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Constructing the PyramidsAdobe Illustrator? and Adobe Photoshop?This illustration is part of a poster illustrating one theory of how the Pyramids of Giza were constructed. The National Spent Nuclear Fuel (NSNF) Program conducted by Lockheed Martin Idaho Technology Co.
For this study, a set of questions was developed for the EMT process for fuels at several locations.
The DOE Environmental Management (EM) SNF Program has the mission of safely, reliably, and efficiently managing DOE-owned SNF and preparing it for disposal. One treatment option for a portion of the EM-SNF, being evaluated by Argonne National Laboratory – West, is the EMT process.1,2 For this process, fuel pieces are dissolved in a molten salt electrolyte.
Although the principle focus to this work has been the EMT process, the methodology is judged to be sufficiently general for application to other treatment processes. One of the first steps associated with selecting one or more sites for treating the SNF in the DOE complex is to determine the cost for each option. The issues associated with fabrication (if applicable) and operation of a production facility are articulated by a list of specific treatment questions intended to ensure that all issues and costs associated with each option are identified.
The costs associated with the questions are estimated and summed through the WBS to determine total costs for each option. During the evolution of these treatment questions, care was taken to ensure that all issues associated with fabrication and operation of a production facility were included. The questions have been divided into three generic types to address technical, schedule, and programmatic issues. Dividing the questions into three categories helps in ensuring completeness, though it is somewhat arbitrary and some of the questions could fit in more than one category. A: Treat at current ANL-W pilot plant? This option requires treating the fuel in the facility that is currently being used for the demonstration project (Mark IV and Mark V electrorefiners) at ANL-W.
D: Ship fuel untreated to repository? This option assumes the SNF can be shipped to and accepted by the repository and, thus, does not involve treatment of the fuel. Table II is an example of an options table, which was set up to provide a visual representation of the questions for treating various fuels. In Table II, the questions, as they apply to the treatment options for the specific fuel type, are either: Applicable, Not Applicable, or Applicable and Addressed.
Two economic tests are available to determine the economic viability of an investment, program, or project. Because environmental laws and regulations often prescribe minimum standards of performance, cost-effectiveness and its accompanying cost minimization is the desired test of economic viability. Although many modeling techniques are available to test for cost-effectiveness, the most common and acceptable technique is life-cycle analysis (LCA).
After the treatment questions were clarified and the WBS developed, an economic analysis can be performed. The cost matrix analysis tool will allow an economic analysis to aid in determining which siting alternative attains the disposition of SNF at the lowest possible cost to the government and the public. National Research Council, "An Assessment of Continued R&D into an Electrometallurigical Approach for Treating DOE Spent Nuclear Fuel," Committee on Electrometallurigical Techniques for DOE Spent Nuclear Fuel Treatment, Washington, D. Office of Management and Budgets (OMB) Circular A-94, "Guidelines and Discount Rates for Benefit Cost Analysis of Federal Programs," October 29, 1992. Naga303 – prediksi togel online, situs agen judi, togel, Naga303 merupakan bola gelinding, buku arti mimpi, dewatogel, live streaming jakarta, nomer singapore, pasang nomor sdsb, rumus keluaran togel, tebak angka jitu. Cerita silat pendekar kapak maut naga geni 212 wiro, Winenlose ===== thanks infonya , nitip linknya yaaaa agen sbobet agen judi agen bola agen asia77 agen ibcbet online agen sbobet online agen judi online. The set of questions addresses all issues associated with design, construction, and operation of a production facility.

The NSNF Program assists EM in this mission through the active development of disposal strategies, coordination, and integration with other DOE sites, the Repository Program, and management of NSNF issues. Treatment is assumed to be any production process required to process interim storage SNF for final disposal.
Technical questions are those that specifically address technical issues such as 1) Will the treatment process require modification in order to treat the specific fuel type?, 2) What will the treatment products be and will they meet final disposal facility criteria?, and 3) Do approved cask designs exist for transportation of the SNF? This is not a problem since costs associated with each option will be summed and it is the total cost that will be used to determine the best path-forward for each specific fuel type.
Movement of the SNF to the processing location would not require transportation on a public transportation system? highway or railroad? and would not require a fuel transportation plan or an Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensed cask. To be treated, the fuel would have to be transported offsite on a public transportation system (highway or railroad).
Each question was examined to determine whether or not it is applicable for each of the siting options. This specific table is based on some of the sodium-bonded SNF currently stored at the INEEL and the EMT process.
For example, any questions regarding treatment of the SNF type are "Not Applicable" for Option D since this option involves shipping the SNF, untreated, to the repository.
Cost-effectiveness has the primary objective of ensuring all requirements are met at the lowest possible cost. For this reason, the objective of this economic analysis is to determine which siting option attains the program goals for the SNF disposition at the lowest possible cost to the government and public. Also known as cradle-to-grave analysis, LCA accounts for all of the economic activities necessary for the project, program, or investment beginning with the preoperational activities of planning, permitting, and conceptual design through the postoperational activities of project close-out, decommissioning, and long-term monitoring.
A WBS is a tree of product-oriented components that organize individual work activities of a project using a hierarchical process.
Components can be broken into smaller subcomponents, depending on the complexity and the level of detail required to properly manage the project.
Final disposition of SNF may require that the fuel be treated to minimize material concerns. A matrix table was developed to determine questions applicable to various fuel treatment options. A systems engineering approach was used to integrate the overall SNF program planning with specific programmatic needs, stakeholder participation, safety, environmental protection, quality, safeguards and security, and facilities design and operation. The fuel may require physical controls (spacing, containment, etc.) in the disposal area, but would not require treatment prior to shipment to the repository. For example, for Treatment Option D, none of the questions regarding fabrication and operation of a production facility were applicable. Obviously, the only questions that are "Applicable and Addressed" are some of those associated with treatment of SNF in the existing ANL-W facility as part of the demonstration project. The cost-effectiveness test is simple because only total costs are evaluated, not benefits. This test is used less often because significantly more information requiring both cost and benefit analysis is used to maximize return on investment.
Almost always, the WBS is determined by decomposing work elements from the highest level to a lower, more manageable work element level. For example, if a fuel is transported to an offsite location for treatment at an existing facility, building costs are minimized. Department of Energy, Spent Nuclear Fuel Program Requirements Document, SNF-RD-PM-001, Revision 0, October 1994. The treatments may range from electrometallurgical treatment (EMT) and chemical dissolution to engineering controls.

A work breakdown structure (WBS) was developed to identify a treatment process and costs from initial design to shipment of treatment products to final disposition. NSNF personnel developed a set of questions that incorporate requirements specified in the SNF Program Requirements Documents.3 Then, a cost matrix incorporating an economic analysis was developed. Thus, it is judged that if the questions associated with the various options adequately address the requirements of the SNF Program Requirements Document, fabrication and operation of the production facility will meet the objectives of the NSNFP. The fuel would be transported offsite on a public transportation system (highway or railroad). Transportation of the fuel to the production facility is not applicable for Options B1 and B2, since they involve onsite treatment of the SNF. The distribution of the questions among the three categories (technical, schedule, and programmatic) is the same in both tables.
This category is included for tracking purposes after a decision is made regarding application of the EMT process for specific SNF types. Additionally, performance standards tend to modulate more and are compromised more often, thus making it much more difficult to optimize return on investment. By definition, the LCA method will evaluate all competing alternatives expressed in present value or discounted terms. By definition, an integrated WBS will identify all work activities that must be performed to complete the project. This WBS was constructed solely for this evaluation and is not intended to replace any program WBS currently in existence.
Treatment options and treatment locations will depend on fuel type and location of the fuel. Cladding hulls, which may contain a small quantity of the less reactive fission products, are also removed for waste treatment. This approach will also maximize the probability that all significant costs associated with fabrication and operation of such a facility will be identified. As defined by the selected evaluation methodology, the alternative with the lowest LCA is the preferred option. The generic format permits broad and flexible analysis of the anticipated and any unforeseen treatment options. One of the first steps associated with selecting one or more sites for treating SNF in the DOE complex is to determine the cost of each option. Most fission products and the transuranic elements accumulate in the salt through repeated electrorefining cycles.
For most businesses and the government, cost-effectiveness is the preferred test since the minimum goal and performance requirements are agreed to and well established.
Using a WBS leverages process information into an easily identifiable cost analysis of a project. Additionally, the model was developed to accommodate the analysis requirement that many possible treatment solutions exist (depending on the fuel type). An economic analysis will assist in determining which fuel treatment alternative attains the optimum disposition of SNF at the lowest possible cost to the government and the public.
Results from the model are not yet available, pending application of the methodology described in this report.

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