanes, and the public owed them their freedom. Richard North's radical re-evaluation of the Battle of Britain dismantles this mythical retelling of events. King Philip's War, the excruciating racial war--colonists against Indians--that erupted in New England in 1675, was, in proportion to population, the bloodiest in American history. It all began when Philip (called Metacom by his own people), the leader of the Wampanoag Indians, led attacks against English towns in the colony of Plymouth. The war's brutality compelled the colonists to defend themselves against accusations that they had become savages. Telling the story of what may have been the bitterest of American conflicts, and its reverberations over the centuries, Lepore has enabled us to see how the ways in which we remember past events are as important in their effect on our history as were the events themselves. Contributors include Robin Hahnel, Iain McKay, Marie Trigona, Chris Spannos, Ernesto Aguilar, Uri Gordon, and more.
Few thinkers have been declared irrelevant and out of date with such frequency as Karl Marx. And yet, despite their best efforts to bury him again and again, Marx’s specter continues to haunt his detractors more than a century after his passing. In this engaging and accessible introduction, Alex Callinicos demonstrates that Marx’s ideas hold an enduring relevance for today’s activists fighting against poverty, inequality, oppression, environmental destruction, and the numerous other injustices of the capitalist system. Karl Marx was a highly original and polymathic thinker, unhampered by disciplinary boundaries, whose intellectual influence has been enormous. From the award-winning author of Half of a Yellow Sun, a dazzling new novel: a story of love and race centered around a young man and woman from Nigeria who face difficult choices and challenges in the countries they come to call home.
Years later, Obinze is a wealthy man in a newly democratic Nigeria, while Ifemelu has achieved success as a writer of an eye-opening blog about race in America. Fearless, gripping, at once darkly funny and tender, spanning three continents and numerous lives, Americanah is a richly told story set in today’s globalized world: Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie’s most powerful and astonishing novel yet.
In “A Private Experience,” a medical student hides from a violent riot with a poor Muslim woman whose dignity and faith force her to confront the realities and fears she’s been pushing away. Searing and profound, suffused with beauty, sorrow, and longing, these stories map, with Adichie’s signature emotional wisdom, the collision of two cultures and the deeply human struggle to reconcile them. With her award-winning debut novel, Purple Hibiscus, Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie was heralded by the Washington Post Book World as the “21st century daughter” of Chinua Achebe. With the effortless grace of a natural storyteller, Adichie weaves together the lives of five characters caught up in the extraordinary tumult of the decade. Epic, ambitious and triumphantly realized, Half of a Yellow Sun is a more powerful, dramatic and intensely emotional picture of modern Africa than any we have had before. The limits of fifteen-year-old Kambili’s world are defined by the high walls of her family estate and the dictates of her fanatically religious father. In this engaging, concise volume, renowned scientist and popular writer Frank Close gives a vivid account of the discovery of neutrinos and our growing understanding of their significance, also touching on some speculative ideas concerning the possible uses of neutrinos and their role in the early universe. In telling the story of the neutrino, Close offers a fascinating portrait of a strand of modern physics that sheds light on everything from the workings of the atom and the power of the sun.
Science is beginning to prove what ancient cultures fully embraced: your voice can become one of the most powerful agents of transformation in every facet of your life. Free Your Voice offers readers the liberating insights and personal instruction of sound healing legend Silvia Nakkach, whose four-decade immersion in the use of the voice as a creative force makes her a uniquely qualified teacher and guide.
Free Your Voice invites us to "savor a banquet of our own divine sounds" as we explore breathwork, chant, and other yogic practices for emotional release, opening to insight, and much more.
Diana in Pursuit of Love includes previously unpublished details from the Diana-Morton tapes, it is based on wide-ranging research, and new and exclusive interviews. Beginning with what Scott calls "the law of anarchist calisthenics," an argument for law-breaking inspired by an East German pedestrian crossing, each chapter opens with a story that captures an essential anarchist truth. Far from a dogmatic manifesto, Two Cheers for Anarchism celebrates the anarchist confidence in the inventiveness and judgment of people who are free to exercise their creative and moral capacities.
From the dive bars of Brooklyn's Williamsburg to the dirty alleys of San Francisco's Mission, the urban hipster has redefined American cool with a sighing disdain for everything mainstream. From trusted New York Times bestselling author Bill Bonner comes a radical new way to look at family money and a practical, actionable guide to getting and maintaining multigenerational wealth. A comprehensive guide that shows how families can successfully preserve their estates by ignoring most of what people think they know about "the rich" and, instead, training and motivating all family members to work together toward a very uncommon goal.
Right now, Congress, the Fed, and the Treasury are all gambling with your future and your money. Dice Have No Memory gather's Bonner's richest insights from August 1999 through November 2010 to form a chronological narrative of economics in America.
Bonner's Dice Have No Memory offers elegies for economists, tips for investors, tirades against wasteful warfare past and present, and practical guides to modern finance with graceful prose, well-earned intelligence, and riotous irreverence.


Instead of giving you magic formulas, this archcontrarian teaches you how to think clearly. An updated look at the United States' precarious position given the recent financial turmoil. In The New Empire of Debt, financial writers Bill Bonner and Addison Wiggin return to reveal how the financial crisis that has plagued the United States will soon bring an end to this once great empire. Throughout the book, the authors offer an updated look at the United States' precarious position given the recent financial turmoil, and discuss how government control of the economy and financial system-combined with unfettered deficit spending and gluttonous consumption-has ravaged the business environment, devastated consumer confidence, and pushed the global economy to the brink. Financial journalist Riva Froymovich has good reason to be anxious about the financial turmoil facing Generation Y.
The End of the Good Life: How the Financial Crisis Threatens a Lost Generation--and What We Can Do About It examines short-sighted government policies and initiatives that will wreak havoc on our youth. How Wall Street, Chinese billionaires, oil sheiks, and agribusiness are buying up huge tracts of land in a hungry, crowded world. The Land Grabbers is a first-of-its-kind exposé that reveals the scale and the human costs of the land grab, one of the most profound ethical, environmental, and economic issues facing the globalized world in the twenty-first century. Pearce’s story is populated with larger-than-life characters, from financier George Soros and industry tycoon Richard Branson, to Gulf state sheikhs, Russian oligarchs, British barons, and Burmese generals. Over the next few decades, land grabbing may matter more, to more of the planet’s people, than even climate change.
Fred Pearce has been writing about climate change for eighteen years, and the more he learns, the worse things look.
As Pearce began working on this book, normally cautious scientists beat a path to his door to tell him about their fears and their latest findings. Above all, the scientists told him what they're now learning about the speed and violence of past natural climate change-and what it portends for our future.
As a speaker on women's health and the CEO of an internationally recognized anti-aging center of excellence, Genie James knows all too well that many women are spending too much money, time, and worry battling thickening waists, wrinkles, memory loss, and low libido.
In this eye-opening read, James doesn't just tell women how to slow the aging process; she offers a revolutionary approach to change the aging process, securing a much healthier, happier, and more vibrant future. With refreshing candor, case studies, and insights about her personal struggles with gravity and greying, James sifts through the latest science to help women devise a personalized plan to overhaul key areas of health, from hormones, heart and breast health, to weight loss, memory, moods, and their sex lives.
A precious pink mineral mined from ancient hills in Pakistan’s Punjab province has arrived on the American cooking scene as an exciting and enticing new form of cooking. According to such mythologies the Germans emerged suddenly from a crack in the eartha€™s surface. As with the story of Cronos and his son Zeus, the king feared that when they reached adulthood the twins would seize his position.
Natural resources in the area provided timber, clay, straw, and abundant fish for the construction of houses and protective walls and for food.
They migrated into northern Italy and in the 6th century moved south from Tuscany northern Italy to the Tiber. The Senate functioned as an advisory council to the king, and the assembly had matters referred to it for popular input, which the king could accept or ignore. The citizens were divided into centuries (100 citizens) and 35 tribes, 4 major tribes in the city of Rome (urban dwellers) and 31 rural tribes (farmers, landowners). The Senate began during the Roman monarchy, then gained additional power in the Republic, but with the advent of the Empire, declined in its power and influence. In two months they amazingly built over 300 war ships and trained 10,000 marines to combat Carthage.
A series of heartless and corrupt kings led to a social and political chaos so bad that in 64 BC Rome had to step in and conquer the area in order to quell the confusion. A series of assassinations, grabs for power, and appointments of individuals by the Senate outside the normal rules of the constitution, caused a crisis. When Pompey landed in Alexandria, he was killed by Egyptians who thought they were being loyal to Julius and would find favor with him. Cleopatra presumed that after Julius returned to Rome he would call for her and her son to join him there.
This action by the Senate and the perceived arrogance of Julius greatly alarmed a group in the Senate led by Julius Brutus. It was not simply because of his personal attributes or that he was the nephew of Julius that caused the Senate to include Octavian. Perhaps the geographic separation would enable the second triumvirate succeed where the first had failed. To make matters worse, Antony was married to the sister of Octavian and Octavian, in turn, was married to the sister of Marc Antony!
The countryside was divided between several factions.The Hellenized Jews had become European in their dress, language, and culture.
The Zealots also dressed as women to disguise themselves and plunged daggers into rivals on the streets of Jerusalem. Furthermore, Jewish worship had so declined that prostitutes, according to Josephus the Jewish historian of the Roman Empire and school mate of Titus, were plying their trade inside the temple walls! He placed three legions around the western sides of the city and a fourth on the east on i??the Mount of Olives.
Josephus states that the stench of the dead on crosses was so great that legionnaires became sick at the odor. This was Goda€™s judgement upon a people who rejected him, although he presented himself to them as their Messiah. The Julian Calendar provided the names of the months used world-wide and served as Europea€™s unified calendar until 1582 when Pope Gregory XIII developed the Gregorian Calendar.
February is the only month that is 28 days long in common years and 29 days long in leap years. Public restrooms and public baths were also introduced by the Romans, although public toilets were present earlier in Greece, also. Arches could support heavier loads than columns and flat roofs by distributing the weight downward through each segment of the archa€™s construction. Most famous of Roman domed buildings was the Pantheon in Rome, the temple dedicated to the worship and honoring of a€?all the gods,a€? which is what the word a€?pantheona€? means in Greek. After Trajan, Christians became progressively accepted and many were appointed to positions in government and the military, and many others held important positions as teachers and professors. Marc Anthony despised Octavian and spent most of his time in Egypt with the Eastern troops.
He became the first bona fide Emperor and the second of six in the Julian line to rule Rome. When Pompey landed in Alexandria, he was killed by Egyptians who thought they were being loyal to Julius and would find favor with him.A  However, Julius had a personal rule -- no leader defeated by Julius would be put to death.
Actium was a naval battle, pitting the forces of Octavian and Rome against those of Marc Antony and the Egyptian forces of Cleopatra.
The circle of the world is set in a somewhat rectangular frame background with a pointed top, and an ornamented border of a zig-zag pattern often found in psalter-maps of the period (#223).
Show pity, as you said you would, on all Who their devotion paid to me for you made me Savioress. Olympus and such cities as Athens and Corinth; the Delphic oracle, misnamed Delos, is represented by a hideous head.
James (Roxburghe Club) 1929, with representations from manuscripts in the British Library and the Bodleian Library, and a€?Marvels of the Easta€?, by R. The upper-left corner of the Hereford Map, showing north and east Asia (compare to the contents on Chart 3). 1), however, call attention to a remarkable degree of accuracy in the relationship of toponymsa€”for cities, rivers, and mountainsa€”both in EMM and in Hereford Map legends.A  On the Asia Minor littoral, for example, one passage in EMM links 39 place-names in a running series, 23 of which are found in Chart 4 (and visible, in almost exactly parallel order, on Fig.
5, above).A  Treating islands separately from the eartha€™s three a€?partsa€? follows the organizational style adopted by Isidore of Seville, Honorius Augustodunensis, and other medieval geographical authorities. Note Lincoln on its hill and Snowdon ('Snawdon'), Caernarvon and Conway in Wales, referring to the castles Edward I was building there when the map was being created.
In England, a detailed study of its less obvious features, such as the sequences of its place names and some of its coastal outlines by G.
The Psilli reputedly tested the virtue of their wives by exposing their children to serpents. The cumulative effect has been to enable us at last to evaluate the map in terms of its actual (largely non-geographical and not exclusively religious) purpose, the age in which it was created and in the context of the general development of European cartography.
The Old and New Testaments contained few doctrinal implications for geography, other than a bias in favor of an inhabited world consisting of three interlinked continents containing descendants of Noah's three sons.
This now-lost map was referred to in some detail by a number of classical writers and it seems to have been created under the direction of Emperor Augustus's son-in-law, Vipsanius Agrippa (63-12 BC) for official purposes. As the centuries went by, more and more was included with references to places associated with events in classical history and legend (particularly fictionalized tales about Alexander the Great) and from biblical history with brief notes on and the very occasional illustration of natural history. Note also the Roman provincial boundaries, the relative accuracy of the British coastlines (lower left) and the attention paid to the Balkans and Denmark, with which Saxon England had close contacts. Some, often oriented to the north, attempted to show the whole world in zones, with the inhabited earth occupying the zone between the equator and the frozen north.
They were never intended to convey purely geographical information or to stand alone without explanatory text.
Often a 'context' for them would have been provided by the other secular as well as religious surrounding decorations. For many maps continued to be used primarily for educational, including theological, purposes. They reached their fullest development in the thirteenth century when Englishmen like Roger Bacon, John of Holywood (Sacrobosco), Robert Grosseteste and Matthew Paris were playing an inordinately large part in creative geographical thinking in Europe.
In most, if not all of these maps, the strange peoples or 'Marvels of the East' are shown occupying Ethiopia on the right (southern) edge, as on the Hereford map. Exposure to light, fire, water, and religious bigotry or indifference over the centuries has, however, led to the destruction of most of them. Both are now lost but it seems quite likely that the so-called 'Psalter Map', produced in London in the early 1260s and now owned by the British Library, is a much reduced copy of the map that hung in Westminster Palace.
Despite some broad similarities in arrangement and content, however, there are very considerable differences from the Ebstorf and the 'Westminster Palace' maps in details - like the precise location of wildlife, the portrayal of some coastlines and islands, or in the recent information incorporated. Thomas says of her fellow sociopaths, we are your neighbors, co-workers, and quite possibly the people closest to you: lovers, family, friends. In fact, they’re potentially more productive and useful to society than neurotypicals or “empaths,” as they fondly like to call “normal” people.
Stonewalling by members of Harding’s circle kept a lid on the story–witnesses developed “faulty” memories or fled the country, and important documents went missing–but contemporary records newly made available to McCartney reveal a shocking, revelatory picture of just how far-reaching the affair was, how high the stakes, and how powerful the conspirators. Now repackaged with a new introduction from bestselling author Hampton Sides to coincide with a major HBO dramatic film of the book, Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee. A national bestseller in hardcover for more than a year after its initial publication, it has sold over four million copies in multiple editions and has been translated into seventeen languages. A unique and disturbing narrative told with force and clarity, Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee changed forever our vision of how the West was won, and lost. Napolitano reveals how Theodore Roosevelt, a bully, and Woodrow Wilson, a constitutional scholar, each pushed aside the Constitution's restrictions on the federal government and used it as an instrument to redistribute wealth, regulate personal behavior, and enrich the government.
Theodore and Woodrow exposes two of our nation's most beloved presidents and how they helped speed the Progressive cause on its merry way. So argues First Things columnist David Goldman in How Civilizations Die (And Why Islam Is Dying Too). What causes us to gasp in startled fear at a sharp sound that our spouse, even though blessed with excellent hearing, appears to barely notice? And this is true not only from one person to another, but within the same individual, as well. Our experiences are vastly different today than they were when we were children and our senses and brains were still developing; and those experiences are becoming ever more different as we age, when natural changes alert us to the need to compensate, often in ways that are quite positive. Therefore it's both ironic and understandable that children often prefer bland food drawn from a small list of favorites to avoid being overwhelmed. Yet even before her marriage to Eddie, her life involved incendiary bombs, serial killers, film roles and love affairs with flying aces. Much has been written about Eddie Chapman, films have been made, television programmes produced. A remote outpost built to protect trapping interests, it grew as agriculture expanded on the new frontier. It tells how the city grew to become the heart of American industry and how its utter collapse—from 1.8 million residents in 1950 to 714,000 only six decades later—resulted from a confluence of public policies, private industry decisions, and deep, thick seams of racism. The first are called "biblical"--because they contain material that was later canonized in the Hebrew Bible; the second are called "non-Biblical"--because they contain poetry, rules for holy living, and imaginative, midrashic interpretations that are unique to the community that produced them.
The Dead Sea Scrolls Bible breathes new life into scripture by delving into the earliest source material yet discovered. Rupert Sheldrake, one of the world's most innovative scientists, shows the ways in which science is being constricted by assumptions that have, over the years, hardened into dogmas.
Sheldrake shows that the materialist ideology is moribund; under its sway, increasingly expensive research is reaping diminishing returns while societies around the world are paying the price. When Congress is broken—as its justifiably dismal approval ratings suggest—so is our democracy. Both Frank and Dodd collaborated with Kaiser throughout their legislative efforts and allowed their staffs to share every step of the drafting and deal making that produced the 1,500-page law that transformed America’s financial sector.
Army's most elite and secretive special-ops unit, written by the legendary founder and first commanding officer of Delta Force. In 1921 the British created Iraq, and an entourage of ex-Ottoman army officers, the Sharifians, became the new ruling elite. Simon shows that the relationships forged between Iraqi officers and Germans in Istanbul before WWI left deep legacies that go a long way toward explaining the disastrous war against Great Britain in 1941, the rejection of liberal values, the revolution of 1958 in which the military finally seized power, and the outlook of the leadership recently overthrown by American and British armies. Alfa Foxtrot 586 was a P-3 Orion on station on a sensitive Cold War mission off the Kamchatka Peninsula on 26 October 1978. Stevens reveals the incredible true story of the search for and discovery of the USS Grunion. For the first time since the Sandinista Revolution in Nicaragua in the 1980s, people within the region have turned toward radical left governments – specifically in Venezuela, Bolivia and Ecuador. Taking a wider perspective than the much-discussed air war, North takes a fresh look at the conflict as a whole to show that the civilian experience and participation, far from being separate and distinct, was integral to the Battle. The war spread quickly, pitting a loose confederation of southeastern Algonquians against a coalition of English colonists. But Jill Lepore makes clear that it was after the war--and because of it--that the boundaries between cultures, hitherto blurred, turned into rigid ones. Let's toss credit default swaps, bailouts, environmental externalities and, while we're at it, private ownership of production in the dustbin of history. Hardly a decade since his death has gone by in which establishment critics have not announced the death of his theory. As another international economic collapse pushes ever growing numbers out of work, and a renewed wave of popular revolt sweeps across the globe, a new generation is learning to ignore all the taboos and scorn piled upon Marx’s ideas and rediscovering that the problems he addressed in his time are remarkably similar to those of our own. Yet in the wake of the collapse of Marxism-Leninism in Eastern Europe the question arises as to how important his work really is for us now. Their Nigeria is under military dictatorship, and people are leaving the country if they can. But when Ifemelu returns to Nigeria, and she and Obinze reignite their shared passion—for their homeland and for each other—they will face the toughest decisions of their lives. Now, in her most intimate and seamlessly crafted work to date, Adichie turns her penetrating eye on not only Nigeria but America, in twelve dazzling stories that explore the ties that bind men and women, parents and children, Africa and the United States. In “Tomorrow is Too Far,” a woman unlocks the devastating secret that surrounds her brother’s death. The Thing Around Your Neck is a resounding confirmation of the prodigious literary powers of one of our most essential writers. Now, in her masterly, haunting new novel, she recreates a seminal moment in modern African history: Biafra’s impassioned struggle to establish an independent republic in Nigeria during the 1960s. Fifteen-year-old Ugwu is houseboy to Odenigbo, a university professor who sends him to school, and in whose living room Ugwu hears voices full of revolutionary zeal. These tiny, ghostly particles are formed by the billions in stars and pass through us constantly, unseen, at almost the speed of light. Close begins with the early history of the discovery of radioactivity by Henri Becquerel and Marie and Pierre Curie, the early model of the atom by Ernest Rutherford, and problems with these early atomic models, and Wolfgang Pauli's solution to that problem by inventing the concept of neutrino (named by Enrico Fermi, "neutrino" being Italian for "little neutron". With coauthor Valerie Carpenter, Silvia shows how to reclaim the healing potential of your voice (regardless of training or experience) through more than 100 enjoyable exercises that are steeped in spiritual tradition and classical vocal technique and backed by the latest science. Required reading for the thousands of people in Silvia's training programs, here is a definitive resource for using the voice as an instrument of healing and fulfillment.
The definitive book on Diana, Pricess of Wales's last years, by the biographer she herself chose.
Now, in his most accessible and personal book to date, the acclaimed social scientist makes the case for seeing like an anarchist. In the course of telling these stories, Scott touches on a wide variety of subjects: public disorder and riots, desertion, poaching, vernacular knowledge, assembly-line production, globalization, the petty bourgeoisie, school testing, playgrounds, and the practice of historical explanation.
Hipsters are easily identified by their worn-out shoes, fixies and PBR tallboys, but until now no one had investigated beyond the hipster look to the even more hilarious hipster psyche. Family Wealth: How to Build a Family Fortune and Hold Onto It for 100 Years is packed with useful information, interwoven with Bonner's stories about his own family's wealth philosophy and practices.
This book is a must-read for all individual investors--even those who do not plan to leave money to their children--because it challenges many of the most ubiquitous principles and rules of investing. Bill Bonner reports on the true health and well-being of the world's largest economy to over half a million readers each day in The Daily Reckoning. While everyone scrambled to purchase shares of the latest and hottest dot-com, Bill announced his Trade of the Decade: Sell dollars, buy gold. Bill Bonner's common sense genius rips the window dressing off modern finance - a world normally populated by misguided do-gooders, corrupt politicians, and big bankers empowered by dubious "mathematical" truths. Along the way, Bonner and Wiggin cast a wide angle lens that looks back in history and ahead to the coming century: showing how dramatic changes in the economic power of the United States will inevitably impact every American. The New Empire of Debt clearly shows how this has happened and discusses what you can do to overcome the financial challenges that will arise as the situation deteriorates. In addition to offering concrete policy suggestions, this book is driven by the touching personal stories of Americans and other young people around the globe affected by the financial crisis. Fearing future food shortages or eager to profit from them, the world’s wealthiest and most acquisitive countries, corporations, and individuals have been buying and leasing vast tracts of land around the world. The corporations, speculators, and governments scooping up land cheap in the developing world claim that industrial-scale farming will help local economies.
We discover why Goldman Sachs is buying up the Chinese poultry industry, what Lord Rothschild and a legendary 1970s asset-stripper are doing in the backwoods of Brazil, and what plans a Saudi oil billionaire has for Ethiopia. It will affect who eats and who does not, who gets richer and who gets poorer, and whether agrarian societies can exist outside corporate control. Where once scientists were concerned about gradual climate change, now more and more of them fear we will soon be dealing with abrupt change resulting from triggering hidden tipping points. With Speed and Violence tells the stories of these scientists and their work—from the implications of melting permafrost in Siberia and the huge river systems of meltwater beneath the icecaps of Greenland and Antarctica to the effects of the "ocean conveyor" and a rare molecule that runs virtually the entire cleanup system for the planet. With Speed and Violence is the most up-to-date and readable book yet about the growing evidence for global warming and the large climatic effects it may unleash. With the explosion in craft beers and interest in seasonal cuisine, A Year in Food and Beer perfectly fills a niche.
Besieged by a mountain of anti-aging information and products, James found too much of it was marketing hype written by researchers with financial ties to companies touting the fountain of youth.
Medical miracles really do have the potential to reduce our risk of chronic disease while positively impacting long-term health, sexuality, and longevity, and there are things you can do to override your genes to age slower, happier, and better. Many primitive tribes believe that a totem animal was their ancient ancestor, hence the totem poles among the Alaskan tribes.
When they arrived at the Tiber and the early settlements around present-day Rome, they cleared the mud huts of the original inhabitants, dug canals for irrigation and draining of swamps, and organized cattle herding into a sustainable industry.
Rome with its navy invaded Carthage, burned it to the ground, and poured salt onto the soil so that a city could never again be built there. To the south in Attica and the Peloponnese the Attican League rose in rebellion against the Roman invaders, but were quickly defeated. This is but one of several times that God used pagan armies as his tool to bring justice to evil kings and kingdoms. Brutus was a close friend of Julius and had fought with him at Pharsalus against Pompey, but he was alarmed at the power grab by Julius To protect the Republic against a dictatorship, Brutus and others in the Senate made a bloody plan. Roman culture had so idealized the military that it was inconceivable for anyone but military leaders to be appointed to the triumvirate. The fact was that Octavian had marched on Rome and demanded that the Senate appoint him as one of the consuls! He was a well-qualified leader and was the emperor who ordered the census which caused Joseph and Mary to travel to Bethlehem.
He was then succeeded by his brother, Domitian, who many saw as a weaker candidate because he lacked the military zeal of his father and brother.
Vespasian with 60,000 Roman legionnaires worked his way south through Syria, Samaria, and northern Judah, systematically wiping out all resistance to Romea€™s authority.
In protest, many of the faithful, a probably led by the men who should legally have become high priest, left Jerusalem for Masada in the south east. When the Passover season arrived, Titus a€?politelya€? allowed the thousands of pilgrims to enter the city, but then refused to allow them to leave. When it was discovered that some attempted to escape after having swallowed the gold jewelry and coins, the Romans hired Arabs to slit the stomachs of those who attempted to flee in order to seek for the hidden gold.
But it was a further evidence of the truthfulness of the message of Jesus, that in him alone is found the forgiveness of sins and the free gift of eternal life. Some were fed by manmade reservoirs, one of the earliest, large scale attempts to manage natural resources.
There are at least 333 terms that are literally the same in spelling and meaning in both Latin and English.
He placed two other men under Maximian and himself as junior partners, so-to-speak -- Constantius in Gaul as a junior partner under Maximian, and Galerius in the east under Diocletian, giving to them the title Augustus. But for this study, the following are listed as emperors and lines of emperors that are worth remembering.
Lepidus foolishly attempted to take authority over Octaviana€™s troops and was expelled by Octavian from the triumvirate. In Phrygia there is born an animal called bonnacon; it has a bulla€™s head, horsea€™s mane and curling horns, when chased it discharges dung over an extent of three acres which burns whatever it touches.
India also has the largest elephants, whose teeth are supposed to be of ivory; the Indians use them in war with turrets (howdahs) set on them. The linx sees through walls and produces a black stonea€” a valuable carbuncle in its secret parts.
A tiger when it sees its cub has been stolen chases the thief at full speed; the thief in full flight on a fast horse drops a mirror in the track of the tiger and so escapes unharmed.
Agriophani Ethiopes eat only the flesh of panthers and lions they have a king with only one eye in his forehead.
Men with doga€™s heads in Norway; perhaps heads protected with furs made them resemble dogs. Essendones live in Scythia it is their custom to carry out the funeral of their parents with singing and collecting a company of friends to devour the actual corpses with their teeth and make a banquet mingled with the flesh of animals counting it more glorious to be consumed by them than by worms.
Solinus: they occupy the source of the Ganges and live only on the scent of apples of the forest if they should perceive any smell they die instantly.
Himantopodes; they creep with crawling legs rather than walk they try to proceed by sliding rather than by taking steps.
The Monocoli in India are one-legged and swift when they want to be protected from the heat of the sun they are shaded by the size of their foot. Flint, a€?The Hereford Map:A  Its Author(s), Two Scenes and a Border,a€? Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 6th ser. Nevertheless, it placed a somewhat misleading emphasis on the map's geographical 'inaccuracies', its depiction of fabulous creatures and supposedly religious purpose, all clothed in what for the layman must have seemed an air of wildly esoteric learning and near-impenetrable medieval mystery. Recent research suggests this is a reference to African traders in medicinal drugs who visited ancient Rome. Today, with the map in the headlines of the popular press, it may be time to give a brief resume of what is currently known about it and to attempt to explain some of its more important features in the light of recent research. In the eyes of some (but by no means all) theologians, a fourth inhabited continent, the Antipodes, would implicitly have denied the descent of mankind from Noah, and the depiction of such a continent was deemed to be heretical by them. It was based on survey and on military itineraries and reflected the political and administrative realities of the time. Where space allowed, reference was also made to important contemporary towns, regions, and geographical features such as freshly-opened mountain passes. Most of the maps, however, like the Hereford Mappamundi, depicted only that part of the world that was known in classical times to be inhabited and they were oriented with east at the top.
Traces of the maps' classical origins could regularly be seen in, for instance, the continued depiction of the provincial boundaries of the Roman Empire (which are partly visible on the Hereford map) and for many centuries by the island of Delos which had been sacred to the early Greeks being the centre of the inhabited world.
They and the texts that they adorned continued to be copied by hand until late in the 15th century and are to be found in early printed books.
God dominates the world and the 'Marvels of the East' occupy the lower right edge of the map, as they do on the Hereford map. Together they would have provided a propaganda backdrop for the public appearances of the ruler, ruling body, noble or cleric who had commissioned them, and some may have been able to stand alone as visual histories. The Hereford map, as an inscription at the lower left corner tells us, was certainly intended for use as a visual encyclopedia, to be 'heard, read and seen' by onlookers. Because of the maps' size, they were able to include far more information and illustration than their predecessors.


More space was also found for current political references and information derived from contemporary military, religious and commercial itineraries. Today, the earliest survivor, dating from the beginning of the thirteenth century, is a badly damaged example now in Vercelli Cathedral, probably having been brought to Italy in about 1219 by a papal legate returning from England.
We know from Matthew Paris that the Westminster map was copied by others, and it is likely to have had a lasting influence even though the original was destroyed in 1265. A Latin legend in the bottom right corner of the Hereford map refers to the 5th century Christian propagandist Orosius as the main source for the map, but as we have already seen, it incorporates information from numerous ancient and thirteenth century sources and adds its own interpretations of them. The map is an outstanding example of a map type that had evolved over the preceding eight centuries. Our risk-seeking behavior and general fearlessness are thrilling, our glibness and charm alluring. The book confirms suspicions and debunks myths about sociopathy and is both the memoir of a high-functioning, law-abiding (well, mostly) sociopath and a roadmap – right from the source - for dealing with the sociopath in your life, be it a boss, sibling, parent, spouse, child, neighbor, colleague or friend. Harding and his so-called “oil cabinet” made it possible for the oilmen to secure vast oil reserves that had been set aside for use by the U.S. The strength of a civilization's religion affects its purpose, its fertility rate, and ultimately, its fate, says Goldman--who then argues that, contrary to popular belief, Islamic countries are in the last throes of death while Christian America is in a position to flourish. Why do children twist their faces in disgust when asked to sample the smallest bite of their parents' most recent culinary addiction? For our various sensory systems can be altered over time, their acuity changing in response to aging or injury, life experiences, evolving personalities, and other factors.
Adults, on the other hand, lose taste receptors as they age, so getting older often moves us in the opposite direction, prompting us to try new varieties of ethnic cuisines and spicier foods.
Or understand exactly where we are in space, so that we can reach for our morning coffee cup and not close our hands around empty space? After her marriage she coped with Eddie's mistresses, smuggling, separations and personal traumas.
Yet alongside Eddie for most of his extraordinary life was an equally extraordinary woman: Mrs Zigzag. Its industry took a great leap forward with the completion of the Erie Canal, which opened up the Great Lakes to the East Coast. And it raises the question: when we look at modern-day Detroit, are we looking at the ghost of America’s industrial past or its future? In the old days, wood-workers relied on the ease with which green wood could be worked to make the parts they needed, and on the way wood shrinks to hold these parts together. It is a crucial work to reckon with for anyone interested in Jewish life around the time of Jesus. We see how Congress members protect their own turf, often without regard for what might best serve the country—more eager to court television cameras than legislate on complicated issues about which many of them remain ignorant.
Simon contends that this elite, returning to an Iraq made up of different ethnic, religious, and social groups, had to weld these disparate elements into a nation. When a propeller malfunction turned into an engine fire, the pilot was forced to ditch his turboprop into the empty, mountainous seas west of the Aleutian Islands. Discovered in 2006 after a decades-long, high-risk search by the Abele brothers—whose father commanded the submarine and met his untimely death aboard it—one question remained: what sank the USS Grunion?
Why has this profound shift taken place and how does this new, so-called "Twenty-First Century Socialism" actually manifest itself? Going beyond simple "two-left" conceptions, the book reveals the true underpinnings of this powerful, transformative and yet also complicated and contradictory process.
This recovery of the people's history demonstrates that Hitler's aim was not the military conquest of England, and that his unattained target was the hearts and minds of the British people.
While it raged, colonial armies pursued enemy Indians through the swamps and woods of New England, and Indians attacked English farms and towns from Narragansett Bay to the Connecticut River Valley.
King Philip's War became one of the most written-about wars in our history, and Lepore argues that the words strengthened and hardened feelings that, in turn, strengthened and hardened the enmity between Indians and Anglos. The Accumulation of Freedom brings together economists, historians, theorists, and activists for a first-of-its-kind study of anarchist economics. Whole forests have been felled to produce the paper necessary to fuel this effort to marginalize the coauthor of The Communist Manifesto.
An important dimension of this volume is to place Marx's writings in their historical context and to separate what he actually said from what others (in particular, Engels) interpreted him as saying. The young mother at the center of “Imitation” finds her comfortable life in Philadelphia threatened when she learns that her husband has moved his mistress into their Lagos home.
When Nigeria is shaken by a military coup, Kambili’s father, involved mysteriously in the political crisis, sends her to live with her aunt.
Yet half a century after their discovery, we still know less about them than all the other varieties of matter that have ever been seen.
The book describes how the confirmation of Pauli's theory didn't occur until 1956, when Clyde Cowan and Fred Reines detected neutrinos, and reveals that the first "natural" neutrinos were finally detected by Reines in 1965 (before that, they had only been detected in reactors or accelerators). Inspired by the core anarchist faith in the possibilities of voluntary cooperation without hierarchy, Two Cheers for Anarchism is an engaging, high-spirited, and often very funny defense of an anarchist way of seeing--one that provides a unique and powerful perspective on everything from everyday social and political interactions to mass protests and revolutions.
His newsletter is to the mainstream financial press what the Gnostic Gospels are to the King James Bible.
The scale is astounding: parcels the size of small countries are being gobbled up across the plains of Africa, the paddy fields of Southeast Asia, the jungles of South America, and the prairies of Eastern Europe. Along the way, Pearce introduces us to the people who actually live on, and live off of, the supposedly “empty” land that is being grabbed, from Cambodian peasants, victimized first by the Khmer Rouge and now by crony capitalism, to African pastoralists confined to ever-smaller tracts.
It instructs readers how to identify flavors in specific American and European-style beers and how to complement those with gourmet foods and cooking techniques by season. But, shift happens, as they say, and there are some things you can't change, and some things that are downright dangerous. Luminous crystals shot through with hues of rose, garnet and ice offer a template for preparing food that is as arrestingly visual as it it tantalizingly beautiful. The leading city of the rebellious Attican League, Corinth, was burned to the ground by the Romans. For many years the plebians, out of loyalty to the Republic, overlooked the need for social reforms, but with the influx of slaves things were about to change. The three arbitrarily chose themselves to take the power in what was basically a military coup. Hence, Julius, the last man standing of the three, returned to Rome and was declared a€?Perpetual Dictatora€? by the Senate in 44 B.C.
Second, he secretly stole the private will of Anthony and made its terms known to the Senate.
They secured Roman control of Britain and strengthened the borders with the Germanic tribes. The Zealots tended to be hot-headed nationalists bent on independence, not only from Rome, but also from what was perceived to me a corrupt priesthood. Many citizens fled in front of the troops to the south, leaving behind burning towns and cities, and seeking the safety of the high-walled Jerusalem.
Some believe these were the Essenes who kept the Dead Sea Scrolls along the shores of the Dead Sea. This put enormous strains on the food and water supplies and virtually broke down all health and sanitation systems. Expansion into the Balkans, Spain, Britain, Gaul, Persia, and North Africa produced the greatest era of Romanization.
The road networks were built throughout Europe, the Middle East, and North Africa, including the famed Apian Way that connected major cities and military bases in Italy with Rome. The idea was that when either Diocletian or Maximian would die or retire, the junior partners would become the next emperors. Upon arriving in Egypt and learning about Pompeya€™s death, Julius put to death the assassins of Pompey.
Hence, Julius, the last man standing of the three, returned to Rome and was declared a€?Perpetual Dictatora€?A  by the Senate in 44 B.C. Many citizens fled in front of the troops to the south, leaving behind burning towns and cities,A  and seeking the safety of the high-walled Jerusalem. From its literal meaning in Greek it also signifies the plant ox-tongue, so called from its shape and roughness of its leaves. Conventionally holds a mirror in one hand, combing lovely hair with the other According to myth created by Ea, Babylonian water god. The large city at the top edge is Babylon (its description is the map's longest legend [A§181). 12-30.A  The conservator Christopher Clarkson drew my attention to the gouge in the Mapa€™s former frame. Talbert (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000), which I employ throughout my book, but with the caution that in dealing with the manuscript culture of medieval Europe, it is misleading and anachronistic to speak of a€?standarda€? or a€?correcta€? spellings, especially of geographical words.
Casual visitors to the dark aisle where it hung could see only a dark, dirty image which they were encouraged to view in a pious, but also rather condescending manner. Crone of the Royal Geographical Society, revealed that despite the antiquity of many of the map's sources much was almost contemporary with the map's creation and was secular. Much of the text that follows is an amplification of information panels and leaflets prepared for the British Library's current display of the map.
Most medieval mapmakers seem to have accepted this constraint, but world maps showing four continents are not uncommon: notably the world maps created by Beatus of Liebana (#207) in the late 8th century to illustrate his Commentary on the Apocalypse of St. It may have incorporated information from an earlier survey commissioned by Julius Caesar and, to judge from some early references, it may originally have shown four continents. These texts owed much to classical writers, particularly Pliny the Elder (23-79), who himself derived much of his information from still earlier writers such as the fifth century BC Greek historian Herodotus.
As befitted the encyclopedic texts that they illustrated, the maps became visual encyclopedias of human and divine knowledge and not mere geographical maps. Many were purely schematic and symbolic, showing a T, representing the Mediterranean, the Don and the Nile, surrounded by an 0, for the great ocean encircling the world, sometimes with a fourth continent being added. It was only from about 1120 that Jerusalem took Oclos' place as the focal point of the map, as it does on the Hereford Mappamundi. They retained and expanded the geographical and historical elements of the older maps - coastlines, layout and place names on the maps frequently reveal their ancestry - but to them they added several novel features. Inscriptions of varying lengths amplified the pictures and sometimes contained references to their sources. Much better preserved, until its destruction in 1943, was the famous Ebstorf world map of about 1235. It is difficult to account otherwise for the striking similarities in detailed arrangement and content between the Psalter world map, the recently discovered 'Duchy of Cornwall' fragment (probably commissioned in about 1285 by a cousin of Edward I for his foundation, Ashridge College in Hertfordshire) and the Aslake world map fragments of about 1360. In many of its details it particularly resembles the Anglo-Saxon World Map of about 1000 and the twelfth century Henry of Mainz world map in Corpus Christi College, Cambridge.
Our often quick wit and outside-the-box thinking make us appear intelligent—even brilliant. Goldman goes on to say that America must embrace our exceptionalism and stop trying to save Muslim countries that are determined to destroy themselves. How is it that the physically adventurous young person you remember being—the one whose greatest passion was riding the scariest roller coaster imaginable—somehow grew into an adult whose stomach begins to churn nervously at even the thought of such a ride? Coming from humble origins, Betty would, in time, own a beauty business, a health farm and a castle in Ireland, become the friend and confidante of film stars and an African president, and the honoured guest of Middle Eastern royalty. Dashing and louche, courageous and unpredictable, the traitor was a patriot inside, and the villain a hero. Surrounded by untapped natural resources, Detroit turned iron from the Mesabi Range into stoves and railcars, and eventually cars by the millions. Kaiser, whose long and distinguished career at The Washington Post has made him as keen and knowledgeable an observer of Congress as we have, takes us behind the sound bites to expose the protocols, players, and politics of the House and Senate—revealing both the triumphs of the system and (more often) its fundamental flaws. Kaiser shows how ferocious partisanship regularly overwhelms all other considerations, though occasionally individual integrity prevails. Was it a round from a Japanese ship, a catastrophic mechanical failure, or something else—one of the sub’s own torpedoes? What are we to make of the often fraught relationship between the social movements and governments in these countries and do, in fact, the latter even qualify as "socialist" in reality?
Both sides, in fact, had pursued the war seemingly without restraint, killing women and children, torturing captives, and mutilating the dead.
She shows how, as late as the nineteenth century, memories of the war were instrumental in justifying Indian removals--and how in our own century that same war has inspired Indian attempts to preserve "Indianness" as fiercely as the early settlers once struggled to preserve their Englishness.
The editors aren't trying to subvert the notion of economics—they accept the standard definition, but reject the notion that capitalism or central planning are acceptable ways to organize economic life. Informed by current debates and new perspectives, the volume provides a comprehensive coverage of all the major areas to which Marx made significant contributions. She suffers defeats and triumphs, finds and loses relationships and friendships, all the while feeling the weight of something she never thought of back home: race.
And the title story depicts the choking loneliness of a Nigerian girl who moves to an America that turns out to be nothing like the country she expected; though falling in love brings her desires nearly within reach, a death in her homeland forces her to reexamine them. As we follow these intertwined lives through a military coup, the Biafran secession and the subsequent war, Adichie brilliantly evokes the promise, and intimately, the devastating disappointments that marked this time and place. In this house, noisy and full of laughter, she discovers life and love – and a terrible, bruising secret deep within her family. Close takes us to research experiments miles underground that are able to track neutrinos' fleeting impact as they pass through vast pools of cadmium chloride and he explains why they are becoming of such interest to cosmologists--if we can track where a neutrino originated we will be looking into the far distant reaches of the universe. Through a wide-ranging series of memorable anecdotes and examples, the book describes an anarchist sensibility that celebrates the local knowledge, common sense, and creativity of ordinary people.
Swamped in student loan debt they’re postponing marriage and buying homes, unable to save money, and delaying having children. Veteran science writer Fred Pearce spent a year circling the globe to find out who was doing the buying, whose land was being taken over, and what the effect of these massive land deals seems to be.
While some mega-farms are ethically run, all too often poor farmers and cattle herders are evicted from ancestral lands or cut off from water sources. Home cooks, beer drinkers, and curious foodies will be fortified learning about beer and breweries and sampling the 40 enticing recipes and more than 100 beer-pairing suggestions. Salt expert, Mark Bitterman outlines the ancient practice of cooking on salt blocks, while providing simple, modern recipes. When they reached maturity, Romulus murdered Remus (a memory of Cain and Abel?) and formed the community of Rome. The three were Julius Caesar from his assignment in England, Pompey from his station in Spain, and Crassus in his station from Syria. In order to prevent armed revolutions in Rome, generals returning to Rome were forbidden to allow their troops to cross the Rubicon en mass.
Antonya€™s will provided for large land grants in Italy for the children he had sired with Cleopatra.
The dating of the writing of the Book of Revelation by John while on Patmos determines whether the book was written prior to the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 A.D. They passed new tax codes to restore the Roman treasury and increased the silver base for the Roman currency. The civil war was directed not only at Rome, but was conducted within Jerusalem by one faction against the other.
The goal was to prevent chaos at the death of an emperor and to provide orderly succession of leadership. Christians were required to make sacrifices to the gods or face imprisonment, exile, or death. Cleopatra, according to legend used a poisonous snake in her bed to inflict the fatal wound. Crone points out that this reference has special significance because Augustus had also entrusted his son-in-law, M. Sometimes identified with Sirens, the mythical enchantresses along coasts of the Mediterranean, who lured sailors to destruction by their singing. Amazon means a€?without a breast,a€? according to tradition these women removed the right breast to use the bow.
At the right edge, a looping line shows the route of the wandering Israelites in their Exodus from Egypt; it crosses the Jordan to the left of a naked woman who looks over her shoulder at the sinking cities of Sodom and Gomorrah in the Dead Sea (she is Lot's wife, turned into a pillar of salt [A§254]. 400), a text that was often attended during the Middle Ages by diagrammatic a€?mapsa€? illustrating the concept.A  See also David Woodward. Others delved into the question of its authorship, which had previously been assumed to be obvious from the wording on the map itself.
The medievalized depiction on the bottom left corner of the Hereford world map of 'Caesar Augustus' commissioning a survey of the world from three surveyors representing the three corners of the world may be based on a muddled - and religiously acceptable - memory of these classical events.
Even though the inscriptions on the maps gradually became more and more garbled and the information more and more embellished, distorted, and misunderstood, they nevertheless retained their tenuous links with ancient learning. More than simple geographical shorthand, such maps were also meant to symbolize the crucifixion, the descent of man from Noah's three sons and the ultimate triumph of Christianity. Palestine itself was usually enlarged far beyond what, on a modern map, would have been its actual proportions. A note on one of the most famous of them, the Ebstorf, says that it could be used for route planning. Although the maps were still dominated by biblical and classical history and legend, most other information seems to have been acceptable and was accommodated within the traditional framework. Far larger than the Hereford Word Map and much more colorful, it was probably created under the guidance of the itinerant English lawyer, teacher and diplomat, Gervase of Tilbury.
In transmission some facts and text became garbled and some inscriptions are gobbled gook or wrong. We climb the corporate ladder faster than the rest, and appear to have limitless self-confidence. In exchange, the oilmen paid off senior government officials, bribed newspaper publishers, and covered the GOP campaign debt. This vibrant commercial hub attracted businessmen and labor organizers, European immigrants and African Americans from the rural South.
Make a Chair From a Tree is a lively and informative introduction to the old ways of splitting and shaping wood straight from the tree to make a light and beautiful, yet rugged, chair.
Wouldn't it be wonderful if these gardening and landscaping chores could be simplified with one easy method? Schools and the army became the means through which to implant it, and a series of military coups gave the officers the chance to act in its name.
Thirteen men launched the other rafts, the smallest of which terribly overcrowded soon began to leak, threatening the nine men aboard.
For almost half the war, submarine skippers’ complaints about the MK 14 torpedo’s dangerous flaws were ignored by naval brass, who sent the subs out with the defective weapon. This extraordinary debut novel from Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie is about the blurred lines between the old gods and the new, childhood and adulthood, love and hatred – the grey spaces in which truths are revealed and real life is lived.
The result is a kind of handbook on constructive anarchism that challenges us to radically reconsider the value of hierarchy in public and private life, from schools and workplaces to retirement homes and government itself. Finally, some of Bonner's best pronouncements, predictions, and profitable analysis are collected in one place.
The good jobs promised by foreign capitalists and home governments alike fail to materialize.
The introduction provides a thorough manual on everything you need to know to buy, use, heat, maintain, and clean salt blocks with confidence.
The king was replaced by two consuls who were elected by the populace annually (the idea was you cana€™t trust one ruler or hea€™ll attempt to rule absolutely, and cana€™t allow him to serve for long periods of time or he will rule forever!), and the Senate was given expanded powers (rather than being merely an advisory group as they were under the former monarchy). General Hannibal of Carthage, during the second of the three Punic Wars invaded Italy, crossing the Alps with his troops, including a unit of 37 elephants. Crassus had earlier gained fame for having defeated the slave revolt in Italy led by the slave Spartacus. I tell you the truth, this generation will certainly not pass away until all these things have happened. Her death placed the vast wealth of Egypt at Romea€™s disposal and Egypt voluntarily became a province of the Roman Empire. The circle one-third of the way from the bottom is Jerusalem, the Map's central point, with a crucifixion scene above it ([A§387-89]).
Its images and decoration have been examined from a stylistic standpoint by Nigel Morgan and put into the context of their time, while the late Wilma George examined the animals in the light of her own zoological knowledge [2] The chance discoveries of fragments of other English medieval world maps in recent years [3] have expanded the context within which the Hereford World Map can be examined, and the Royal Academy exhibition, 'The Age of Chivalry' of 1987 enabled the map to be displayed in the company of other non-cartographic artifacts of its own time. Generally, though, it was not difficult to adapt surviving copies of existing, secular world maps to suit the purposes of Christian writers from the 5th century onwards.
This was in order to match its historical importance and to accommodate all the information that had to be conveyed. Christ would, for instance, be shown dominating the world, or the world might even be depicted as the actual body of Christ. The world was shown as the body of Christ and much space was devoted to the political situation in northern Germany: an area of particular concern to the Duke who may have commissioned it.
At its mid-20th-century heyday, one in six American jobs were connected to the auto industry, its epicenter in Detroit. Beckwith's acclaimed memoir tells the story of Delta Force ("the Army's most elite commando unit."—Los Angeles Times) as only its maverick creator could tell it—from the bloody baptism of Vietnam to the top-secret training grounds of North Carolina to political battles in the upper levels of the Pentagon itself. This account of the flight crew's desperate battle against the sea, and the heroic efforts to rescue them provide an engrossing true story of survival. The essential guide to passing wealth from one generation to the next, Family Wealth is filled with concrete, practical advice you can put to use right away. Hungry nations are being forced to export their food to the wealthy, and corporate potentates run fiefdoms oblivious to the country beyond their fences.
First, it filled the tribes and Council with newcomers who were not content to allow the status quo to continue.
Those who accept the early date under Nero interpret Revelation to apply primarily to the destruction of Jerusalem, the temple and sacrificial system, and ultimately the downfall of the Roman Empire, and do not see the book addressing primarily things which are to happen wo thousand or more years in the future. Carte marine et portulan au XIIe siA?cle:A  Le Liber de existencia riveriarum et forma maris nostri Mediterranei.
The amount of space dedicated to the other parts of the world varied according to their traditional historical or biblical importance and the preoccupations of the author of the text that the map illustrated. From asylum seekers to bananas, this book uses fun facts to get to the heart of some of the biggest political and economic debates.
He tells you how to fell a tree, split suitable pieces from it and shape those pieces into the parts of the chair, how to finish it, and how to weave a bark seat. This book is a reader's guide to the gardener's secret weapon for healthy, carefree and beautiful gardens and landscapes - mulch. This is the heart-pounding, first-person, insider's view of the missions that made Delta Force legendary. And the legacy of the revolt is still apparent in the next two generations of Iraqi officers that led to the regime of Saddam Hussein. Salt blocks are not only beautiful, but will appeal to people interested in grilling, baking, general cooking, curing, and notably, entertaining.
All officials served one-year terms, except during times of emergency, so that no one person could gain power over his fellow citizens.
So angered were they that they declared war on Cleopatra -- knowing that this would bring Antony into the conflict also, but avoiding, technically at least, a Roman civil war.
Some believe also that Nero was the emperor who sent John the Apostle to exile on the island of Patmos where he composed the Book of Revelation.
Those who accept the late date for the book view it as a prophecy about things to happen at the end of the age.
So angered were they that they declared war on Cleopatra -- knowing that this would bringA  Antony into the conflict also, but avoiding, technically at least, a Roman civil war. Behind the blue band of the river is a grim array of grotesque figures to indicate the existence of primitive peoples. There may be significance in the soulless mermaid placed in the map close to the unattainable Holy Land, or she may be a possible temptation to sea-faring pilgrims. Phillott, wrote that it shows a a€?rejection of all that savoured of scientific geography, . Because of this, space devoted to the author or patron's homeland was often much exaggerated when judged by modern standards, as in the case of England, Wales and Ireland on the Hereford Mappa Mundi. Crone demonstrated, the Hereford also contains sequences of the more important place names along some major thirteenth century commercial and pilgrimage routes. Part economics lesson, part quirky observation on modern life, this collection of easily digestible, bite-sized nuggets of factual goodness will help transform even the most economically illiterate person into an insightful commentator at their next work drinks or weekend barbeque. Advice on every kind of mulch and on how to use mulches on everything from landscape plantings to vegetable gardens makes this the one book that gives readers everything they need to know to use mulch most effectively.
Over time a constitution was adopted that featured an early form of separation of powers and a system of checks and balances.
On a world map, though, as opposed to the strip itinerary maps produced by Matthew Paris in about 1250, the route planning could only have been very approximate and very much incidental to the main purposes. 14), which may have resulted from the survey of the provinces ascribed by tradition to Julius Caesar. In the Hereford map they could revel in this pictorial description of the outside world, which taught natural history, classical legends, explained the winds and reinforced their religious beliefs. The two upright fingers branching up from the Mediterranean are the Aegean and the Black Sea with the Golden Fleece at its extremity.



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