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22.11.2013
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The Lightweight Modular Causeway System, developed for the military, can be rolled directly off the stern of a military vessel or transported by helicopter and deployed within hours. As one of the most diverse engineering and scientific research organizations in the world, the U.S. Outlining numerous recent and current activities that serve to validate that impressive vision, Holland began with an overview of ERDC warfighter support activities. Other areas associated with ERDC military engineering efforts range from geospatial research, to environmental quality issues on military installations to extensive capabilities such as modeling the effectiveness of new sensor systems against certain threats in selected environments.
Holland offered the example of the Modular Protective System, which has been taken to theater by elements of the U.S.
A critical subelement of ERDC’s force protection activities is directed toward the detection, deterrence, and defeat of improvised explosive devices (IEDs).
Over the last two years, ERDC has performed baseline risk assessments on this threat and identified and helped develop multiple ways of reducing IED placement opportunities and mitigating their explosive effects on vehicles as they traverse the culverts. Join over 25,000 of your peers and receive the latest in-depth Defense and Military news weekly. The Welcome range of lightweight modular wheelchair ramp systems is an extremely durable modular system which is designed for outdoor use is totally modular and easy to set up and store away.
To connect the CONCEPT 2 Pier Head to the shore will need some form of causeway or pier roadway. In general, the operational norm of CONCEPT 2 will be to avoid gently sloping undeveloped beaches.
The depth of water required at the Pier Head is not a constant, although principally driven by the need to accommodate the kind of ships characterised by the 7m draught Point class Strategic RORO ships in UK service and similar, it does not necessarily mean that will always be the requirement. In some scenarios, the pier length might be minimal, especially when being used to augment existing ports so although the pier must retain the ability to go beyond a thousand metres it should be the exception. Heavy plant such as bulldozers, container handlers and trackway dispensers are considerably wider than their track or wheelbase. Ordinarily, this would not be a concern because these overhanging elements could simply overhang the pier kerb and offset pedestrian barriers used.
However, where it does become a problem is if a panel type construction is used, a Bailey bridge deck for example, as the structural panels are considerably higher than the kerb and would thus impede the flow of wide vehicles. The pier should therefore provide a minimum clear space width of 4m, regardless of construction technique.
If the most common mode of operation for CONCEPT 2 is for ship to shore, rather than ship to shore and shore to ship it is unlikely than even a long pier would be a significant bottleneck. Longer piers with a single lane and two traffic will likely result in the pier becoming a bottleneck. Some form of traffic control might help but the obvious answer is to make the pier two lanes, each lane being one way, to the pier head or to the shore. After dimensions, the next factor to consider is load carrying capacity and it makes sense to define the pier in terms of Military Load Classification.
To provide assistance to bridge designers, tables of weights of commonly used equipment combinations have been compiled since the early days of military bridging. During WWI this was refined and loads were divided into 4 classes, light, medium, heavy and tank, with each one having a defining weight, spacing and where relevant, axle loads. The rather elegant and simple solution they came up with was to invent a scale, or classification, related to weight but crucially, not only weight.


Each bridge type was allocated load class number and each vehicle was also given a load class number.
If a vehicle’s load class was smaller than the bridges load class then it could cross and to assist with the rapid cross checking a standardised series of markings was designed, both bridge and vehicle had the marking in the same colours so a driver could simply compare the bridge sign with that painted on his vehicle and make the decision whether to cross without reference to bridge commanders or complex tables. The NATO system uses 16 hypothetical classes; 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 120 and 150 as defined in STANAG 2021. Because wheeled vehicles tend to be longer than tracked vehicles and therefore exert differing concentration of load and bending moment, bridges often have both a wheeled and tracked MLC.
Bridging equipment MLC calculations include weight, spacing of vehicles, safety factors and dynamic effects or impacts. The NATO MLC system also defines normal crossing conditions but allows for a reduction of safety factors in emergency or tactical conditions.
Each hypothetical vehicle has the bending moment and shear forces calculated and plotted on a graph at 1m intervals up to 100m, assuming a single span simply supported bridge. At the end of these complex calculations the MLC number is derived and rounded up to provide a safety factor. Different methods are used for single and multiple span military bridges, civilian bridges, rafts, ferries and floating bridges that take into account a diverse range of factors. If anyone actually fancies a look at STANAG 2021, click here The document provides a couple of interesting examples; the Leyland DAF 4 tonner has an MLC of 11, the Leopard 2A5 an MLC of 66 and the M3 Rig vehicle an MLC of 26. From the early work and subsequent refinement in the years prior to WWII by the Royal Engineers Board a simple and robust classification system for bridges, ferries and raft is now a NATO standard.
Conventional piers usually use dense packed steel or reinforced concrete piles driven into the sea bed or grouted in place because they have to withstand frequent storms and continuous use over periods measured in decades. When looking at a CONCEPT 2 pier it is important to appreciate that the design drivers have different priorities and longevity is not at the top of the list. The CONCEPT 2 pier requirement post specified a 30 operable period with no intermediate maintenance that would close the pier for any more than 1 hour in any 24 hour period. Beyond 30 days, it should still be operable but longer maintenance periods or traffic interrupting reinforcement works would be permissible.
This is not to say it will be flimsy because the actions of wave, wind and tide combined with loading from vehicles and personnel trafficking the pier will all require a fairly substantial structure, just not as substantial and a permanently installed pier. The Pier Head will likely be at a different relative height than the Pier given the freeboard of the Pier Head and required air gap so the linkspan should be able to accommodate some height difference. The means by which the pier connects to the shore is a little more complicated simply because there will be more variability in environmental and physical conditions at the shore than there will be at the Pier Head. The images above show the variety of shoreline terrain that the Pier Head Shore Interface would be required to connect to. It would be desirable to create a single elevation from ship to shore because this means increased speed and ease of handling but at either end of the Pier there may be a climb up or a climb down for a vehicle. Again, a simple, self supporting linkspan is required but installation would be more challenging than for the Pier Head Interface because it would not be permanently mounted on a self propelled platform like the CONCEPT Pier Head ship.
Referring back to ELCAS-M, the pier is built from the shore seaward so everything, equipment, plant, vehicles and modules, have to first be landed onto the shore by means of lighters or landing craft.
This results in a number of compromises, the sequence is linear with every deck module being on the critical path for the one that follows.
So if the building block size can be increased and some form of non linear or parallel build sequence used then build times could be reduced significantly when compared to ELCAS-M. This large building block and non linear build sequence strategy is an aspiration that might not be possible to realise but it is the quickest approach. The pier deck will need to have a non slip surface, kerbing and indicator lights and might be full width or, in order to reduce weight, a central gap. Shorter spans results in lighter spans, but more supports which will mean longer construction times.
This brings us on to a fundamental question, should the pier be self supporting or free floating. The only problem with a floating pontoon type support is bearing weights and susceptibility to waves, with Mulberry, it was about 25 tonnes, not good enough for CONCEPT 2.
As can be seen from these images in order to support increasing weights of modern equipment the size of the float is increasing in size. The US have also proposed something called the MOSES Causeway which uses large rubber tubes filled with pressurised sea water to provide a semi rigid support for a pier deck.
Despite the speed attractions of using a floating pier the downsides of wave resistance and load carrying capacity point to a solution where the pier is supported by the seabed. Another possible construction method is simply to use the same methods as military bridging.
Tank launched bridges can span long distances at a high load factor and truck or hand launched bridges like the General Dynamics Rapidly Emplaced Bridge System (REBS), WFEL Dry Support Bridge, BAE BR90 General Support Bridge or ERS80T Bridge from ERE are just a handful of examples. Aktivieren Sie JavaScript, um alle Funktionen des Shops nutzen und alle Inhalte sehen zu können. These are manufactured using heavy duty structural uprights and heavy duty arms in compliance with international set standards and norms. These are light in weight and are used in industries, mills, construction sites, and various other sectors.
Our professionals make sure to execute these products as per the highest of standards as well as complete them within the stipulated time frame.


These professionals of our firm are experts in designing the excellent quality fabric products.A  All the structures are perfectly translated from drawing into reality. These are available in the various customized size and dimensions and can be easily installed by the end user & is of best quality. This range is renowned amongst the clients for its high performance and robust construction. These are available in the market at reasonable prices and are known for the withstanding in adverse weather conditions and long service life.
The system also has great application for military and emergency operations for expedient bridging. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC) helps solve myriad challenges in warfighter support, military and civil works engineering, geospatial sciences, water resources, and environmental sciences. Because ELCAS-M is only used for loading and unloading landing craft, powered barges and intra-theatre logistics vessels this is perfectly adequate but because CONCEPT 2 is more ambitious and aspires to unloading in service RORO and civilian general cargo vessels without recourse to cross decking onto lighters, the water depth will be greater.
The Pier Head can operate at variable water depth with a maximum of approximately 15m, able to accommodate tidal variation and waves at a maximum of Sea State 4 before having to be jacked up to its survival height and thus disconnect from the pier.
Panel bridge construction would tend to result in greater widths than other methods and the additional structural materials required might increase total deck loads and load bearing capacity at each pier. Carrying capacity of the pier would be defined in such a way to accommodate multiple vehicles at once although the number of vehicles simultaneously on a single span might be restricted. As far back as 1887, the ‘Instructions in Military Engineering’ manual listed likely weights of things as diverse as heavily laden elephants and cavalry in marching order. Despite this advance an improvement was sought and in 1928 the Royal Engineer Board started collating details on military loads and the increasing number and type of vehicles in service.
Instead of looking up and cross referencing a vehicle against a bridge classification a simple comparison of load class was performed, if the numbers matched or the vehicle was less than the bridge classification then it could pass.
Normal, caution and risk classes are defined for each bridge that recognises safety factors may be eroded in wartime but these may also need more restrictions placed on crossing speeds, for example.
Using the expedient method of calculating MLC, the magic number for FRES SV Scout based on an initial in service weight of 34 tonnes is 41, too large for the in service Air Portable Ferry Bridge or Class 30 trackway for example, which have an MLC of 35 and 30 respectively. If an area can be found that has some flat and hard surface near a man road then it will be much more desirable than a bare beach where extensive matting or roadway preparation will be needed. No amount of personnel or plant is going to significantly speed up construction because one foot must be placed in front of the other. These pontoons could also be secured to the sea bed using a column unit and a slab and camel foot!
It is an interesting and some work has also looked at dispensing with pressurised tubes or dracones, replacing them with a flexible tube containing sea water that has been treated with a thickening agent to provide sufficient rigidity. Simply using multiple spans and support trestles could be the perfect solution but tank launched bridges can be expensive and truck launched bridges need quite a bit of space. Due to the design uniqueness of these tents, these are easily dis-mountable and relocatable. These structures are available in different designs, widths, lengths, colors and sizes as per the clienta€™s diverse requirements. And then, for very, very high-value locations, where we simply couldn’t protect any other way, we literally designed a capability that you might think of as ‘a giant speed bump.’ We put these systems in theater, working all the associated specifications with the folks there.
Container handlers such the Rough Terrain Container Handler would be particularly problematical as they can only travel at a reasonable speed with the container at right angles to the vehicle. These allowed assumptions to be made about the safe operation of a bridge and a follow on simplification started from this point was the concept of a bridge classification.
The details were used to further categorise loads into Light (Brigade), Medium (Division), Heavy  (Corps) and Super Heavy but the fundamental problem remained, matching bridge capacity to vehicle weight as they had to be looked up in tables before allowing to cross.
A spacing of 80ft was assumed at the bridge classification took into account bending moment and other factors, it was not simply a weight (this is a key distinction) Instead of weights of vehicles, each vehicle had a class, these starting at 3 and moving up to 24 in regular intervals. The 16 classes are defined by 16 hypothetical wheeled and 16 hypothetical tracked vehicles of various weights, sizes and axles. Vehicle and trailer combinations form part of the 32 definitions for tracked and wheeled vehicles. Given that everything has to be landed first it also constrains the size and weight to that which can be handled by the lighters and any mobile engineering plant that can be landed by the lighters. Supports have to be landed onto the sea bed, possibly using some sort of foundation so in general, the fewer number of supports the better. This was cumbersome and time consuming and relied on every type of vehicle appearing in the tables so in 1938 the system was looked at again by the Royal Engineers Board. The standard defines treatments for exceptions such as towing and vehicles outside of the basic 16?2 classes.
However, longer unsupported spans increases deck build time and requires a heavier construction with greater load earing capacity at the pier supports. Im Bereich Selbstschutz finden Sie bei uns Gas- und Schreckschusspistolen oder Revolver von Umarex, Röhm, Zoraki, ME, ISSC und weitere, PV- und CS-Munition, Pfefferspray, Pfefferschaum oder Pfeffergel sowie Tonfa, Kubotan, Elektroschocker uvm.



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