The somme secret tunnel wars (2013),short stories similar to the secret life of walter mitty,how to build high self esteem jack canfield pdf,the secret of the knights templar xbox - Downloads 2016

21.01.2014
This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in Russian. Google's machine translation is a useful starting point for translations, but translators must revise errors as necessary and confirm that the translation is accurate, rather than simply copy-pasting machine-translated text into the English Wikipedia.
Tunnel warfare is a general name for war being conducted in tunnels and other underground cavities. It can be sometimes linked with urban warfare, as tunnels are often found in urban areas and cities, although urban warfare as a whole usually dominates any tunnel considerations. Tunnels, due to their nature, restrict fields of fire and thus any troops in a tunnel usually only have a few areas exposed to fire or sight at any one particular time. Tunneling in order to mine enemy fortresses and make the walls crumble is an ancient military art that has been put in use all over the world.
The oldest known sources about employing tunnels and trenches for guerrilla-like warfare are Roman. Roman legions entering the country soon learned to fear this warfare, as the ambushing of marching columns caused high casualties. The use of tunnels as a means of guerrilla-like warfare against the Roman Empire was also a common practice of the Jewish rebels in Judea during the Bar Kokhba revolt (132a€“136 AD). A particular use of tunneling was in mining, where tunnels, braced with timber supports, were dug under the fortifications of besieged castles or towns, which when fired would collapse, bringing down the overlying wall.
Increased firepower that came with the use of gunpowder, cordite and dynamite made above ground fortifications very expensive if they should withstand any attack.
Such a tunnel fortress was difficult to enter and inside there was no room for the attackers to hide from gunfire and explosives. In trench warfare with heavily fortified strongholds, the tactic of digging and mining the enemy positions was used in the American Civil War during the Siege of Petersburg and the Russo-Japanese War during the Siege of Port Arthur.
The largest mining operations were conducted in the Battle of Messines, where specialist Royal Engineer tunnelling companies placed 22 mines under German lines.
The lessons of these battles led to the construction of even bigger systems of defence underground, like the Maginot line or the Westwall with their own infrastructures.
North Korea, it has been claimed, has prepared several transport tunnels with a capacity 10,000 troops per hour for a possible invasion of South Korea.
The term tunnel war or tunnel warfare (a?°e?“???) was first used for the guerrilla tactic employed by the Chinese in the Second Sino-Japanese War. A major change took place in the art of tunnel warfare in the 15th century in Italy with the development of gunpowder to undermine enemy fortifications.
Many fortresses built counter mine galleries, "hearing tunnels" which were used to listen for enemy mines being built.
Since the 16th century during assault on enemy positions saps, dug by sappers, began to be used. The Austrian general of Italian origin Raimondo Montecuccoli (1609-1680) in his classic work on military affairs described methods of destruction and countering of enemy saps. As early as 1840 Eduard Totleben and Schilder-Schuldner had been engaged on questions of organisation and conduct of underground attacks. On the Western Front during the First World War, the military employed specialist miners to dig tunnels under No Man's Land.
At the beginning of the Somme offensive, the British detonated 19 mines of varying sizes, including two mines that contained 24 tons of explosives. The Ranzhuang tunnel evolved in the course of fighting back Japanese's mopping-up for the people in the central area of Mainland China, Hebei province. However, the main disadvantages of tunnel war is that usually the Japanese could fill up the holes or pour water in to suffocate the resistance fighter inside the tunnels. After the war, the Ranzhuang tunnel site ranked among key heritage preservation unit in China, Hebei province patriotism education base, national defense education base. Currently North Korean strategy is to construct as many underground facilities as possible for military use in the event of a US attack.
In the Korean War the tactic of tunnel warfare was employed by the Chinese forces themselves.
To maintain a full scale guerrilla war in Southern Vietnam, camouflaged bases were used capable of supplying the guerillas for a long period of time. When Vietnam became a French colony again after the Second World War, the Communistic Vietminh started to dig tunnels close to Saigon. Between May 1992 and November 1995, during the Siege of Sarajevo and in the midst of the Bosnian War the Sarajevo Tunnel was constructed by the Bosnian Army in order to link the city of Sarajevo, which was entirely cut off by Serbian forces, with the Bosnian-held territory on the other side of the Sarajevo Airport, an area controlled by the United Nations. Sometimes the ongoing conflict between Israeli Army and Palestinians under the border of Gaza is called tunnel war. In July 2006, a group of Hezbollah fighters crossed from southern Lebanon into northern Israel killing three Israeli soldiers and abducting two, which started the Lebanon-Israeli war. Jiaozhuanghu (c„¦a?„??·) tunnel war in Ranzhuang, Hebei province, that defeated the Japanese Army in the year 1942, during the Second Sino-Japanese War. Ca»§ Chi tunnels a complex of over 200 kilometres (120 mi) of tunnel systems that allowed NLF guerrillas during the Vietnam War to keep a large presence relatively close to Saigon. Many of the famous war tunnels were later turned into tourist site due to their historic significance in wars.


Une perquisition, dans une entreprise de la Somme soupconnee de pollution des sols, a mis a jour six tonnes de dechets contenant notamment du cyanure.
Avec la decouverte de dechets dangereux dans la Somme, c’est une histoire morbide qui se dessine. Para reproducir la musica que tendra que actualizar su navegador o actualizar el Plugin de Flash. For the use of tunneling in mines with a view to a military purpose, see Mining (military).
It often includes the construction of underground facilities in order to attack or for defence and the use of existing natural caves and artificial underground facilities (catacombs, city communications, etc.) for military purposes. Also they can be part of an extensive labyrinth and have cul-de-sacs as well as reduced lighting that can create a closed-in night environment. After the uprising in Germania the insurgent tribes soon started to change defence from only local strongholds into utilising the advantage of wider terrain. Therefore they approached possibly fortified areas very carefully, giving time to evaluate, assemble troops and organize them. Fortifications were covered with earth and finally they were built totally underground to protect crews and ammunition. Extensive mining warfare was conducted by German, French, British and Australian troops on the Western Front during World War I, where the largely static frontlines created favourable conditions for mining. During World War II, the rapid transit systems that existed in many cities became another military consideration. The tunnel systems were fast and easy to construct and enabled a small force to successfully fight superior enemies. In his paper on "the assaulting of fortresses" Vauban (1633-1707) the creator of the French School of Fortification gave a theory of mine attack and how to calculate various saps and the amount of gunpowder needed for explosions.
In January 1917, General Sir Herbert Plumer gave orders for over 20 mines to be placed under German lines at Messines. During the Second Sino-Japanese war, the Chinese Communist forces or local peasant resistance used tunnel war tactics against the Japanese (and later Kuomingtang during Chinese Civil War). This proved to be a major problem but was later solved by installing filters that would consume the water and poisonous gases.
In the battles of the Western Pacific, they would maximize their capabilities by establishing a strong point defense, utilizing cave warfare. Manpower, warehouses and small calibre guns were completely housed underground making them less vulnerable to air strikes and artillery.
The depth of underground facilities reaches 80 to 100 metres making them difficult to destroy even with the use of tactical nuclear weapons. Throughout Southern Vietnam there were secret underground bases that operated successfully. After the French army left (they were defeated at Dien Bien Phu) the tunnels were maintained in case the plausible war with South-Vietnam would start. The tunnel linked the Sarajevo neighbourhoods of Dobrinja and Butmir, allowing food, war supplies, and humanitarian aid to come into the city, and people to get out. The Palestinians have used tunnels in three ways: 1) Tunnels have been dug from the area of the town of Rafah in the Gaza Strip into the area of Rafiah in Egypt. Faced with Israeli's air attacks, Hezbollah needed to create a defensive system that would enable these rocket attacks to continue uninterrupted throughout any conflict with Israel. For example, Sarajevo Tunnel is now converted into a war museum, with 20 meters of the original tunnel open for tourists visit.
Tunnels can be used to undermine fortifications and slip into territory, while it can strengthen a defence by creating the possibility of ambush, counterattack and the ability to transfer troops from one portion of the battleground to another unseen and protected. The only countermeasure was to dig down, intercept the mine, and fight the advancing enemy soldiers underground. Hidden trenches to assemble for surprise attacks were dug, connected via tunnels for secure fallback.[1] In action often barriers were used to prevent the enemy from pursuing. When the Romans were themselves on the defensive the large underground aqueduct system was utilised in the defence of Rome, as well as to evacuate fleeing leaders.
Once an entrance was discovered fire was lit, either smoking out the rebels or suffocating them to death. Underground attacks especially broke the morale of the enemy if he was surprised in his secure positions.
After a series of explosions caused by counter mine action the allies increased the depth of the tunnels but began to meet rocky ground and the underground war had to return to higher levels. Over the next five months more than 8,000 metres of tunnel were dug and 600 tons of explosive were placed in position.
The tunnels were dug beneath the earth to cover the battlefield with numerous hidden gun holes to make a surprise attack. Most of the villagers were working in tourism service industry, an industry worth US$700,000 each year. North Korean forces had suffered heavy losses from air strikes which obliged them to construct underground shelters. On the surface many false targets (bunkers, trenches and decoy entrances to the tunnel system) which made it difficult to detect true targets forcing US forces to waste ammunition.


Ho Chi Minh, leader of North-Vietnam, ordered to expand the tunnels after the Americans entered the war between the North and the South; the tunnels would be used by the Viet Cong.
In war time Afghans have used these tunnels to hide and also to appear suddenly in the enemies rear.
The tunnel was one of the major ways of bypassing the international arms embargo and providing the city defenders with weaponry. However, the huge craters that are the results of mining enemy positions could be obstacles during an advance, as was found at Petersburg Battle of the Crater and the Somme. The infantry would then advance towards the enemy front-line hoping to take advantage of the confusion that followed the explosion of an underground mine. The holes and entrance usually were hidden beneath a straw mat inside a house, or down a well. The invading marines suffered twice as many casualties as on Tarawa, where the old Japanese tactic of defending the beach had been employed. Initially underground fortifications were built independently by individual units and their placement was chaotic. Directly under the surface spacious barracks were built, allowing whole units to be quickly brought to the surface for a short time and as quickly returned to shelter underground. Systems of tunnels were not occupied temporarily for military purpose, but began to contain whole villages of people living permanently underground. 3) A small number of tunnels were dug under the Gaza - Israel border on order to infiltrate into Israel. Shaping Operational Design: A Counter to the Growing Trend of Underground Facilities and Tunnel Warfare. Tunnels built to secure frontline supply were built in several places on the Western Front. The pinnacle of this form of defense, however, can be found on Iwo Jima, where the Japanese engineered the whole Mount Suribachi with many tunnels leading to defensive emplacements, or exits for quick counterattacks. Unlike other examples of underground warfare North Korean troops did not just remain in the tunnels. The tunnels were a complete underworld, it was all there; kitchens, hospitals, workshops, sleeping areas, communications, ammunition storage, even some entertainment.
The most famous underground base of the Mujahideen and then the Taliban was Tora Bora - this tunnel system went to a depth of 400 metres and had a length of 25 kilometres. In one such incident in 2006 a tunnel was dug to a hidden position behind an Israeli tank position. The Russians expended 12 tons of gunpowder in the underground war while the allies used 64 tons. As well as digging their own tunnels, the Tunnelling companies of the Royal Engineers had to listen out for enemy tunnellers. Tunnel warfare by the Japanese forced the US Marines to adopt the "blowtorch and corkscrew" tactics to systematically flush out the Japanese defenders, one cave at a time. North Korean forces were sheltering in the tunnels from the bombing and shelling and awaiting US bayonet attack. The tunnels eventually became a target for American forces because the enemy could hide in it and strike everywhere in the range of the tunnel complex (hundreds of miles) without a single warning and then disappear again. At night a Palestinian team came out of the tunnel and fired an anti-tank rocket at the tank, then charged it. These figures show that the Russians tried to create a more extensive network of tunnels and carried out better targeted attacks with only minimal use of gunpowder. On occasions miners accidentally dug into the opposing side's tunnel and an underground fight took place.
The length of the front was 250 kilometres while the length of underground tunnels was 500 kilometres. When US forces reached the ground in the area of the tunnels, chosen North Korean units would emerge to engage in hand-to-hand combat taking advantage of their numerical superiority.
The crew was taken by surprise, three Israelis were killed and one was captured and abducted through the tunnel back into Gaza.
When an enemy's tunnel was found it was usually destroyed by placing an explosive charge inside.
The smuggling tunnels are by far the most numerous type because they are economically lucrative for the diggers, who earn a commission both for the digging and for the materials that pass through their tunnel. Conditions in the tunnels were severe: wax candles often went out, sappers fainted due to stale air, ground water flooded tunnels and counter mines. The Israelis conduct routine counter-tunnel operations in which over the past ten years they have discovered and destroyed hundreds of tunnels of all types.
The Russians repulsed the siege and started to dig tunnels under the allies fortifications.



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