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On account of our rich proficiency and knowledge in this industry, we are considered as a foremost service provider of Building Exterior Decoration. Dear User, Please use the drop downs below to locate your city by first selecting the country and then the state. Collectively, our team of Branch Managers, Sales Representatives, Operations Staff, Marketing Staff, and Strategic Accounts will go the extra mile to ensure that you are satisfied with our products and services.
Men In Kilts has the experience and knowledge to make your commercial buildings look new again. Our commercial Exterior Building Cleaning services include both a water fed pole with a soft bristled brush method and pressure washing depending on the nature of the job. Building codes for stairs address riser heights, tread depths, stair landings, slopes, and slip resistance of surfaces. QUESTION: On a recent project, we were informed that our concrete stairs did not meet the building code requirements with regard to the allowable tolerances on riser heights.
Laying out StepsDoing accurate layout work is the first step to achieve a flawless stairs project. We include descriptions & definitions of graspability for handrailings, and we illustrate safe and unsafe, graspable and not-graspable handrailings in sketches, photographs, and building code citations.
Definition: Graspability of a handrail refers to the ability to get a secure hold onto a handrailing whose purpose, after all, is both to guide a walker along a stair or other surface and to prevent or perhaps to interrupt slip trip and fall hazards. These two sketches (above and below) are found in the California Building Code for stairs and railings [37]. The two-inch diameter of the PVC pipe is acceptable in terms of graspability as we see in this article. Watch out: however in my opinion, long runs of un-supported PVC piping may be too flexible or may sag too much to be safely graspable and safely rigid to support a stairway user in the event of a fall.
The minimum width of the handrail above the recess shall be 1A? inches (32 mm) to a maximum of 2A? inches (70 mm).
Handrail Continuity: In What Locations Must Handrailings Must Be Continuous to Be Considered Fully Graspable? While it is readily apparent that a loose, broken, or defective guardrail on a deck, balcony, or landing can contribute to or even cause a bad fall, we sometimes find that the role of the stair handrail in stair fall injuries is underestimated or missed entirely by people investigating such accidents. The proper construction and physical condition of the handrailing at any stairway should be an important part of the investigation conducted to understand the cause & extent of stair falls and fall-related injuries. Because a defective stairway handrailing denies the stair user an opportunity to arrest or reduce the extent of a fall, non-functional handrailings are a significant contributor to the both the occurrence of the fall down stairs and the severity of the fall. A stair fall can be initiated by many conditions or events, some related to the condition of a tread or walking surface (slippery, uneven, sloped, loose, gaps, knots, rot, breakaways, bad lighting) but also to other more independent causes (person is running and missteps, person trips over own shoelace). But as a general rule, when a stair fall occurs the existence of the railing and its condition take on a very important role in stopping the fall or reducing its extent.
In that circumstance, an improper or unsafe railing is in one sense, worse than had there been no handrailing present at all, since in the latter case a stair user will have observed that there was no railing and may have been inclined to move more slowly and with greater care without that security, just as we are not inclined to step to the very edge of a tall balcony if no railings are installed on its perimeter. Our friend Asta S., visiting el Nigromante Art and Cultural Center in San Miguel de Allende, Mexico, is illustrating the extent of this oversized stair rail - just compare the size of her hand to the railing size. A person using stairs often does not think at all about railings and may not even touch them - until a fall begins. At the start of a fall up or down stairs, people will drop packages or even throw them into the air in the process of trying by instinct to grab onto a railing. Above: the couple of tangueros we found smooching on these stairs in Buenos Aires were grasping one another so tightly that niether of them cared a hoot about the graspability of the handrailing in their stairwell. Continue reading at HANDRAIL CODES - GRASPABILITY or select a topic from the More Reading links or topic ARTICLE INDEX shown below. Or see GUARDRAILS on BALCONIES, DECKS, LANDINGS where we describe details about railings on landings and open hallways or other horizontal walking surfaces. ACTS is a not-for-profit corporation that provides health, safety, industrial hygiene, technical services, and safety publications to the arts, crafts, museums, and theater communities.
ACTS also will not accept money or take advertising in our publications from manufacturers of artists materials or businesses whose interests could conflict with ours.

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The Illustrated Home illustrates construction details and building components, a reference for owners & inspectors.
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Gauthier “I especially like the fact that I don’t have to ask about WCB, insurance, etc. Schwam “I am very pleased with the results and will have Men in Kilts back in the spring for window cleaning and in the fall for gutter cleaning. Beaton “Great job completed, the two fellows were extremely thorough with additional suggestions and comments.
Bates “I was extremely happy and satisfied with the window cleaning I had done at my home on Saturday! For example, riser heights can be less than 4 inches when bottom or top risers adjoin an existing sloping public way, walkway, or driveway having an established grade and serving as a stair landing. So while the diameter of the pipe may be fine, unless the piping is supported at intervals sufficiently close to keep it rigid and straight it may not form a good railing.
However in these larger sizes, the handrail must have a thumb and finger groove; Some older codes may permit the 2x6 handrail profile at far left in the illustration below, but as of 2009 the handrail needs a groove on both sides.
The two sketches here illustrate graspable (and X'd out non-graspable) handrailing profiles. Handrails with a perimeter greater than 6A? inches (160 mm) shall provide a graspable finger recess area on both sides of the profile. In general, stairway handrailings should be continuously graspable along the run of the stair and in most situations the railing should continue around intermediate stairway landings. The following opinions derive the author's experience in building stairs, inspecting stairs in and at buildings, in researching stair construction practices & building codes, and in the occasional assistance in the investigation of stair falls. This handrail might help to steady someone walking up or down the stairs as one can place a hand on the railing. At that moment there is an instinct to "grab on" to something to try to arrest the fall or at least to reduce its severity. The reach for a secure hand-hold in in such moments is rapid and the opportunity to obtain a secure grasp to stop a stair fall is brief, giving import to the term readily graspable handrails.
The Horizon system runs on always-available cloud-based software for office computers, laptops, tablets, iPad, Android, & other smartphones. A part of the fees from our consulting services goes to support our free and low-cost services for artists. We want artists to know that we have no financial incentive to make our product and safety recommendations. The text is intended as a reference guide to help building owners operate and maintain their home effectively. Our highly skilled designers develop construction design in 2D and 3D format to visualize the design concept before execution. Whether you need to store furniture, accounting boxes, or construction equipment, storage containers will keep your valuables safe and dry. Considering the cost of tearing out and replacing stairs and landings, I want to understand what’s required to ensure our work satisfies code requirements on future jobs. However, the variation in height of the bottom or top riser shall not exceed a slope of 8% (1 inch per foot) of the stairway width and the nosing or leading edge of the tread of the nonuniform riser height must have a distinctive and non-slip marking stripe.Tread depths and maximum slopeFor nonresidential buildings, rectangular tread depths shall be 11 inches minimum, measured horizontally between the vertical planes of the foremost projection of adjacent treads and at a right angle to the tread’s nosing.

While graspability of handrails naturally focuses on the profile or shape and dimensions of a handrailing, the spacing of the handrail from the wall, its height, continuity, and other features also will interfere with the ability of a person to securely grasp a handrailing when she wants to or needs to in an effort to prevent or arrest a fall. The intent of the finger and thumb groove is to provide equivalent graspability as might be obtained on a round 2-inch handrail. We gratefully accept donations, but do not solicit them from the artists who call here for help and advice. This study aimed to perform a descriptive biomechanical analysis of maximal stair ascent in elderly women and to examine the relationship between mechanical muscle function and maximal stair ascending velocity (MAV).
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Also, how do you measure riser heights when the tread surface has been sloped for drainage?ANSWER: Because stairs are one of the most common locations of missteps and falls, building codes including the International Building Code (IBC), International Residential Code (IRC), and National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 101 Life Safety Code address stair geometry, dimensional uniformity, and slip resistance of surfaces. Fernie, "Influence of Stairway Handrail Height on the Ability to Generate Stabilizing Forces and Moments", Human Factors: The Journal of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society December 1984 vol. Special Offer: For a 10% discount on any number of copies of the Home Reference Book purchased as a single order. Detailed requirements are specified to ensure both safe and effective use of stairs during both emergency egress and day-to-day usage. For outdoor stairways, treads must be slightly sloped so water will not accumulate on the stairs.
Galow specializes in residential construction including both new homes and repairs, renovations, and additions. Peak knee joint power during MAV was the single independent parameter that explained most of the variation in MAV (50%), however, combining knee and ankle parameters in a multiple regression analysis mean joint power explained 82.4% of the variation in MAV.
Thanks to Alan Carson and Bob Dunlop, for permission for InspectAPedia to use text excerpts from The Home Reference Book & illustrations from The Illustrated Home. Codes address riser heights, tread depths, stair landings, slopes, and slip resistance of surfaces.Riser heightsFor nonresidential buildings (IBC), stair riser heights shall be 4 inches minimum and 7 inches maximum as shown in the chart. Carson Dunlop Associates' provides extensive home inspection education and report writing material. Building codes limit the tread slope to reduce the nonuniformity of the effective riser heights and to reduce the risk of occupants slipping on the sloped tread surfaces.Stair landingsThere shall be a landing at the top and bottom of stairs. MAV appeared to be highly dependent upon knee and ankle power and to a lesser extent on joint moment and range of motion. Abstract: An experimental study was performed investigating the influence of handrail height on the ability of stairway users to generate stabilizing forces and moments, with the aim of improving stairway safety by developing better handrail design standards. Special Offer: For a 5% discount on any number of copies of the Home Reference eBook purchased as a single order.
Minimum landing widths shall be at least the stairway width and minimum depths shall be at least 48 inches for nonresidential and 36 inches for residential buildings.
Furthermore, CMJ assessment seemed well applicable in healthy elderly individuals to distinguish between differentiated levels of maximal stair walking capacity. The experiments involved measurement of the maximum forces and moments that subjects were able to exert on a handrail while they stood stationary in an upright position.
Two age groups were tested: young (20 to 45 years) and elderly (59 years and over), with a total of 35 subjects. All subjects showed a strong linear dependence on handrail height in generating stabilizing forces and moments. If walking surfaces are exposed to weather or moisture, do not install a steel-troweled finish as they can become extremely slippery when wet.
Instead, install a broom finish or other nonslip surface.Kim Basham, PhD, PE, FACI, is president of KB Engineering. He specializes in concrete construction, troubleshooting, nondestructive testing, forensics, and repair.

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