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25.11.2015
If you’re looking for the beating heart of the digital age — a physical location where the scope, grandeur, and geekiness of the kingdom of bits become manifest—you could do a lot worse than Lenoir, North Carolina. Engineering prowess famously catapulted the 14-year-old search giant into its place as one of the world’s most successful, influential, and frighteningly powerful companies. This is what makes Google Google: its physical network, its thousands of fiber miles, and those many thousands of servers that, in aggregate, add up to the mother of all clouds. The problem for would-be bards attempting to sing of these data centers has been that, because Google sees its network as the ultimate competitive advantage, only critical employees have been permitted even a peek inside, a prohibition that has most certainly included bards.
A sign outside the floor dictates that no one can enter without hearing protection, either salmon-colored earplugs that dispensers spit out like trail mix or panda-bear earmuffs like the ones worn by airline ground crews. Urs Holzle had never stepped into a data center before he was hired by Sergey Brin and Larry Page.
For Google to succeed, it would have to build and operate its own data centers—and figure out how to do it more cheaply and efficiently than anyone had before.
Holzle and his team designed the $600 million facility in light of a radical insight: Server rooms did not have to be kept so cold.
Google realized that the so-called cold aisle in front of the machines could be kept at a relatively balmy 80 degrees or so—workers could wear shorts and T-shirts instead of the standard sweaters. In 2009, at an event dubbed the Efficient Data Center Summit, Google announced its latest PUE results and hinted at some of its techniques. Make no mistake, though: The green that motivates Google involves presidential portraiture. More than a dozen generations of Google servers later, the company now takes a much more sophisticated approach. Outside the Council Bluffs data center, radiator-like cooling towers chill water from the server floor down to room temperature. Over the years, Google has also built a software system that allows it to manage its countless servers as if they were one giant entity. As the first attack begins, Kripa Krishnan, an upbeat engineer who heads the annual exercise, explains the rules to about 20 SREs in a conference room already littered with junk food. The SRE program began when Holzle charged an engineer named Ben Treynor with making Google’s network fail-safe. Nevertheless, accidents do happen—as Sabrina Farmer learned on the morning of April 17, 2012. We have passed through the heavy gate outside the facility, with remote-control barriers evoking the Korean DMZ. During my interviews with Googlers, the idea of hot aisles and cold aisles has been an abstraction, but on the floor everything becomes clear. Every so often a worker appears—a long-haired dude in shorts propelling himself by scooter, or a woman in a T-shirt who’s pushing a cart with a laptop on top and dispensing repair parts to servers like a psychiatric nurse handing out meds.
Wandering the cold aisles of Lenoir, I realize that the magic number, if it is even obtainable, is basically meaningless. As we leave the floor, I feel almost levitated by my peek inside Google’s inner sanctum. Asked in what areas one might expect change, Holzle mentions data center and cluster design, speed of deployment, and flexibility. Its constantly refined search algorithm changed the way we all access and even think about information. This multibillion-dollar infrastructure allows the company to index 20 billion web pages a day. A hirsute, soft-spoken Swiss, Holzle was on leave as a computer science professor at UC Santa Barbara in February 1999 when his new employers took him to the Exodus server facility in Santa Clara. Many data centers relied on energy-gobbling chillers, but Google’s big data centers usually employ giant towers where the hot water trickles down through the equivalent of vast radiators, some of it evaporating and the remainder attaining room temperature or lower by the time it reaches the bottom. The standard measurement of data center efficiency is called power usage effectiveness, or PUE. It marked a turning point for the industry, and now companies like Facebook and Yahoo report similar PUEs. Indeed, while Google is still thought of as an Internet company, it has also grown into one of the world’s largest hardware manufacturers, thanks to the fact that it builds much of its own equipment. Google knows exactly what it needs inside its rigorously controlled data centers—speed, power, and good connections—and saves money by not buying unnecessary extras.
It would be slow and burdensome to have millions of people grabbing videos from Google’s few data centers. Its in-house developers can act like puppet masters, dispatching thousands of computers to perform tasks as easily as running a single machine.
Just as your computer is a single device that runs different programs simultaneously—and you don’t have to worry about which part is running which application—Google engineers can treat seas of servers like a single unit.
Google has innovated its own answer for that problem as well—one that involves a surprising ingredient for a company built on algorithms and automation: people. First they take down the internal corporate network that serves the company’s Mountain View, California, campus. The attackers, working from a conference room on the fringes of the campus, are actually Googlers, part of the company’s Site Reliability Engineering team, the people with ultimate responsibility for keeping Google and its services running.
This was especially tricky for a massive company like Google that is constantly tweaking its systems and services—after all, the easiest way to stabilize it would be to freeze all change. Farmer, who had been the lead SRE on the Gmail team for a little over a year, was attending a routine design review session.
All the cables and plugs are in front, so no one has to crack open the sheet metal and venture into the hot aisle, thereby becoming barbecue meat. It’s a question that has dogged observers since the company built its first data center.
Today’s machines, with multicore processors and other advances, have many times the power and utility of earlier versions.
But a few weeks later, back at the Googleplex in Mountain View, I realize that my epiphanies have limited shelf life. Its first built-from-scratch data center was in The Dalles, a city in Oregon near the Columbia River.
Traditionally, data centers cool them off with giant computer room air conditioners, or CRACs, typically jammed under raised floors and cranked up to arctic levels.


That heat could be absorbed by coils filled with water, which would then be pumped out of the building and cooled before being circulated back inside. In its Belgium facility, Google uses recycled industrial canal water for the cooling; in Finland it uses seawater. But because Google designed the racks on which it placed its machines, it could make space for backup batteries next to each server, doing away with the big UPS units altogether. In 2007 the company committed formally to carbon neutrality, meaning that every molecule of carbon produced by its activities—from operating its cooling units to running its diesel generators—had to be canceled by offsets. In the early 2000s, taking advantage of the failure of some telecom operations, it began buying up abandoned fiber-optic networks, paying pennies on the dollar.
So Google installs its own server racks in various outposts of its network—mini data centers, sometimes connected directly to ISPs like Comcast or AT&T—and stuffs them with popular videos. In 2002 its scientists created Google File System, which smoothly distributes files across many machines. They just write their production code, and the system distributes it across a server floor they will likely never be authorized to visit.
Later the team attempts to disrupt various Google data centers by causing leaks in the water pipes and staging protests outside the gates—in hopes of distracting attention from intruders who try to steal data-packed disks from the servers. The hot aisle is the narrow space between the backsides of two rows of servers, tightly enclosed by sheet metal on the ends.
A single Google server circa 2012 may be the equivalent of 20 servers from a previous generation. Google was not only processing millions of queries every week but also stepping up the frequency with which it indexed the web, gathering every bit of online information and putting it into a searchable format. Experts considered 2.0—indicating half the power is wasted—to be a reasonable number for a data center.
We would lose a fair amount of money on Gmail if we did our data centers and servers the conventional way. And no enclosures, because the motherboards go straight into the racks.) The same principle applies to its networking equipment, some of which Google began building a few years ago. Now, through acquisition, swaps, and actually laying down thousands of strands, the company has built a mighty empire of glass. That means that if you stream, say, a Carly Rae Jepsen video, you probably aren’t getting it from Lenoir or The Dalles but from some colo just a few miles from where you are. MapReduce, a Google system for writing cloud-based applications, was so successful that an open source version called Hadoop has become an industry standard. Upon becoming an SRE, members of this geek SEAL team are presented with leather jackets bearing a military-style insignia patch. Despite the outages in the corporate network, executive chair Eric Schmidt was able to run a scheduled global all-hands meeting.
Instead of trying to build a system that never failed, he gave each service a budget—an amount of downtime it was permitted to have. Later we will climb up to catwalks to examine the giant cooling towers and backup electric generators, which look like Beatle-esque submarines, only green.
In any case, Google thinks in terms of clusters—huge numbers of machines that act together to provide a service or run an application. Google has spread its infrastructure across a global archipelago of massive buildings—a dozen or so information palaces in locales as diverse as Council Bluffs, Iowa; St.
AdWords—the service that invited advertisers to bid for placement alongside search results relevant to their wares—involved computation-heavy processes that were just as demanding as search. Also, the stonewalling, particularly regarding The Dalles facility, was becoming almost comical.
Google also created software to tackle a knotty issue facing all huge data operations: When tasks come pouring into the center, how do you determine instantly and most efficiently which machines can best afford to take on the work?
Every year, the SREs run this simulated war—called DiRT (disaster recovery testing)—on Google’s infrastructure. The team monitors the phone lines and IRC channels to see when the Google incident managers on call around the world notice that something is wrong.
We will don hard hats and tour the construction site of a second data center just up the hill.
Everything is uniform and in place—nothing like the spaghetti tangles of Google’s long-ago Exodus era.
Ghislain, Belgium; and soon Hong Kong and Singapore—where an unspecified but huge number of machines process and deliver the continuing chronicle of human experience. Brin and Page were looking to upgrade the system, which often took a full 3.5 seconds to deliver search results and tended to crash on Mondays. Page had also become obsessed with speed, with delivering search results so quickly that it gave the illusion of mind reading, a trick that required even more servers and connections. Google’s ownership had become a matter of public record, but the company still refused to acknowledge it. It takes only five minutes for someone in Europe to discover the problem, and he immediately begins contacting others. And we will stare at a rugged chunk of land that one day will hold a third mammoth computational facility.
And the faster Google delivered results, the more popular it became, creating an even greater burden. But executives explain that this is a cumulative number, not necessarily an indication that Google has a million servers in operation at once.
In the near future, when Google releases the wearable computing platform called Glass, this infrastructure will power its visual search results.
Meanwhile, the company was adding other applications, including a mail service that would require instant access to many petabytes of storage. In classic Google fashion, the DiRT team always adds a goofy element to its dead-serious test—a loony narrative written by a member of the attack team. This year it involves a Twin Peaks-style supernatural phenomenon that supposedly caused the disturbances.



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