Glossary of wood and woodworking terms,woodworking tools houston tx yesterday,plans for a garden shed nz - Try Out

05.07.2014
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Please join our friendly community by clicking the button below - it only takes a few seconds and is totally free. The product use recommendations in this glossary are based on APA – The Engineered Wood Association’s continuing programs of laboratory testing, product research, and comprehensive field experience. Adhesives are used in the manufacture of engineered wood products and in a variety of construction uses.
APA trademarked I-joists use phenolic, melamine, and polyurethane adhesives in web to web and web to flange joints.
APA trademarked glulam beams use phenol-resorcinol and melamine adhesives in face and end joint bonds. Many adhesives, preferably in conjunction with nails or other fasteners, produce strong joints in wood structural panel construction.
Construction adhesives are single-part elastomeric adhesives of various formulations, normally job site-applied with a caulking gun. A performance specification developed by APA for glues recommended for use in the APA Glued Floor System. A solid material that blocks air flow, used to enclose structures to prevent the passage of moisture laden air into the interior of the wall where it could condense on cold surfaces. The trade organization representing manufacturers of plywood, OSB, glued laminated timber, I-Joists, Rim Board,® and structural composite lumber (SCL).
A floor system developed by APA in which a single layer of APA RATED STURD-I-FLOOR panels (or subflooring in the case of double-layer construction) is glue-nailed to wood joists. Panel products developed by APA, such as APA RATED SHEATHING, APA RATED STURD-I-FLOOR and APA RATED SIDING, designed and manufactured to meet performance criteria for specific end-use applications.
An APA Performance Rated Panel designed and manufactured specifically for residential and other light frame wall sheathing, roof sheathing and subflooring applications. An APA Performance Rated Panel designed and manufactured specifically for residential and other light frame single-floor (combined subfloor-underlayment) applications for use under carpet. A construction system in which APA RATED SIDING panels or lap are attached directly to studs (single wall) or over nonstructural wall sheathing, such as fiberboard, gypsumboard or rigid foam insulation.
APA – The Engineered Wood Association is an approved quality supervision and testing agency for wood structural panels and other engineered wood products. A thin, narrow strip of plywood or lumber used to conceal or protect a joint between adjoining pieces of lumber or plywood.
Short lumber segments nailed between major framing members to support edges of structural panels where they meet. A localized delamination caused by steam pressure buildup during the hot pressing operation.
To glue together, as veneers are “bonded” to form a sheet of plywood or a mat of strands to form OSB.
Bond classification ratings for APA wood structural panels designated in APA trademarks as Exterior or Exposure 1. Exterior panels have bonds capable of withstanding repeated wetting and redrying or long-term exposure to weather or other conditions of similar severity. A beam built of lumber and wood structural panel in the form of a long hollow box which will support more load across an opening than will its individual members alone. Short wood or metal braces or struts placed crosswise between joists to help keep them in alignment.
Inner ply or plies of a plywood panel whose grain runs parallel with that of the face and back plies. The flat surface created by slicing off the square edge or corner of a piece of wood or panel. An APA 303 Siding texture consisting of shallow grooves cut into panel faces during manufacture. Wood exposed to alternating moist and dry conditions eventually develops open cracks or “checks.” Reduce checking by sealing panel edges before installation to minimize moisture absorption, and by using an elastomeric priming coat or resin sealer on the surfaces. In conventional plywood, inner plies whose grain runs perpendicular to that of the outer plies. A space often about two feet high beneath a house floor allowing access to plumbing or wiring.
Any vertical framing member cut less than full length, as in cripple studs under a window opening. In plywood, the veneer layers with grain direction perpendicular to that of the face plies. A prefabricated solid engineered wood panel made from at least three layers of solid-sawn lumber or structural composite lumber (SCL) that are stacked crosswise and bonded together with structural adhesives to form a solid, rectangular-shaped panel that is intended for construction applications, including roofs, floors and walls in residential and nonresidential buildings. Joint formed by intersection of two boards, one of which is notched with a rectangular groove. Bending of a wood structural panel or framing member between supports under an applied load. A light frame wall construction system consisting of exterior finish siding, such as APA RATED SIDING, applied over structural wall sheathing – typically APA RATED SHEATHING.
Support, such as panel clips or lumber blocking, installed between framing members at wood structural panel edges to transfer loads from one panel to the other across the joint. Edge finishing method, such as banding with wood or plastic, or filling with putty or spackle. A panel defect in which the edge or end of an inner ply has split or broken away during manufacture, leaving a gap in the edge of the plywood panel. A building system using wood structural panels over lumber framing spaced 24 inches on center in walls, floors and roof.
Structural wood products manufactured by bonding together wood strands, veneers, lumber or other forms of wood fiber to produce a larger and integral composite unit with superior performance characteristics. PS 1 exposure bond classification term for plywood manufactured for permanent outdoor or marine use. The highest-grade side of any veneer-faced panel that has outer plies of different veneer grades.
Partial separation of wood fibers parallel to grain in the wood or veneer surfaces of panels caused chiefly by the strains of weathering and seasoning. Direction of the grain of the outer ply (face) of a veneer-faced panel in relation to its supports.
A tough, scuff-resistant plywood coating made of glass or other fibers combined with resins. A material for filling nail holes, checks, cracks or other blemishes in surfaces of wood before application of paint, varnish or other finishes. Stains, paints or sealers which protect, color or enhance the natural beauty of wood structural panels. Formaldehyde is a naturally occurring, organic molecule that can be irritating at high concentrations. Wood-based material such as flakes or strands, including additives, such as adhesive and wax, used to manufacture OSB.
Process of leveling parts of a ceiling, wall or floor by means of wood strips, called furring strips, before adding panel cover. The adhesive joint formed between veneers in a plywood panel or between face veneers and core in a composite panel (primary glueline), or between lumber and wood structural panel parts in an assembly such as a component (secondary glueline). Short for structural glued-laminated timber – large beams fabricated by bonding layers of specially selected lumber with strong, durable adhesives.
The condition on the surface of a plywood panel resulting from harder or denser wood fibers swelling and rising above softer surrounding wood.
One of the surface treatments frequently given to textured siding in which a series of narrow, parallel channels are cut into the surface of the panel.
A piece of wood structural panel connecting lumber members of a truss or other frame structure.
Wood of the deciduous or broadleaved trees – oak, maple, ash, walnut – as distinct from the softwood of the coniferous or needleleaved trees – pine, fir, spruce, hemlock. A cross member, solid-sawn or engineered wood, placed between studs or joists to support loads over openings for stairways, chimneys, doors, etc. The nonactive core of a tree distinguishable from the growing sapwood by its usually darker color and greater resistance to rot and decay. A building code designation for a particular type of construction (Type IV) with good fire endurance. Plywood finished with a resin-impregnated fiber overlay to provide extremely smooth hard surfaces that need no additional finishing and have high resistance to chemicals and abrasion. Joist whose cross section resembles the letter “I.” The flanges of an I-joist are composed of lumber or laminated veneer lumber (LVL), and the web is composed of plywood or oriented strand board. Values which rate the capacity of floor assemblies to control impact noise such as footfalls. ICC-ES is one of a number of organizations that studies applications for new proprietary products that fall outside the scope of the model code. Wood dried in ovens (kilns) by controlled heat and humidity used to dry solid wood to specified limits of moisture content.
Natural growth characteristic of wood caused by a branch base imbedded in the main tree stem. In plywood, a layer consists of one or more adjacent plies having the wood grain in the same direction. The step in wood structural panel manufacture in which veneers or reconstituted wood layers are “stacked” in complete panel “press loads” after gluing and before pressing.
Construction in which the structural parts are wood or dependent on a wood framework for support. The weight or pressure a structure carries or sustains, which must be considered in building design. Plywood panels manufactured with the same glueline durability requirements as other Exterior-type panels but with more restrictive veneer quality and manufacturing requirements.


The resin-treated kraft paper applied to a panel or panels finished with an opaque resin-treated fiber overlay to provide a smooth surface ideal as a paint base. A joint formed by fitting together two pieces of lumber or panels that have been cut off at a 45° angle.
A building code developed by the International Code Council (ICC), such as the International Building Code (IBC) and International Residential Code (IRC). Scaffold nails: 8d and 10d most common, for scaffolds, bracing and any temporary fastening that must later be removed.
Casing and finish nails: 4d, 6d and 8d most common, for exterior and interior trim and installation of siding and paneling where large nailheads should not show.
For underlayment and finish floor: Special nail types with greater holding power than ordinary varieties are also available.
Predrilling is occasionally necessary in careful work where nails must be very close to panel edges.
Flooring nails sometimes appear to “pop” up so that nail head impressions are visible on the surface of the finished floor covering.
Structural panels not included in Product Standard PS 1, PS 2 or covered under various other Performance Standards, and which may bear the mark of the manufacturer rather than a recognized testing agency, such as APA. On-center spacing, meaning the distance from the center of one structural member to the center of the adjacent member, as in the spacing of studs, joists, rafters, nails, etc. Irregularities such as splits, open joints and knotholes that interrupt the smooth continuity of veneer. Wood structural panels manufactured from reconstituted, mechanically oriented wood strands bonded with adhesive under heat and pressure. Look at the bearing relative to the bit's cutting edge, then compare with the roundover bit.
Dovetail Bit Using a dovetail bit and a dovetail jig, you can quickly and reliably produce high quality dovetail joints. In a full lap, no material is removed from either of the members to be joined, resulting in a joint which is the combined thickness of the two members. Wood Router (from Merriam-Webster Online) a machine with a revolving vertical spindle and cutter for milling out the surface of wood.
There are four primary catagories that we consider when finishing a Replacement Window Project. Standard Size - A single window unit whose height and width combined is less than 100 inches. There are typically three variations for Replacement Windows when considering the type of trim required to complete the project.
A belt sander is a powered sanding machine that rotates a looped ribbon of sandpaper around two drums. When the edges or corners of the wood are shaved slightly so that when two floorboards are put together, the wear surface where the two floorboards meet will be beveled inwards. When your floorboards have either quickly warmed up or have excess moisture, they tend to push against each other.
This tool is a metal bar that has a cat's paw on the end of it, which is designed for pulling out nails. When certain products like various adhesives and finishes go through a process where they harden and bond. Seaside construction has a long history in the construction industry and a long list of satisfied home owner.
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However, because the Association has no control over quality of workmanship or the conditions under which engineered wood products are used, it cannot accept responsibility for product performance or designs as actually constructed.
APA trademarked OSB is manufactured using 1) phenolic adhesive, 2) isocyanate adhesive or 3) a combination with phenolic in the faces and isocyanate in the core. They are designed for various applications such as nail-glued floors to improve floor performance and reduce squeaks.
AFG-01 requires that glues applied at the job site be sunlight resistant, strong under many moisture and temperature conditions, and able to fill gaps. The Association has three main functions: 1) research to improve wood structural panel (plywood and OSB) and other engineered wood products and systems, 2) quality inspection and testing to assure the manufacture of high quality wood structural panel and engineered wood products, and 3) promotion of engineered wood products and building systems. The bond is so strong that floor and joists behave like an integral unit, greatly increasing floor stiffness and reducing floor squeaks and nail pops.
APA Performance Rated Panels can be manufactured as conventional veneered plywood, as composites (veneer faces bonded to reconstituted wood cores), or as mat-formed panels (oriented strand board). Commonly used, in addition to siding, for fencing, soffits, wind screens and other exterior applications. APA Siding bearing a Span Rating of 24 oc in the trademark can be applied vertically direct to studs spaced 24 inches on center. Unsanded and touch-sanded panels, and most panels with A or B faces on one side only, carry the APA trademark on the panel back. The steam may result from high moisture content of the veneer or strands, excessive glue spread, or high press temperatures. Panels classified as Exposure 1 are intended to resist the effects of moisture on structural performance as may occur due to construction delays or other conditions of similar severity. Lumber members form the top and bottom (flanges) of the beam, while the sides (webs) are plywood. Brushed or relief-grain surfaces accent the natural grain pattern to create striking textures. Stack size varies throughout the industry, with the average stack running about 30 to 33 inches high. Plywood provides tough, durable, easy-to-handle, split-resistant and lightweight concrete forms.
Orthogonally bonding the layers increases the structural and dimensional stability of the product as a slab or wall. Because the wood in wood structural panels is either cross-laminated or randomly oriented, any cut made in a wood structural panel is a cross cut. Separation in area immediately over or around a permitted defect does not constitute delamination. The underside of an eave may form an “open soffit.” Textured panels, applied face down to eave rafters as roof sheathing, give open soffits a decorative finished surface. Appears on sanded grades with B-grade or better veneer faces, PLYRON, MARINE, and panels with overlaid surfaces on both sides.
Edge seal before painting the panel surface if panel edges will be exposed to repeated wetting and drying. Panels with tongue-and-groove edges can be used in many applications without additional edge support. Heat and pressure against a master pattern impress a variety of textured effects into panel surfaces, which remain smooth and paintable.
The system’s series of in-line frames – trusses, studs and joists – provide cost-effective materials utilization and simpler, faster construction. These high performance building components achieve predictable and reliable performance characteristics with the efficient use of natural resources.
Spacing between panel edges and ends is recommended to allow for any possible panel swelling.
These coated panels (composite) are used in truck and trailer bodies, containers and concrete forms.
They minimize the weathering action which roughens and erodes the surface of unfinished wood.
Overlaid (MDO and HDO) plywood needs no preparation; sanded and textured grades require only touch-sanding. Plywood is pressure-impregnated with fire retardant chemicals mixed in water in accordance with American Wood Protection Association (AWPA) Standards U1 and T1. Flame spread ratings are expressed in numbers or letters and are used in building code interior finish requirements. Box beams and I-joists are fabricated with lumber or engineered wood flanges (top and bottom) and wood structural panel webs (sides).
Liquid plastic foamed into all spaces between the panels serves to both insulate and support the component skins.
The footing is wider than the member it supports, and distributes the weight of the structure to the ground over a larger area to prevent settling.
Most wood frame houses have a lengthwise center girder that supports the joists and floor panels.
End and edge jointing permit production of longer and wider structural wood members than are normally available.
These species are classified according to strength and stiffness under manufacturing standard PS 1 into Groups 1 through 5. The overlay material is bonded to one or both sides of the plywood as an integral part of the panel faces. Evaluation reports are then issued that indicate product equivalency to specific sections of the code. Wood structural panels are commonly used for subflooring and underlayment or single-layer flooring (APA RATED STURD-I-FLOOR) over floor joists.
Term may designate a lap siding technique, in which each panel or piece overlaps the edge of the next lower panel. For instance, four-ply panels always have three layers with both core plies at right angles to the faces. Typically, lumber framing is sheathed with wood structural panels for roofs, walls and floors. Uniform loads are evenly distributed over a large area, usually the entire surface of a panel.


The grade is particularly suitable for marine applications where bending is required, as in boat hulls.
Recommended for siding and other outdoor applications, and for built-ins, signs and displays, furniture, etc.
These are continually reviewed and updated by committees of building officials with input from industry, academia and users. Closer spacing is necessary only with thin panels which might otherwise buckle slightly between nails. Various wood structural panel construction systems tested both in laboratories and buildings meet or exceed requirements. Surfaces of concrete form panels are lightly coated with oil and the edges sealed if specified.
Oriented strand material may be produced as the center layer of composite panels, or may be cross-laminated in layered panels. Also, notice that by raising this bit you can eliminate the top bead, leaving only a roundover on the top of the cut.
However, many wood workers choose to use dovetails because they can add beautiful detail and craftsmanship to a work piece.
A wood worker can make dovetails without the help of a jig, but such work takes great skill and much patience. In a half lap joint, material is removed from each of the members so that the resulting joint is the thickness of the thickest member.
It delivers dead-on accuracy and easy repeatability, eliminating test cuts to properly adjust the bit. The acclimation process will minimize shrinking and swelling with temperature and humidity changes. Chatter marks are caused when the floor sander jumps or stutters due to an inexperienced operator. This stage must be achieved before continuing with a second coat or continuing with another process of a job.
Because engineered wood product performance requirements vary geographically, consult your local architect, engineer or design professional to assure compliance with code, construction, and performance requirements. Commonly used for cabinets, built-ins, furniture, partitions and other interior or protected applications where a smooth surface or appearance quality on both sides is important.
Commonly used for fences, built-ins, signs, boats, cabinets, commercial refrigerators, shipping containers, tanks, tote boxes, ducts and other exterior or high moisture applications where a smooth surface or appearance quality on both sides is important. Commonly used as a substitute for A-A Exterior where the appearance of one side is less important.
Commonly used for soffits, fences, boxcar and truck linings, farm buildings, tanks, commercial refrigerators and other high-moisture applications where the appearance or smoothness of only one side is important. Commonly used for paneling, built-ins, shelving, partitions and other interior or protected applications where the appearance or smoothness of only one side is important. Most often placed on outside surface where it also fulfills the code requirement for a weather barrier.
Only construction adhesives conforming to APA specification AFG-01 or ASTM D3498 are recommended for use with the system. The trademarks on APA Performance Rated Panels include a Span Rating denoting the maximum recommended spacing of supports over which the panel should be placed for the designated end use, and the exposure durability classification of the panel.
Siding with a Span Rating of 16 oc can be used vertically direct to studs 16 inches on center. Utility panel for farm service and work buildings, boxcar and truck linings, containers, tanks, agricultural equipment, as a base for exterior coatings, etc. Utility panel for backing, sides of built-ins, industry shelving, slip sheets, separator boards, bins, etc. Commonly used for severe moisture conditions, exterior balconies and decks, refrigerated or controlled atmosphere rooms, and boxcar and truck floors. It can be bent for curved forms and liners, and its natural insulating properties help moderate temperature variations for more consistent curing. Therefore, in construction, run the face grain or long dimension of the panel across supports for greatest stiffness and strength. Different finishes give varying degrees of protection so the type, quality, quantity and application must be considered to achieve the desired performance. A one-hour rating, for example, means that an assembly similar to that tested will neither collapse nor transmit flame or high temperature for at least one hour after a fire starts. NOTE: Span Ratings and load capacities are based on untreated panels, and may not apply following fire-retardant treatment.
Or wood structural panel skins are pressure-glued to both sides of rigid plastic foam boards or billets. But engineered wood products are made with moisture-resistant adhesives that are associated with very low emission rates.
Apply glue to one or both surfaces according to manufacturer’s directions, then press surfaces together and nail in place. Similarly, grain usually runs the long dimension in a panel of plywood or OSB, making it stronger in that direction. Used for concrete forms, cabinets, highway signs, counter-tops and other punishing applications. A shiplap joint unites two panels when half the thickness of each is cut away so that the two pieces fit together with outer faces flush.
The classification of light-frame construction remains the same in building codes even when masonry covering is applied on exterior walls.
When floor members are dry, make sure fasteners are flush with or below floor surface just prior to installation of thin floor covering such as tile, linoleum or vinyl.
Note that by carefully adjusting the depth and angle at which your bit cuts, you can achieve identical profiles in the target work piece using either of these bit profiles.
Most commonly in half lap joints, the members are of the same thickness and half the thickness of each is removed. For example, if a wood worker removes material from the edge of a board using a router bit with a "round over" profile, the resulting edge will have a smooth, circular transition from one side to the adjacent side.
All hardwood flooring needs to acclimate to the conditions and temperature of your house before it can be installed. Can be manufactured as conventional veneered plywood, as a composite or as oriented strand board siding. APA RATED STURD-I-FLOOR 48 oc plywood, historically called 2-4-1, is also used in heavy timber roof construction. Panels with either Span Rating can be applied direct to studs 24 inches on center with face grain horizontal provided horizontal joints are blocked. Also available in HDO for very smooth concrete finish, in STRUCTURAL I (all plies limited to Group I species), and with special overlays.
Almost any APA trademarked plywood can be used in concrete formwork applications, but PLYFORM is specifically manufactured for that purpose.
Or, a very strong strip of glass or other fibers and resin that is applied to bottom of glulam timbers to increase the strength and stiffness properties of the glulam beam. Obtain structural performance characteristics of FRT panels from the company providing the treatment and redrying service.
For work such as cabinets or drawers, or whenever possible, joint should be clamped as well as nailed to maintain pressure until glue sets. Wood structural panels should therefore usually be applied with the long dimension perpendicular to (across) supports.
The group number of a particular panel is determined by the weakest (highest numbered) species used in face and back (except for some thin panels where strength parallel to face grain is unimportant). Dead loads are stationary, permanent loads; that is, the weight of all the material used in construction of the building (or section). Available without grooving, with V-grooves, in T 1-11 or reverse board-and-batten grooving.
The angle of a dovetail (tenon) causes it to lock with its corresponding pin (mortise), thus producing a super strong joint.
This means that your wood floors need to reach the same temperature and moisture level as the internal environment of your house. Check with manufacturer for specific Exterior application recommendations, which vary with particular products. Live loads are planned loads the structure must carry under normal conditions, such as people or furniture and equipment, that would be moved across the structure’s surface.
I could see what I wanted to do in my mind, but I couldn't describe it concisely to someone when I was asking them about how to make it.
Please feel free to email me suggestions of other terms you might find helpful and I'll add them in here. Special surface treatment such as V-groove, channel groove, deep groove (such as APA Texture 1-11), brushed, rough sawn and texture-embossed (MDO). Exterior finishes recommended for wood structural panels include semi-transparent stain, solid-color stain and acrylic latex paint.
These loads are generally assigned by the building code for the type of structure; for example, a heavy-equipment storage warehouse, a house or an office building. So I'd have to go into a (sometimes) lengthy description before we figured out what it was that I wanted to do.
Span Rating (stud spacing for siding qualified for APA STURD-I-WALL applications) and face grade classification (for veneer-faced siding) indicated in trademark. It's funny how this frustration helped the light come on for me as to why my English teachers made me do vocabulary work.



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