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STAIRS, RAILINGS, LANDINGS, RAMPS - home - CONTENTS: Catalog of Stair & Railing Defects & Trip Hazards articles.
Because more people are injured by trips and falls than other hazards, experts have looked closely at the specifications for stairs, steps, and rails to reduce the falling hazards.
This work has been translated into stair and railing specifications that are similar among codes and countries (but not identical). Following this list we provide sketches and photographs of stair, railing, landing and related codes, construction details and hazards.
ATTIC STAIRS are often non-standard, steep, missing railings; attic folding stairs or pull-down stairs have special requirements for securing, fitting, etc.
Our photo of collapsing and open-railing exterior stairs shown at left was taken on Hogback Mountain in the White Mountains of New Hampshire. These steps, constructed in the 1700's make successful use of platforms at the stairway turns, but are unsafe, lacking guardrails, handrails, and (due to centuries of wear) level treads.
Continue reading at CODES for STAIRS & RAILINGS or select a topic from the More Reading links or topic ARTICLE INDEX shown below.
Beginning at STAIRS, RAILINGS, LANDINGS, RAMPS and in detail at CODES for STAIRS & RAILINGS you'll find specifications on stairs and railings including when railings are required. My OPINION is that even if the rail were not strictly necessary, it would be a smart safety improvement to install one. Note: A competent person must inspect ladders for visible defects periodically and after any incident that could affect their safe use. Employers accepted into SHARP may receive an exemption from programmed inspections (not complaint or accident investigation inspections) for a period of 1 year. For an access s uttle that only serves mechanicals stairs may not be required - though other OSHA safety rules may apply for workplace environments.
Question: code on railing on a walk way behind a restaurant , where the restroom is located and the elevation is minimum of 16"?
What is the code on railing on a walk way behind a restaurant , where the restroom is located and the elevation is minimum of 16"?
It is the case that in some jurisdictions the code inspector may not require handrailings along steps that are less than 3 feet from top to bottom walking surfaces. ACTS is a not-for-profit corporation that provides health, safety, industrial hygiene, technical services, and safety publications to the arts, crafts, museums, and theater communities.
ACTS also will not accept money or take advertising in our publications from manufacturers of artists materials or businesses whose interests could conflict with ours.
Our recommended books about building & mechanical systems design, inspection, problem diagnosis, and repair, and about indoor environment and IAQ testing, diagnosis, and cleanup are at the InspectAPedia Bookstore.
The Illustrated Home illustrates construction details and building components, a reference for owners & inspectors. We've had several reports of severe injury involving collapsing attic stairs, including involving home inspectors as well as occupants. As our photo shows, a toddler (in this case very carefully held and supervised) can easily fall through open landing balusters or open balusters on a stairway. We often see guards and railings enclosed using horizontal members or mesh or link fencing materials. We also often see decks and porches more than 30" above ground level with no rail whatsoever, perhaps relying on the placement of plants or furniture to discourage people from stepping too close to the edge.
Our opinion was that code exemption did not do much to reduce the falling hazard and that guards and railings should be provided regardless. We also often see trip hazards at exterior stairs and walks, details which may escape some building inspectors. Guards or guard rails referred to in stair codes and specifications refer to the safety barrier placed along the open sides of a horizontal walking surface such as a landing, balcony, deck, or porch. Our photo shows a flimsy metal guardrail that was modified to install along a sloping ceiling, cut, and not properly secured; it led to a fall and serious injuries. When someone is falling and tries to grab a flimsy collapsing railing, injuries are likely to be increased. Handrails or railings are sometimes chosen for their creative or aesthetic appeal such as this handrail filled with running water at el Alhambra in Granada, Spain. But this is not a particularly easy rail to grasp if one is falling down the slippery brick stairs. Railings are a critical safety feature on outdoor and indoor stairs, landings, platforms, decks, porches, and similar structures. Railings in stair codes and specifications refer to the safety barrier along steps or stairs. Handrail cross section and size: One of the most frequent fall hazards we encounter are home-made railings that are too small or too large to grasp, or handrails that do not permit continuous grasping along their length. A handrail made out of a 2x6 set on edge or on flat and run along a stairway cannot be grasped. Railing wrong height on stairs (above) or landing (at left) - too low to grasp or too high to grasp, or too low to prevent falling off of a platform, as I'm demonstrating in the right-hand photo above and in the stair landing photo shown here.
The stair stringer is the diagonal supporting structure that carries the weight of the stair assembly as well as people using the stairs.

Rotted stair treads or stringers: watch for rot in wooden stairs, especially at exterior entrances and decks.
Our photo shows rotting basement stair treads; from the stair top we could see that the entire stairway was twisting and in danger of sudden collapse. Stair stringer movement, as we cited just above, can lead to separation of the connection between treads and the stringer, leading to stair collapse. Examine the stringers for bowing and look for gaps at the ends of treads - but beware: separation and gaps may be hidden if the stair treads were set into groove routed into the stringer. Stair tread nose projection missing or wrong dimension: (falling hazard on descending) or tread nose extends out too far over tread (risk splitting off or trip on climbing up). Stair treads of improper dimension in tread depth (does it fit your foot), tread width (the stairway width side to side), riser height, or tread nose dimensions.
These steps in Spain were uneven in surface, had no side railing, were too narrow, a bit steep, and had that interesting little swing-out gate (with no platform) leading up to an upper balcony with not much of a railing, as our friend Nuria was contemplating. Angled or Curved stair treads are a particular trip hazard, especially because of the lack of uniformity and because the tread width at the inside of the curve can be too small for safe walking. Our stair photo at above left shows tricky angled stairs that were squeezed onto a sidewalk in New York City. My daughter fell down curved stairs at a shopping mall where the triangular tread hazard was combined with a beautiful, architect-designed handrail that was about 8" in diameter - she was unable to grasp it as she was falling.
The photo shows her sister grasping an added handrail that was welded on to correct this unsafe condition. Closed riser stair treads using a solid riser are shown at the left of the sketch and open stair treads are shown at the right sketch. Notice that the minimum stair tread thickness is increased when the stair tread is not supported by a solid riser. The minimum recommended stair landing length is 36" (or a length and width sufficiently greater than the swing of the door if a wider door is present.
Notice that a stair top landing is not required if the door at the top of the stair opens away from the stairwell. Fire stopping for stairs is required to slow the spread of building fires between floors and to assist in emergency exit. Sample excerpts of sources which a building code compliance inspector would be expected to cite in support of requiring a properly-designed, properly-secured guard rail include but are not limited to the citations below. Commentary: Handrails, treads and risers must be structurally sound, firmly attached to the structure, and properly maintained to perform their intended function safely. Guards are required on the open side of stairs and on landings and balconies which are more than 30 inches above the floor or grade below.
Back yards are only so private, and in some cities, most people do not have space for one anyway. Creative contemporary domestic designs, from unique home architecture to custom interior, furniture & DIY design ideas.Find inspiration via plans & pictures of compact modular mini-houses, small-space apartments, all-in-one bathroom & bedroom projects & more.Upcycled cargo shipping container houses, to space-saving furniture, ultra-modern interiors & futuristic homes! Crystal Chandelier Over Grey Bed Connected By Twin Table Lamps On Black Wooden Bedside Tables.
While we do not claim to be world class experts when it comes to ‘wine tasting’, design of a perfect wine cellar is something we would be glad to talk about. We provide stair code citations for details of how stairs, landings, and railings should be constructed to meet various building codes & standards. On closer inspection we found that this exterior stairway was not securely supported on the steep rocky hillside over which it had been constructed.
Here we include REFERENCES to key documents on building codes and stair and railing safety. When building a deck or stairs on a sloped hillside, as you can see from our illustration, extra care needs to be taken with supporting posts and footings.
You don't specify the total rise, and in some communities a total rise of 3 ft or less can be excluded from handrail requirements. Someone can be injured even on a small fall, and you note that this is a commercial property - which to me means more responsibility on the property owner and more risk as well. Stair materials are not restricted to prohibit wood material in structure nor in tread, railing, or balusters; but the addequacy (thickness or dimension) and condition of the stairway have to be adequate and safe so of course if there are rot, connection or other problems those must be addressed.
It sounds to me as if you are describing a public stairway that requires code-compliant stair tread, riser, handrail dimensions.
The step down rise is not a determinant of platform length and width but there are guidelines about platform level and step down riser height. A part of the fees from our consulting services goes to support our free and low-cost services for artists.
We want artists to know that we have no financial incentive to make our product and safety recommendations. The text is intended as a reference guide to help building owners operate and maintain their home effectively.
Attic & Basement stair defects can be grouped by the stair type as we describe just below. Because a toddler can easily climb these materials, they are not safe for guard or railing enclosures and should not be used. Where building code enforcement was absent or lax we found a deck eight feet above ground with no railings at all.
It's common for gravel, dirt, or asphalt to settle inside of the step perimeter made of landscape ties such as shown in our photo. The equivalent safety barrier placed along a stairway itself is discussed at RAILING CODES & SPECIFICATIONS. In our experience even worse than a missing railing or guard is one which is loose or improperly constructed.

In this case which we investigated, a painter on the catwalk where I am standing lost his balance, grabbed the railing to save himself, and fell, tangled in this metal railing, into an adjacent stairwell.
Some of the fall injury cases we've investigated involved a combination of unsafe stairs and a fall that was made worse when the individual who lost their balance tried to grasp an unsafe handrail. Also see Guards for details about safety railings on landings and open hallways, porches, screened porches, balconies - horizontal walking surfaces. You can see a stair stringer along the upper-edge of the set of stairs lying on their edge in our photo at above-right, after the stairs fell from the stair opening (our photo at above left) during a building renovation project.
Where the stair stringer is mounted against a building wall water is often trapped, leading to hidden rot and sudden collapse. The sketch, courtesy Carson Dunlop, predicts stair rot exactly where it's found in our photograph. We've seen such stair treads suddenly collapse under load or collapse due to spreading between the stringers. The riser height shall be measured vertically between the leading edges of adjacent treads. The maximum out of level allowed on a stairway walking surface is 1 unit of rise or fall in 48 units of length - a 2% slope. As the sketch, courtesy Carson Dunlop, shows, only one set of winders should be allowed in a staircase, and the dimensions shown address tripping hazards.
Handrails with a circular cross section shall have an outside diameter of at least 1.25 inches (32 mm) and not greater than 2 inches (51 mm) or shall provide equivalent grasp ability.
Handrail-gripping surfaces shall be continuous, without interruption by newel posts or other obstructions. Handrail assemblies and guards shall be able to resist a single concentrated load of 200 pounds (0.89kN), applied in any direction at any point along the top, and have attachment devices and supporting structure to transfer this loading to appropriate structural elements of the building.
Intermediate rails (all those except the handrail), balusters and panel fillers shall be designed to withstand a horizontally applied normal load of 50 pounds (0.22 kN) on an area not to exceed one square foot (305mm2) including openings and space between rails.
During an inspection the code official should inspect all stringers, risers, treads, and handrails.
Guards shall be not less than 30 inches (762mm) high above the floor of the landing or balcony.
Handrails cannot be less than 30 inches nor more than 42 inches above the nosing of the treads (see Figure PM-702.9). Everything that involves a fine bottle of wine is about precision, perfection and a great deal of care. Do you where I could get hardware like that and make the modifications necessary to this design?
We gratefully accept donations, but do not solicit them from the artists who call here for help and advice.
For more details about balusters (vertical spindles in railing construction) see details at RAILING CODES & SPECIFICATIONS for a discussion of safety barriers along stairs, and GUARDRAILS on BALCONIES, DECKS, LANDINGS (railings on landings and open hallways, porches, screened porches, balconies that are more than 30" above floors or grade). A local inspector opined that because the deck was not attached to the house (it abutted the house) it was exempt from building code enforcement.
The stair stringer is secured to the structure at stair top, stair bottom, stair sides, depending on where there are building surfaces present.
The stair tread depth shall be measured horizontally between the vertical planes of the foremost projection of adjacent treads and at right angle to the tread's leading edge. Guards are to contain intermediate rails, balusters or other construction to reduce the chance of an adult or child from falling through the guard. With evolving design of modern homes and more clients eager to showcase their exquisite wine collection, elegant storage areas that double up as proud displays are becoming a popular trend.Blue LED lighting and clear acrylic create a stunning modern wine cellarby Beckwith InteriorsA dedicated wine cellar is obviously the best way to go about it, but those who are less blessed in terms of space and a wide variety of intoxicating riches to show, can opt for stylish storage areas. Special Offer: For a 10% discount on any number of copies of the Home Reference Book purchased as a single order. Every landing shall have a minimum dimension measured in the direction of travel equal to the width of the stairway. If the guard is missing some intermediate rails or balustrades, it is recommended that the guard be repaired to its original condition if it will provide protection equivalent to the protection it provided when originally constructed.
Galow specializes in residential construction including both new homes and repairs, renovations, and additions. Thanks to Alan Carson and Bob Dunlop, for permission for InspectAPedia to use text excerpts from The Home Reference Book & illustrations from The Illustrated Home.
Even if it is a small prefabricated unit that is being installed in a corner of the house, the idea is to pick a space which will offer controlled conditions with relative ease. Carson Dunlop Associates' provides extensive home inspection education and report writing material.
Special Offer: For a 5% discount on any number of copies of the Home Reference eBook purchased as a single order. While the traditionalists will argue that it is best to keep the cellar dark and cool, modern lighting installations can add a dazzling look to a wine storage area while still ensuring no damage is done to your expensive collection. If you are opting for a wine storage area in your living room, kitchen or in one of the corners of your house, then lighting can make or break the look.Beautiful reserve wine racking system employed by this cellarby Diamond LifeGorgeous track lighting illuminates this wine cellar by London Audio LtdIf you wish to illuminate your exclusive wine cellar in a gorgeous manner, then lighting systems that turn off as you leave the cellar and only switch on when someone is inside are the perfect solution. With most modern shelf designs and racking systems, one can accommodate a large number of bottles in a relatively small space. A fabulous wine cellar with organized racking system brings along with it all these qualities and a whole lot more.Space underneath the stairs transformed into wine storage unitby Pinnacle Mountain HomesContemporary temperature-controlled wine room next to the stairsA wine cellar under the staircase or a compact unit right next to the kitchen also works very well. Whether you live in a small studio apartment in a big city or a lavish residence with spacious interiors, a cool wine cellar is something every true connoisseur can sport.

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