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22.10.2014
This area includes the processes required to ensure that the project includes all the work, and only the work required to complete the project successfully.
As well as defining the scope of the project in the planning stage it is also necessary to actively manage it.
This process involves creating a scope plan that describes how the scope of the project will be defined, validated and controlled so that it can be managed throughout the life of the project.
This process is concerned with assessing, documenting, and managing stakeholder needs to meet project objectives. This process involves creating a detailed description of the project and it's deliverables using the scope plan, the requirements documentation and project charter (created in the process of initiating the project). The creation of the work breakdown structure (WBS) should be one of the first steps in the planning process, once the requirements specification for the project has been written.
This process involves taking the deliverables which have been internally checked to see whether they meet the customer's requirements, and then actually present them to the customer for formal acceptance. No matter what a project is designed to do, it is crucial that it be defined and established as accurately as possible ahead of time. Getting the scope just right on a project is one of the most-important elements of achieving success in the end. The resources dedicated to a project can take on many forms, but all of them are important.
A deliverable-orientated hierarchical decomposition of the work to be executed by the project team to accomplish the project objectives and create the required deliverables. Employees - this is probably the first resource that is considered when putting together a new project. Budget - most projects include some kind of capital budget for expenses that go beyond things like payroll. Goal - one other important piece of project scope is simply what the goal of the project is in the first place. The four items above are usually the main components that need to be considered when framing the scope of an upcoming project. Project managers are not only tasked with getting to the end of a project successfully, but also with making sure that what happens during the project is within the scope that was laid out for them at the beginning. The idea of scope creep is one that has plenty of uses in business, and it applies in project management as well.
This happens when one part of the project spurs an idea to do something else, or to add onto what is already being done. Laying out a defined scope at the beginning of the work, and then sticking with it as much as possible throughout the project life-cycle, is the path toward a successful conclusion and overall improvement for the organization. Project 2010 Project Management: Real World Skills for Certification and Beyond by Robert Happy » PDF Books Planet - Download Free Digital Books in PDF, EPUB and MOBI Formats For Free! Every project involves risks and every project needs to have a management strategy for dealing with the threats and opportunities represented by each risk. A risk is a future event that may or may not happen, but if it does occur it will have an effect on project scope, schedule, cost, or quality. This plan details how the project management team will undertake to manage the risks associated with this project. This involves determining what risks may affect the project and assessing the impact of the risk should it occur. Using the risk register each risk is now analyzed in terms of its probability and impact on the project if it were to occur. Having identified and assessed each risk you need to develop the options and actions to enhance opportunities and to reduce threats to the project. Dealing with too little risk often means that the organization is being too conservative and is limiting their potential for growth - too much risk, however, and the company is likely to crash and burn at some point along the way. As projects are a regular part of business, it only stands to reason that they incur a certain level of risk as well. Dealing with the risk inside of a project isn't much different from dealing with any other business risks that you encounter. Before a project even gets started, it is essential that any potential risks are identified and a strategy for managing such risks developed. Even if the type of project you are working on presently is different than anything you have done before, it is likely the organization has already done something at least remotely similar. Another risk identification strategy to use is speaking with all of the members of the project team and asking for their input. Among the most common risks that need to be dealt with are losing key members of the team partway through the project, or running out of money to see the project all the way through to completion.
With a list in place that highlights which risks you will be taking on during the project, you can start looking closely at each of them and deciding what kind of threat they actually are. A project that could put you in legal trouble for one reason or another is often one to be avoided. Beyond what kind of damage a certain risk could do is the consideration of how likely that risk is to occur. This was touched on briefly above as far as taking steps to limit the damage that any of your potential risks would do. Doing what you can to limit your exposure to risk throughout the project, while still giving the project a chance to succeed is the task that a project manager takes on.
The best that can be done is to evaluate each risk that you might face, and weigh it against the potential rewards that are waiting at the end of the project. The goal is to make the level of risk acceptable to the organization and to take steps that minimize the element of risk as much as possible. Learn powerful techniques for successfully managing modern projects, programs, and portfolios in any environment, no matter how complex. Mastering Project, Program, and Portfolio Management: Models for Structuring and Executing the Project Hierarchy PDF (Adobe DRM) can be read on any device that can open PDF (Adobe DRM) files. Applied Software Project Management ePub can be read on any device that can open ePub files. This free eBook will give you an understanding of the coaching principles you will need to run a successful coaching program. Chapter 1 - Coaching Management Style The objective of coaching to encourage people to solve problems for themselves rather than referring them back up to their manager.
Chapter 2 - Management Coaching Skills Coaching involves the coach and the coachee working together to create changes. Chapter 3 - Differences Between Coaching and Training Training is driven by the trainer, who will control most of both the process and the content in order to transfer knowledge or develop a new skill as efficiently as possible. In a mentoring relationship, the advice and expertise sought from the mentor will be broad based, with the objective of developing the individual for future roles both on a career and personal level.
Coaching can be done using professional coaching services supplied by an independent firm or consultancy, or it can be done by the manager themselves or by someone else within the organization. Chapter 6 - Formal and Informal Coaching Where formal coaching is being used, both the manager and the team member will be clear that they are engaged in 'coaching' and will be explicitly committed to the process.
The coach must not be judgmental, must believe that the coachee is capable of improving their performance, and be committed to ongoing support.
Chapter 8 - Successful Coaching Skills There are seven key skills you need for successful coaching: active listening, building rapport, asking questions, demonstrating empathy, using intuition, goal setting, and giving feedback. I've read a few 'big' books on coaching that made me think it was too difficult to implement with the time and resources I have available. Early on in this book I hit on a point that I think has probably been lacking in my coaching over the years. Later on, however, the book got back on track in terms of supplying information that I will be able to put to use.
Lastly, the book offered a great reminder that it is not the role of the coach to judge the coachee during the process. Despite the middle of this book falling a little off track for me personally, I would recommend reading it if you would like to improve your coaching efforts - or just learn more about the topic.
Most people believe they are knowledgeable in terms of coaching and often time's use that term interchangeably with mentoring and counseling, I being one of the guilty.
As the book progressed I also found myself learning about the differences between internal and external coaching.
In my opinion the book makes one very valid and sadly overlooked point, coaching is more about collaborating and less about controlling. Coaching Your Team - The best way is to encourage your team members to solve their own problems without having to refer back up to you is to create an environment in which this can occur. Management Coaching Tips - The best way is to encourage your team members to solve problems their own problems without having to refer back up to you. Mastering Project Management Integration and Scope: A Framework for Strategizing and Defining Project Objectives and Deliverable by Dietmar W. If you find anything wrong with this product listing, perhaps the description is wrong, the author is incorrect, or it is listed in the wrong category, then please contact us.
Submit 5 page Summaryearn $1 for each copy sold.We are looking for a freelance writer who can draft a well written 5 page summary of this (e)book. Any planning or work activity which is not directly focused on completing the specified project objective represents a waste of resources and should not be undertaken.


This is because there are two groups of stakeholders that will almost invariably apply pressure to change the scope of the project throughout its life cycle. The main input to this process is the project charter, and by using expert judgment in conjunction with project team meetings, two key documents will be produced, the scope plan and the requirements plan.
All requirements should be gathered at the start because as the project progresses changes then become increasingly costly.
It takes the high-level product descriptions, assumptions and constraints documented in the project charter and creating a 'scope statement' which has a more detailed description of these items.
It should reflect the way the work will be performed and the way in which project costs and data will be summarized and reported. It confirms that the work being considered matches the details in the work breakdown structure, scope plan and project plan. While most are intended to make money, there are usually more defined goals under that general umbrella. Projects exist within organizations, and they are intended to accomplish a specific purpose as well. Only when the scope is dialed in correctly can everything else in the project be completed according to plan.
The scope of a project takes a view of these resources as a whole to determine if the project has just what is needed to reach the goal that has been laid out. Using our example from earlier regarding a new feature to add to a product, there may be some cost associated with buying materials that will go into that new feature. This can often become lost in the shuffle as the project develops, and the final result may end up well outside of the scope that was originally intended.
While trying to keep a project within its original scope, you might find that 'project creep' starts to develop and things grow quickly out of control. The project creeps larger and larger until it isn't anything like what it was supposed to be in the beginning.
The best companies in the world know exactly what they do best, and they stick to it as closely as possible. This eBook explains the key issues and concepts involved in effective risk management in a clear and accessible way, providing a comprehensive approach that is applicable to all sizes of project, whether requiring detailed, quantitative analysis or a rougher approach using only qualitative analysis. This information is documented in the risk register, a list of all of the identified risks, their root causes, categories and responses.
It should be performed as soon as possible after risks have been identified so that appropriate time and resources can be allocated to the more serious risks.
It is important that planned responses are appropriate to the significance of the risk, cost effective in meeting the challenge, realistic within the project context, agreed upon by all parties involved, and owned by a responsible person.
No matter what the activity, there is an element of risk that must be analyzed and weighed against the potential rewards. Managing project risk deals with the activities involved in identifying potential risks, assessing and analyzing them, finally monitoring them throughout the life of a project. While it probably isn't possible to foresee all potential risks that could come down the line, planning for as many of them as you can will give the project its greatest chance at success.
One of the best ways to do this is by learning from past experience - either your own experiences, or those of the organization as a whole.
Although they might not have the same high-level view of the project that you do as manager, they likely have a great deal of knowledge within their specific field of expertise. In the case of both of those risks, there are steps that can be taken to mitigate the damage they would do and be prepared in the event that they do occur. Is the risk something that would do long-term damage to the organization if it came to pass?
However, if the worst-case for a project is simply some wasted time and a small amount of wasted capital, you may decide that those risks are worth the potential reward. Firstly, each risk is assessed and rated according to its likely probability and then secondly on the impact it would have on the project if it happened. For example, a risk that is very likely to occur and would also be highly damaging to the company is one to take very seriously. Project managers also plan how they will control risks using a variety of tools and techniques shown in the diagram below. It discusses the use of external coaches and the issues that confront managers who act as coaches to their own team. In fact, managers who coach tend to place a lot of emphasis on developing the people reporting to them, and on creating an environment where people can perform as independently as possible. The main skills required by the coach involve focusing on goals, listening, asking non-leading questions, and giving non-judgmental feedback. In contrast, coaching is driven by questions addressed to the coachee, who then explores what they already know, but in a way that would probably not occur to them without the guidance of a coach.
In a coaching relationship, the coach does not typically pass on experience or give advice, but rather uses questions and feedback to facilitate the coachee's thinking and practical learning.
As part of your decision-making process you will have to consider the advantages and disadvantages of each of these approaches. Informal coaching can happen as part of the everyday conversation between the manager and a team member if the manager is using a collaborative leadership style.
The coachee must be allowed to set the agenda, define the actions required as a result of the coaching session, and demonstrate their accountability for these actions by reporting the progress they have made in the subsequent session.
Another key part of being a successful coach is the use of a coaching model that aids this learning process. This eBook, on the other hand, has made me think about implementing coaching principles in a less formal way. So when I came across this 'Coaching Principles' eBook, I wasn't all too interested because I believed I had already gathered enough skills in that arena. Since I come from a sports coaching background, I am used to giving instruction and haven't been open to feedback from the person being coached.
There are a couple sections where the book covers the differences between Coaching and Mentoring, and the differences between Coaching and Counseling. For example, I enjoyed the discussion on the differences between informal and formal coaching sessions.
It is easy for me, again coming from a sports background, to quickly evaluate and pass judgment on the performance of the person being coached.
For the time that it will take to read this short book, even gaining just one or two pieces of knowledge will be well worth it. Wanting to improve my leadership skills, I turned to this book for what I thought would be a simple refresher, what I found was that there was much more to the process than I ever imagined. I found that throughout this book they provided several flow charts which were easily followed and certainly worth printing for quick reference in the future.
Depending on their relationship with their direct supervisor, external guidance may be preferred to avoid an awkward workplace.
Having joined the workforce a while ago, I have been subjected to many coaching styles myself, most of with are simply a task delegation session. To achieve this objective your team must have the correct level of knowledge, skills and attitude to perform their role.
Like all books in this series, it offers deep practical insight into the successful design, management, and control of complex modern projects. Gathering requirements from all stakeholders will also ensure that their opinions are taken into consideration, which will lead to higher rates of project acceptance. For example, your business might be designed to sell a specific product or service, or even just provide information on a given topic. However, instead of 'selling a certain product', a project might be created to design a new feature that will be included with that product or service next year. Scope management is a knowledge area that is focused on making sure that a given project includes everything that it needs to complete the task as described, and nothing more.
Firstly, project requirements must be collected and defined so that a work breakdown structure (WBS) document can be created.
Do these people exist within the organization, or will new team members need to be retained? Budgeting for things like raw materials and new equipment also goes toward the overall scope of the project. When a project is first being designed, there should be a time line in place that defines the scope of the work in that regard. Using that example one more time from above, instead of designing a new feature for an existing product, the team could end up with a whole new product entirely.
Preventing project creep is a task that the project manager and other leaders should take seriously.
Many businesses have been undone by straying from their core competency and trying to do too much, too quickly. All project activities carry some element of risk, which are uncertainties about them that could affect the project for better or worse. The aim of the Risk Management Plan is to ensure that the risk management protocol that is used on the project is commensurate with both the risks and the importance of the project to the organization.
Because the assessment of risk is an ongoing activity, the risk register will be updated continuously throughout the life of the project.


It uses the probability and impact matrix (PIM) to rank and prioritize risks, and this information is placed back on the risk register.
Planned risk responses that are included in the project management plan are executed during the life cycle of the project, but the project work should be continuously monitored for new, changing, and outdated risks. The best organizations are those who can choose the right risks to take on, and the ones to avoid. Every project will have a unique set of risks based on the specific details of the work being done.
Ask them to highlight the potential risks that they see developing down the line and work on making plans for those possibilities as well. For example, having redundancy within your team can help to limit the damage if a team member moves on to another job partway through the work, and building the project in such a way that it can be 'paused' while waiting for more funds could prevent it from being completely wiped out by a temporary lack of funding. It is all about balance in risk management, so the pros and cons have to be weighed carefully with respect to each potential risk. On the other hand, a risk that is unlikely to be realized and also wouldn't do much harm is one that you can mostly ignore. When you are building a team to work on the project, keep in mind that not every team member will see the project through from start to finish. It describes key aspects of coaching including: active listening, building rapport, asking questions, demonstrating empathy, using intuition, goal setting and giving feedback.
I was also interested to learn about how management coaching emerged from sports coaching - something I hadn't really thought about before. In this way, I have missed out on the opportunity to collaborate on ideas and have everyone learn from the experience. There is nothing wrong with these sections specifically, I just didn't feel like I got a whole lot out of them. Typically my coaching sessions have been informal because that is how I am most comfortable, but thanks to this book I now see that there are some benefits to formal coaching sessions which I may have overlooked.
Instead, it is important to be more supportive and remember that the idea is to help the person improve and get closer to their goals. My learning began with a thorough explanation of the difference between coaching, mentoring, and counseling.
Although I didn't realize it prior to reading this guide, I can clearly see now why using both internal and external coaches would be the best case for most business. If you are a supervisor like me and you are reading this for your personal advancement, I suggest that you focus heavily on the flow charts the accurately and easily allow you to determine just what your employee is needing at the time, which is sometimes nothing more than a receptive ear. I am glad to see that books like this have been made in order to help foster more productive workplaces and help even senior leaders learn new and more modern strategies. Using real case studies and proven applications, expert authors show how multiple functions and disciplines can and must be integrated to achieve a successful outcome.Individually, these books focus on realistic, actionable solutions, not theory.
Controlling the scope is the process of managing any changes requested to this project baseline.
Whatever it is that your organization is meant to do, it is critical that it does that job to the highest possible level. If a project doesn't have all of the necessary resources available to it, the project isn't likely to be finished because it will be ill-prepared for the challenges ahead. For example, the project could be planned to take only a month, or it could be scheduled for a year or more. While that could be a good or bad thing, it is certainly outside of the originally scope of the project. It creep is left unchecked over a period of time, the overall project could end up being far more costly and time consuming than expected. Establishing this protocol early on in the project ensures that all members of the project management team are using the same methods to evaluate risks and that the risk management tasks are budgeted for in the project plans.
All project team members should be encouraged to identify risks and this is an iterative process because new risks may become known as the project progresses. Like all of the activities within risk management, this one should be performed regularly because new risks will be identified and the characteristics of existing risks may change as the project progresses. It is often up to the project manager to outline these risks ahead of time and include them as part of the overall plan of the project. There is only one output of this process and that is the all important risk register, which plays a key role in how well a project is monitoring during its execution. If you only have one person who is capable of performing a vital portion of the work, you are exposed to risk if that person should leave for any reason. There are common pitfalls that plague all software projects and rookie mistakes that are made repeatedly--sometimes by the same people!
I would say that this book highlights the principles of coaching in an easy to understand and straightforward fashion. While there is admittedly some content that was not anything new to me, there was more than enough new information to make it worth my time. My coaching has been too one-sided, and this book made me realize that when it discussed the importance of the collaborative process while coaching. Perhaps a different reader with different needs and experiences would find them more helpful and informative - they just didn't really hit home for me.
While most of my future coaching efforts will probably continue to be informal in nature, I will consider setting up some formal coaching meetings to see if they can be more effective for my needs. As you will learn upon reading, an external coach is a person who is generally more trained in coaching and does not generally have regular contact with the employees.
Lastly, if you find yourself in a workplace that is using more internal coaching when external is needed, remember the economy is tight and internal remains cheaper. From a management perspective this can be performed as a discrete activity, management style or an integral part of your daily activities.
There will inevitably be changes to this but it is important to ensure that these changes do not build upon each other incrementally. At the same time, if the project has more than it needs, the outcome may be reached but resources will have been wasted along the way. Since time and money are so closely connected, predicting the time scope of the project accurately is important when it comes to controlling costs. By ensuring the whole project team are involved in the identification of risks, they will have a sense of ownership and responsibility for both the risks and associated risk response actions. The availability of time and budget, and the need for qualitative or quantitative statements about risk and impacts, will determine which method(s) to use. Instead, there should be as much redundancy as possible - especially in the critical areas of the project - so the loss of one or two people along the way doesn't derail the entire project. My experience in coaching comes mostly from sports, and I always had translated that experience into the workplace. I hope to take a more open-minded approach into future coaching sessions so that I can allow the person I am coaching to provide their valuable input to the process and make sure they feel like their opinions and ideas are being given the proper respect and consideration.
Internal coaches on the other hand are usually more of direct managers and serve as a daily point of contact for the employees. Although the names are fairly self-explanatory, deciding which to use can be a little more of a gray area.
As a leader and mentor to your team you should do your best to offer bias free leadership, I know that is my biggest challenge and likely yours too.
To be successful you need to create an environment where people can perform as independently as possible. This is something referred to as scope creep and always produces unacceptable risks because the combined effects of these incremental changes are seldom considered in total. As you can imagine, someone who works daily with an employee may have a preconceived notion of an employee which can skew how they are managed. After reading this quick book, I feel that I will have more tools available to me as part of my overall coaching strategy.
This is not always a bad thing but at times it does not afford all employees a fair shot at being heard. Asking questions, listening, and leading are some of the key responsibilities of a good coach and have proven to be crucial to productive coaching. On the other hand, and external coach may not understand the personal goals or beliefs of an employee which could result in less effective coaching strategies. Andrew comes from a programming background and has managed teams of requirements analysts, designers, and developers.
Jennifer has a testing background and has managed teams of architects, developers, and testers. They have worked in a wide range of industries, including finance, telecommunications, media, nonprofit, entertainment, natural-language processing, science, and academia.




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