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17.01.2015
DH was watching and shaking his head with a smile as I shoved my tools into my suitcase.  I think I heard him say “I’d expect nothing less”.
Please be aware some of the sites we link you to could have pop ups and that we have no control over them. Woodworking plans lamps how to Download woodworking plans lamps PDFForce out It can as well make up hard f. Outdoor furniture free woodworking plans how to Download outdoor furniture free woodworking plans PDF05 XVI Free carpentry Plans to soma a miserable garret Bunk Bed 1 24 hour interval ago. Weekend wood projects DIY Download weekend wood projects PDFweekend wood projects Many different DIY scrap wood projects. Diy wood name signs DIY Download diy wood name signs PDFMark the useab This bumpkinly birdhouse was made from an honest to god pallet and pieces of salvaged wood. SANS10400 are the Building regulations in South Africa, and both international and national standards, are fundamental to successful building and construction projects, both big and small. When the South African National Building Regulations were updated by the Department of Trade and Industry in May 2008, the General Requirement relating to Roofs was changed to incorporate certain safety elements. While the legislation changed in 2008, it was only in 2011 that Part L: Roofs was published by the SABS. As with most of the National Building Regulations, those that apply to roofs relate to SANS other than the one specific to that particular element.
There are several South African National Standards (SANS) that relate to roof timbers, all of which must be complied with when roof trusses and other roofing elements are constructed. You’ll find the full list in Part L of SANS 10400 (or check with an SABS librarian for the relevant information). Roof design depends on a number of factors including the type of covering you are going to use, and the span over which the roof structure is to be supported.
The trusses themselves are made up of rafters, tie beams, posts and struts, all of which are assembled according to a specific design. The regulations also state that no member of any truss should have a length that is greater than 60 times its smallest dimension.
The basic requirements shown in the table below, apply to Howe-type trusses as listed above. This table is considerably more useful that the one that was in the previous 1990 edition of the regulations, as not only maximum truss spans are indicated, but also the allowable and recommended pitch of the roof, and the member sizes and grades of timber that are specified in SANS 1783-2. You will also see that the maximum centre-to-centre spacing of the trusses varies according to the type of roof covering you are going to be using. Another element that is specified in this table is the type and number of bolts to be used at heel and splice joints (although it must be said that builders often use nails). A heel joint (mentioned here) is simply an indentation that is cut into a rafter so that the timber can rest on the top plate.
The timber grades allowable for softwood and all SA pine rafter beams is Grade 5 and Grade 7.
Note that the type of roof covering in this table (maximum clear spans for laminated SA pine supporting a tile or slate roof with a 26 degree pitch)  is shown in the first column, and the rafter spacing in the other four columns.
Note that * indicates the most commonly available sizes. Below is a table for maximum clear spans for SA pine purlin rafters or purlin beams supporting profiled metal or fibre-cement sheeting (or metal tiles in the table below) with a 26 degree pitch. Below is a table for maximum clear spans for gum pole rafters with a pitch above 26 degrees and above 26 degrees. The maximum mass of the tiles or slates, including battens or purlins, shall not exceed 65 kg per square metre. When it comes to thatch roofs, generally the slope should be 45 degrees, except at dormer windows where the slope should only be 35 degrees. It is vital that roof trusses and other roof framing elements have joints that are accurately cut, securely made and fitted so that the component parts are drawn tightly together.
If rafter construction is used instead of roof trusses, and the roof covering is regular sheeting or tiles (as already mentioned), it is important to accurately assess the parameters for rafter spans and the size and grade of rafters. When constructing a roof framework, the rule of thumb is that any purlin should have a minimum nominal depth and width of 76 mm or 50 mm, and max centre-to-centre spacing between the purlins ought to be 1,2 m. All roof trusses, rafters and beams that are supported by a brick or concrete block (or even a stone) wall must be securely fastened to the wall using galvanized steel strapping or galvanized steel wire that complies with the National Building Regulations. If you order factory-manufactured trusses that are made with metal plate connectors, they may not comply directly with the requirements of the various tables in the SANS.
If this method of construction is used, softwood poles must comply with SANS 457-2 and hardwood poles must comply with SANS 457-3, and ALL poles must be treated in accordance with the requirements of SANS 10005. If poles are sawn or reshaped at the ends, any of the exposed ends must be treated with a Class W preservative. For thatched roofs, laths must have a minimum diameter of 25 mm and they must comply with the requirements of SANS 1288. There are other factors that relate to fire resistance an combustibility, and waterproofing – which of course has to cover (excuse the pun) flashing and flat roofs! Waterproofing refers mainly to runoff water from the roof … and therefore relates directly to the slope of the roof. Part L of the updated national building regulations (published in 2011) also include new sections on roof coverings and waterproofing systems for pitched roofs, and drainage and waterproofing of flat roofs. Leaves and bad paint may cause water to stand in the real flat sections which will accelerate rust. I have a IBR (0.58) flat roof, that up till now i taught was built accordingly, to my surprise when obtaining quotes (for general maintenance) only one contractor informed me that my slope was not enough and that it was inadequate.
I have asked my local municipality for one of their experienced roofing engineers to come out to my house and inspect my roof.
Hi John, I am sure that you can, but two things come to mind straight away, 1st how are you going to fix the sheeting onto brittle tiles, roof sheets normally will be nailed onto wooden purlins and or battens & 2nd the tiles are usually uneven so it will be difficult to get a nice flat roof laid. 1) My ceiling has sagged and insurance company has already informed me that the wrong nails were used. You have a right to ask for a reference in terms of where an SABS national standard states this.
Regarding exposed trusses, SANS 10243 provides guidance on the manufacture, erection and bracing of timber roof trusses.


I am designing the re roofing of my braai room and the depth of the timber trusses is decreasing the height underneath the roof. There is nothing in Part L: Roofs of SANS 10400 about steel trusses, so I guess you would have to talk to a competent person who is qualified to specify what is required.
You build a wood or charcoal and wood-enhanced fire in the firebox, so the heat is next to (not directly under) the meat. You control the heat and smoke flow in an offset smoker—in theory, at least—by adjusting the air intake and exhaust vents. To equalize the internal cooking temperature, manufacturers have developed what is known as reverse flow technology.
A more sophisticated reverse flow technology system, developed by Lang BBQ Smokers of Nahunta, Georgia, uses internal piping, baffles, and a chimney mounted on the firebox end of the smoker. But even if your smoker lacks reverse flow technology, you can ensure even cooking simply by moving and rotating the food in the cook chamber. If you compete on the barbecue circuit regularly or own a restaurant or catering company, you probably own a larger offset smoker that burns “sticks” (wood) exclusively. Problem: After just a couple of years, my inexpensive offset smoker is beginning to rust and the grill grate looks pretty rough.
Solution: Sand the rust spots with steel wool and repaint the affected areas with high-temperature paint. Solution: Seal the lids with high temperature silicone or high temperature gasket by the roll. Problem: I’m hosting a big family party soon and want to smoke pork spare ribs, but my grill grate isn’t large enough to accommodate the number of racks I’ll need.
Solution: You can improvise a poor man’s heat deflector by installing a baffle made of sheet metal or even a cookie sheet.
All of those barbecue pits listed are cute, but you left off the real deal brand which is revolutionizing the industry – Pitmaker. I’ve wanted to make him something special for his room for the longest time, but shipping was always the challenge. The added benefit of the vertical garden for those using it on a patio or balcony as growing space, is that it also serves as a living privacy screen. However, we will never link you to a site that requires you to make any purchase or join anything to view the article. I have lots of these wooden pallets by the backyard and been wondering what to do, thanks I came across this post and I now feel that they have work to do and some space to fill.
In simple language, if there is a major wind or some other really horrible weather conditions (God forbid), the roofs of our homes are expected to be able to stay on the house and protect us from the elements without themselves being damaged. This last one, though, is open to interpretation as not all roofs incorporate ceilings as such. For instance, where any roof is to be supported on the wall of a building as described in the relevant section of Part K: Walls, the roof MUST be constructed in accordance with the rules laid out by the relevant SANS (in this case 10400). Any qualified designer knows that every one of the SANS that form part of 10400 needs to be considered as a whole. Also note that the maximum mass of tiles or slates, including battens or purlins, should not be more than 65 kg per square metre. All trussed roofs MUST be provided with approved bracing that prevents any possible buckling of the rafters, tie-beams and long web members. Please note that if the rafter spacing is not the same as that shown in the table below, intermediate values of maximum rafter spans may be interpolated within the range of values suggested for relevant timber grades. But because they were established as a guide to MINIMUM standards, you must never ignore them. If they have cracked or the end are plot within a space that is equal to the diameter of the pole, they MUST NOT BE USED.
It is also necessary to cover at least 35% of the surface area of the end with a new nail plate to prevent or at least minimize cracking. The roof has been constructed with treated poles and where the poles have been supported by the load bearing wall fine cracks have appeared below each pole….is this normal????? Its a little bit late for me to now raise the issue of the roof with my estate agent at that time.
Possibly take all the tiles off first clean up the battens of protruding nails etc and then put your Chromodeck sheets down.
I am not an architect or engineer and cannot provide info on how to adapt an existing installation. Alternatively get hold of a company that makes steel trusses; chances are they will have an agrement certificate (for a non-standardised product).
But nothing establishes your street cred as pit master who means business like an offset smoker. Far from home and restaurants, it didn’t take much for barbecue-starved welders to look at surplus oil pipe and 55-gallon steel drums and see grills and smokers. Texas metal fabricator Wayne Whitworth, founder of an oil contract-dependent business in Houston, started building barbecue pits to keep his employees busy during the downturn. The heat and smoke flow through a portal into the cook chamber where they circulate around the food and exit through the chimney.
The hot air and smoke are forced to travel to the far end of the cook chamber before reversing course over the food grate and heading back toward the firebox and chimney.
Place soaked smoking wood chips or chunks (1 to 2 cups per hour depending on the size of the smoker) or small hardwood logs to the fire. You can buy mass-marketed units for as little as $200 or drop $5000 or more on custom-built smokers. If you cook a whole hog once a month, you’ll need a very different smoker than if you smoke the occasional ribs or pork shoulder. Hinges break, paint flakes, metal rusts, and target temperatures are difficult to maintain. As for the grill grate, replace it or have it sand-blasted at a machine or automotive repair shop. 2) Throw a non-fiberglass welder’s blanket or space blanket over the lid of the cooking chamber during the cook.


The short side should be attached right above the firebox portal (use a self-setting screw), and angled downward toward the opposite side of the cooking chamber.
We just got an offset smoker from my wife’s ex-stepmother, and I had no clue how to use it.
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It’s just because the different new sections were published over a period of years that has made it more of a challenge for many.
Where relevant, specifics are shown in the tables for maximum clear spans for sawn softwood beams with a 26 degree pitch below. If you buy from a reputable company you can rest assured that they will be absolutely fine. If a thatched roof is constructed with gables, without hips, valleys or dormer windows, it must have a pitch of 45 degrees, and a clear span that is no more than 6 m.
I have a house where one section of a roof was extended with a pitch of only 11 degrees and tiled, which does not comply with the regulations as I understand it.
Or probably easier, check the approved plans to make sure that the roof was built according to plan.
My situation is that i purchased this house six months ago and had a roofing contractor requested by thee estate agent to inspect the quality and build of the roof, the same contractor i asked to quote me on performing general maintenance after purchase(not the one that informed me of the incorrect slope). Its unfortunate that i was informed of the incorrect pitch after i signed an offer to purchase. You really do need to talk to a competent person – or someone that manufactures trusses.
They based the offset design on traditional brick barbecue pits where the fire is built in one chamber and the smoke and heat cross the food in another. This flow of hot air and wood smoke is one of the defining features of the offset smoker, producing ribs and pork shoulders with deep red smoke rings and briskets with exceptionally crisp “bark” (crust). So in addition to maintaining the fire, you also have to rotate the food or otherwise manage the airflow to avoid uneven cooking. One example is the convection plate found in popular smokers like the Horizon, manufactured in Oklahoma.
This not only equalizes side-to-side temperatures in the cook chamber, but helps retain heat when the lid is opened.
Rotate the meat every hour or so, moving pieces that started at the cooler end of the cook chamber closer to the fire. Start your charcoal (I prefer natural lump charcoal) in a chimney starter and spread the embers over the charcoal rack at the bottom of the firebox. Replenish the fuel and wood chips and manage the vents as needed to maintain the target temperature.
Note: When burning wood only, good airflow is essential so the smoke flavor doesn’t overpower the meat. One good place to start is the Barbecue Board; our community has lots of experience with offset smokers and lots of strong opinions about which are best.
In any case, I always recommend buying more grill or smoker than you think you’ll need—this will inspire you to stretch your imagination and grow your skill set.
If images or content are not original to me or H2OBungalow, then credit will be given where credit is due. See how this one was built at the titled link below then use your imagination and personal taste to make it your own perfect herb garden. They will be either nailed or bolted together on site, or delivered to site on order by a specialist truss manufacturer.
Whoever is doing the maths need to be certain that no section of the truss has a length that is greater than 60 times its least (or smallest) dimension. Construction must also be in accordance with SANS 10407 and with additional specification in SANS 10400-L that are shown in the form of drawings and a table. Now, thanks to mass-market models available at stores like Home Depot and Lowes, they’re bringing their own particular aura of machismo to American and European backyards. This heavy perforated metal plate slides back and forth under the food on the grate in the smoke chamber with smaller air holes closer to the fire and larger holes further away.
This makes offset smokers a bit more labor intensive than set-it-and-forget-it pellet grills, but for many people—count me in—this is part of the fun. Close the lid—make sure the cooking chamber lid is closed as well—and preheat the smoker to the desired temperature (usually between 225 to 275 degrees). The objective is to force the heat and smoke downward, thereby minimizing the temperature differential. If fibre-cement slates were used, the minimum slope had to be at least 10 deg – and if they were less than 17 deg they needed an underlay. If the temperature is too high, partially close the vents and allow the temperature to settle; if too low, add more charcoal.
In the drawings, specifications for rafters state that if the poles are 100 mm to 125 mm in diameter, then the truss clear spans may not be greater than 4 m. It is up to you to use common sense and your best judgment when using any information contained within the articles. If the poles are 125 mm to 150 mm in diameter, then the spans may be more than 4 m but not greater than 6 m. It will keep the smoking environment (and your food) moist and reduce the temperature near the firebox.
He has built wine racks, spice racks, towel racks, bedroom furniture such as beds, dressers with mirror, night stands.



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