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The Oracle create tablespace statement can be quite complex if you look at it in the Oracle documentation. We will be looking at all three types of Oracle tablespace later on in this article, but first let’s cover some basics.
Top Tip: If you are going to have a large tablespace in your database try to have fewer physical datafiles which make the tablespace because when Oracle does a checkpoint, among other operations, it has to update each datafile header.
DATAFILE – This next section lists out all of the physical datafiles you will be creating. Note: Autoextend can actually cause tablespace to grow by up to 10% of the total size of the tablespace! I would like to go into a little more detail for the extent management, uniform size and segment space management clauses which I will do in the next sections. Extents are created as the segment grows and can span multiple datafiles but all extents for the same segment must be in the same tablespace.
In a locally managed tablespace, free and used blocks are managed by something called a bitmap in the datafile header. Note: In general, the only time that a used extent will be given back to the tablespace for use by another segment will be if the original segment is dropped.
Uniform size means that each extent will be the same size, like when building a house each brick will be the same size so will fit together nicely with no wasted space.
Auto allocated extents, on the other hand, will usually start small and an internal algorithm will determine how large to make the next extent, and the one after that, etc. This type of extent is like a house made of odd shaped bricks – there will be gaps and finding a space to fit an odd shaped brick will be difficult! With automatic segment space management (the default for locally managed tablespace) free space in each segment is managed very much in the same way that the extent management is; using bitmaps, but for the segment this information is kept in the first block allocated to the segment at creation time. When using manual segment space management the free and used blocks are managed using free lists, which require more management when inserts, updates and deletes are run against the segment.

Note: When using automatic segment space management, only the PCTFREE storage parameter is valid when creating a segment. Traditionally, Oracle only had one type of tablespace, which is now what is called a smallfile tablespace.
Note: Unless you have changed the database default all of your tablespaces will be created as smallfile ones, but you can explicitly create bigfile tablespaces.
Temporary tablespaces are very important for ensuring that sorts, like index creations and SQL queries, can complete if they run out of PGA to sort the results in. I have written another article about UNDO, what it is, how to monitor it, etc so have a read of that first if you are not familiar with the basic concepts.
If you used the DBCA to create your database it should have automatically created an UNDO tablespace for you, if you created an 11g database.
If you didn’t use the DBCA and ran the CREATE DATABASE statement manually, the UNDO tablespace would have been created automatically if the UNDO_MANAGEMENT = AUTO parameter was configured. I hope that the information I have provided in the article has been of use to you, and as always please leave a comment if you have anything to say.
In this article I would like to try and break down the create tablespace command in to simpler terminology.
There are a lot of options you have to consider when creating an Oracle tablespace, but let’s just use an example of how I would normally create one and then look at the statements in a little more detail. This is like a map of all blocks in the datafile, conceptually, it has a value of 1 if the block is used and a 0 if it is empty. The datafile bitmap will be scanned to see if there is a large enough chunk of disk space to create the new extent. Just deleting all rows in a segment will not release the extent back for use by another segment. They will most likely be larger each time if the segment is growing rapidly and smaller if it is not.

It is also a single point of contention, so automatic management is generally accepted as the more efficient method to use.
This is what percentage of free space should be left in each block for subsequent updates to existing rows. In an ideal world all the sorting would be done in memory because it’s much more efficient but the TEMP tablespace acts as an overspill area. The UNDO tablespace is so fundamental to the smooth operation of the database that it should definitely not be overlooked. I’d recommend something like using the database name, the user who will have objects in it and the extent size.
This is one of the advantages of using locally managed tablespaces; the block management is done efficiently, and all blocks which are next to one another and free can be used. When it finds which blocks to use for the new extent, the bitmap is updated to indicate that the blocks are now used and the segment will have some free space to use.
With the increasing size of modern day databases, Oracle decided to add a bigfile tablespace to the mix. Have a read about it in my article on monitoring TEMP space as it will give you some useful queries and tips.
This is ideal for allowing the database objects to grow without having to always manually add space.
Each extent can vary in size or can be of uniform size, depending on how you have created the tablespace. This will mean that each datafile will be listed on disk in order for any datafile from 001 to 999.

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