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The focus of this case is to investigate the political, environmental and geographic dynamics of China’s South-North Water Transfer project (SNWT).
While China continues to rapidly grow, urbanize and industrialize, it faces a Pandora’s Box of problems. To cover the massive influx of water consumption and to balance out the uneven distribution, the Chinese government has proposed and is in the midst of a massive construction project called the South-North Water Transfer (or Diversion) project (SNWT). Climate change is predicted to increase temperatures throughout China, while reducing yearly precipitation in many areas of the country (Berrittellaa, et al., 2006). China is still a Communist state, albeit one which utilizes a limited capitalist model for economic growth. On paper the annual payback rate for the entire SNWT project is 36% and will take less than four years on a return on investment, not a bad investment numbers-wise (Berrittellaa, et al., 2006).
To the Chinese Government, the South-North Water Transfer project (SNWT) is a tool in their box for maintaining internal stability.
Western Pipeline: Qinghai, Gansu, Shaanxi, Shanxi, Inner Mongolia and Ningxia Hui (semi-autonomous) provinces.
The South-North Water Transfer project aims to help alleviate northern China’s water shortage. Eastern Route: Saltwater creep up the Yangtze estuary, silt and sediment movement and re-depositing in the lower Yangtze and salinization and alkalization of the channel bed in the transfer region. Central Route: Heightening of the Danjiangkou Reservoir, leading to surrounding inundation of settlement and habitat and the diversion canals, from requisitioned land on the North China Plain.
Western Route: Negatively affects the Tongtian, Yalong and Dadu rivers (Dadu being one of the most important tributaries on the Yangtze) (Liu and Wan, 2001). According to the IPCC, northern China will face more acute impact than the rest of the country by climate change.
Second, and less likely, interstate conflict could be triggered by a water feud over the runoff from glaciers in Tibet. In this diagram, climate change increases the intensity and frequency of droughts and floods. Unforeseen: Xinjiang violence is low-intensity and small scale, questionable relation to climate change and water security. I imagine many of you are busy finishing your Christmas shopping, wrapping gifts, trimming your trees, and spending time with friends and family. With that in mind, I thought I would share a clip from one of my favorite Christmas movies—about the meaning of Christmas:  Enjoy! Before the holiday, I wanted to share a quick update on the NTB Channel realignment and beach renourishment project. At the last public meeting held about the project on December 13, attenders learned from Mr. We wish everyone a very Merry and safe Christmas and a blessed and prosperous New Year!  See you in 2013! I am working on the final blog, since the project is now complete; I will try to include some photos of the beach in front of the St. Pam, I just saw this comment and I sent it to those in the rental department who would know the answer to your question.
Alaska businessman Fyodor Soloview thinks we should look to Asia to find new opportunities to expand global trade. He notes that the Russians are already moving ahead with extending railroads to the Asian jumping-off point for any future undersea tunnel.
Reach out to the author: contact and available social following information is listed in the top-right of all news releases.
This government-backed, grandiose undertaking aims to move billions of cubic meters of fresh water from the south of China, where water is relatively plentiful, to the north where there’s a shortage.

Water may very well be the only foreseeable limiting factor to check China’s growth down the road if it cannot change its policies and maneuverability on the issue. To: Qinghai, Gansu, Shaanxi, Shanxi, Inner Mongolia and Ningxia Hui (semi-autonomous) provinces (Jaffe and Schneider, 2011). This $62 billion project aims to divert water from the rain-plentiful south to the water-limited north via three routes, the East, Central and West. This may trigger a cyclical event where higher temperatures lead to more evaporation, and in turn, more consumption, especially of China's finite amount of ground water. This figure is predicated on the economic losses from previous droughts where the northern basins experienced a shortfall in water supply which led to economic losses. This shortage is perpetuated by water pollution, grossly inefficient infrastructure, overuse of clean water resources and climate change (drought and lack of precipitation). In 2011 water returned to its 2002 levels, in consequence from conservation and regulation. First, in the most immediate way it affects the local and regional hydrological environment for both humans and the natural world.
Only 4-5% of the total Yangtze runoff is estimated to be diverted for transfer up north, once the entire project is finished. China's dam building program on the upper stretches of the Mekong River might aggravate tension over the lack of water for China's neighbors. In the midst of the hustle and bustle, I hope that this will indeed be a very merry and bright season for you and yours, as we celebrate the birth of Jesus. Neal that it is very probable that at the current schedule, the dredging will be completed by the end of this year! He enthusiastically supports a direct rail connection linking his state to Russia, exactly as the celebrated Eurotunnel connects British exporters with markets in the rest of Europe. The potentially game-changing transportation project envisioned by Soloview has in fact been the dream of leaders on both sides of the Pacific for over a century. They are also actively exploring ways of financing and constructing the tunnel link themselves. The Huang, Huai and Hai river basins in northern China suffer from long-term droughts, these yearly droughts have reduced the water supply there by 14.5-21 billion cubic meters.
To back up it's authority and respond to any gap in domestic integrity, the Chinese government controls $2.85 trillion in foreign cash reserves. Even as the Eastern route is plagued with pollution problems and the Central route is only partially done, the central government has given the green light for an even more precarious section in the mountains to the west. This is analogous to Egypt's dam building on the Nile and its negative effects on relations with Sudan. Neal said that he felt confident this issue could be resolved before the contractor leaves. I will be coming down the first week in June and want to be prepared, especially with 7 children who are expecting to spend a lot of time on the beach.
And decades of studies have been carried out to demonstrate its feasibility, according to his website. While China is able to afford these projects now, in terms of money and political power, it’s questionable if it will be able to finish by 2050, its slated final date of completion. With climate change already providing a measurable impact to China’s drought cycle and precipitation rate, and a resource overconsumption-oriented culture that compounds pollution, potable water levels are dropping fast. In the last major drought of 2011, the adverse economic consequences were estimated to be $16 billion, spread throughout the entire Chinese economy (Berrittellaa, et al., 2006). Agriculture alone uses two thirds of China’s water resources and a lot of that is either wasted or ends up as nitrogen-tainted pollution due to their notoriously inefficient irrigation methods and infrastructure.
The starting point, transfer point and end points have distinct impacts on local habitats and geophysical characteristics.

Drought will reduce the water supply as well, decreasing the capacity of farmers to grow more crops and potentially ruining existing yields.
Please let us know how we can assist you in planning your 2013 visit to Topsail: 800-762-3961. The SNWT seeks to re-balance China's internal water equation, but questions concerning its effectiveness and timely operation in the face of quickening climate change may hinder its foreseen success. In total, the SNWT affects 12 provinces and collectively equals 1,900 miles of piping and canals. The drought of 2011 even brought then-President Hu Jintao and Prime Minister Wen Jiabao into the fields to inspect failing crops (Bradsher, 2011).
Additionally, the government easily has the ability to import food and counter any shortfalls in supply which could lead to popular discontent (Bradsher, 2011).
According to the Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, China pumps 1200 cubic kilometers of ground and river water annually for its fields (Pearce, 2009). Unfortunately, much is not known about environmental effects since the Chinese government has not rigorously studied the matter. Reduced water supply will also harm the local ecosystem, there by harming the land's symbiotic relationship with its natural inhabitants.
The Eastern route will move 14.8 billion cubic meters of water, the Central route will total 13 billion cubic meters in capacity and the Western route will move 8 billion cubic meters- if it's completely built, (the Western section is the only route that brings water straight to the Yellow River basin which has seen drastic reductions in rainfall and runoff, in turn desertifying the area).
As Chinese agriculture is pressured by climate change and a shortage of water, the government has increasingly had to change policy and provide stop-gap measures to fortify its food markets. Heavy industry, gas-shale drilling and mining takes up another large portion of the water pie in northern China and is only expected to consume a larger portion as the economy grows. With less arable land, fewer crops are grown and must be imported, reducing GDP and the scale of agriculture's comparative share of the economy.
The Central and Western routes use only gravity to move their water while water in the Eastern route must be elevated to a height of 45 meters to get to its destination near Beijing and Tianjin.
The Ministry of Water Resources said in 2010 that national water consumption totaled 599 billion cubic meters, which is projected to increase by 1% annually and reach 670 billion cubic meters in 2020.
China is trying to limit water use in the north where many extractive industries are centered.
The SNWT project helps the economy put is predicated on available water reserves in the south, clean river water and its delivery success. To get the water in this case to go uphill, in that amount, requires 2.8 billion kWh a year in pumping energy, or the full capacity of a 400 MW coal plant (Jaffe and Schneider, 2011).
The government is pressing for water free or water efficient fossil fuel processing, more renewables that don't use water at all and less intensive agricultural activity. Even so, coal extraction will grow to 1 billion tons a year by 2020 in Inner Mongolia, Xinjiang, Shanxi and Ningxia (Jaffe and Schneider, 2011).
Flooding also can directly have negative effects on social order if it is perceived that the government has neglected its responsibility in any way.
Finally, climate change directly has had an influence on whether the SNWT project was built.
It's predicted that municipal, agricultural and industrial water prices will increase in northern regions. It was planned in the 1950s before climate change was noticed or relevant but recently provided more pressure for its final completion.
As a result, cities like Beijing, Tianjin, Qingdao and Dalian are already looking to desalinization to provide cheaper, sustainable water, cutting out the pipeline's purpose (Schneider, 2012).

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