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19.01.2016
A project justification document evolves from a project business case and concept definition document (CDD) and will detail the specific reasons why the project needs to be done. You can think of a project justification document as being akin to a mini project initiation document or even project charter. Now as you can probably tell, many of these sections can be completed by copying and pasting out the relevant information which was included in the concept definition document and project business case.
In fact looking at the index there are only a few additional sections which you will need to write up from scratch. Now you might think that something extremely detailed is required in this section along the lines of what would be included in the project scope statement. This will relate to any major projects ongoing at the sametime which could impact on this project in terms of project resource allocation or software testing life cycle. Further you need to detail these carefully because you need to ensure the project sponsors are aware when they need to make the key business decisions to ensure the milestones youa€™ve documented are achievable. This is an extremely important section particularly if you are utilising external suppliers. Further you need to be clear to write down what assumptions you have made when detailing the milestone plan, and also the budget for the project. Sometimes project manager's are so keen to get the project started that they rush through this document which causes huge problems in the future. Technological maturity: The vision of a future Internet of things (IoT) has become central in European and Norwegian ICT research politics, and Radio-frequency Identification (RFID) is a key enabler and symbol of communicating objects and a network of things. Complexity: RFID may appear simple in its design, but is complex in its structure, range of uses, and implications. Relevance: Hence, this project is considered highly relevant for the current aim of the VERDIKT-program. The Internet of things (IoT) implies the development of new and potentially omnipresent and pervasive technologies, products and services. In terms of RFID research and studies on consumers and society, this is still scarce and fragmented (although expanding) and next to none have been conducted in Norway. A significant topic for all types of consumer technologies is the understanding of how these technologies should be adopted. The ETAG report on a€?RFID and Identity Management in Everyday Lifea€? , provides insight into real-life experiences of RFID, and looks at the pros and cons of such applications on an aggregate level, going through 24 case-studies of RFID taking part in daily events. Finally, on a more technical note, it is relevant to describe some characteristics of RFID, which will have consequences for how they are perceived and used. Regarding the fragmentation in RFID research on individual use and societal implications, knowledge generation does not easily translate from one study to the next.
Actor-Network Theory (ANT) (T1): This theory was developed in the mid 1980s in order to explore tools and ways of doing research that took seriously the ways in which technology was an integral part of society, taking part in enabling individual as well as collective agency (Callon 1986, Law 1986, Latour 1987).
Furthermore, distinctions are often made between tacit and reflexive trust (Lagerspetz 1996). The Domestication research tradition (T3): Domestication studies reveal some of the relevant issues to be explored when people are attempting to adopt, a€?tamea€™, or a€?domesticatea€™. Based on the general findings of RFID in use, positions of the existing (and lacking) research in this area, and the identified theoretical orientations, we propose three main themes to position the research questions (RQs) below. RQ1): How can the findings from the three RQ-themes below be analysed in an integrated manner, and developed into a methodology for studying future innovations and potential consequences (opportunities and obstacles), both on a micro (individual) and macro (societal) level?
The first RQ-theme relates to macro structures and the role of technology in society (associated with Actor-Network Theory).
RQ2): Regarding RFID and IoT innovation; how can the social and the technical be studied together, and can we view the social as assembled by way of these technologies (objects and artefacts)?
RQ3): How can actors be identified and viewed in this field, and how to can we study the movements and transformations, and the ways in which actors take part in changing society through making technology a€?their owna€™? RQ5): What method can best reveal the processes in which people tame and domesticate these technologies into their everyday life? As RQ1 states, the core of the project is to develop a research-based methodology that can be applied and to guide future research on RFID innovations and implications. WP 1) Theories: The project will be theoretically inspired by ANT (T1), as well as theories on risk-trust (T2), domestication (T3), and technology adoption models (T4).
WP 4) Methodological development: The findings of WP1 to WP3 will be assessed and provide a foundation for developing the methodology in the project. The project is multi-disciplinary, containing contributions from social scientists (Sociologists, Anthropologists and Political Scientists) and economists.
The vision of a seamless, integrated Internet of things, implying the extensive use of technologies such as RFID, sensors, systems, etc. The project will contribute to knowledge enhancement in the area of using new technologies for seamless information sharing and communication between products, people and systems. The project seeks to facilitate equal opportunity in terms of research personnel being engaged in the project, and the gender perspective will pervade the project itself by focusing on gender differences in technology adoption and potential consequences of use.
Information about project activities and results will be disseminated continuously through a dedicated project web-site.
The project, and in particular the resulting methodology, will draw on many different approaches to achieve the goal of being true to its holistic aspirations.
SlettemeA?s, Dag (2009): a€?RFID-the a€?next stepa€™ in consumer-product relations or Orwellian nightmare? Abstract: The IT Project Framework (also known as the IT Project Management Framework) identifies, defines and describes the key activities that an IT Organization must perform, in each and every operating Environment, in order to successfully deliver a versioned Release of IT Solutions and Assets, such as Products, Software, Systems, and Applications to their intended Markets, Customers, Operating Environments and End Users. Before getting into the Project Framework, itself, we first have to understand the definition of Project.
A set of defined Tasks, Activities, or Actions that have been grouped together to achieve some desired set of Results, Outcomes, Objectives or Deliverables, such as Products, Goods or Services. Given this definition of "Project" as a basline, we can now define, both, a Business Project and an IT Project. A set of defined Tasks, Activities, or Actions that have been grouped together to achieve some desired set of Results, Outcomes, Objectives or Deliverables, such as Products, Goods or Services, all specifically for or by Business (i.e. As you read through this framework, you'll find some patterns that apply, both, to Business Projects as well as to IT Projects.
Also, the IT Project Framework and the details, here in, are based on and align with the Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC).
Many IT professionals view a Release as nothing more than a specific version of a specific Asset, such as a Product, Software, or System. Given that a Release is the equivalent of an IT Project, it goes without saying that a successful IT Project Manager "always" ensures that his or her Project Plan, revolves around, covers and accounts for all SDLC specific activities.
With respect to versioning, Releases are always associated with an Asset, Service or a Capability and represent a versioning of such Assets, Services or Capabilities. If your enterprise does not use Versioned Releases as a way of controlling units of delivery and bundles of repeatable work activities for its Products, Capabilities and Services, it may want to reconsider doing so. In summary, the typical IT Project is equivalent to one single Release of a Product, System, Software, Service, Capability or any other general solution that is delivered by IT to its End User communities, whether they be paying Customers or not. The above example shows us that, when we use SDLC phases as the foundation for laying out our IT Project Plans, we start to clearly group "like" Acitivities or Tasks. The above figure shows how a single Product, named "XYZ," is broken down into a number of different Releases, inteded to be delivered over a period of a number of years. Looking closely at the above example, we can now see that any phase in the SDLC acts as a basic Milestone unit in an IT Project Plan, and all combined phases of the entire SDLC (i.e. Given that an IT Project is equivalent to the Release of a Solutions, such as a Product or Service, it would be an easy assumption to make that an IT Project Manager and a Release Manager have the same roles and responsibilities. Unlike the IT Project Manager, the IT Release Manager has more responsibilities than the IT Project Manager because he or she must not only be concerned with the identification and execution of Release work but he or she also has the responsibilites of defining and delivering the entire Release, including but not limited to the identification of what the Release will encapsulate or deliver (i.e. The above figure helps us understand how IT Project Plans and the IT Project Manager Role fit into the bigger picture, as is relevant to Releases and Solutions. Because the SDLC can be standardized and because it is very repeatable, experienced IT Organizations use Project Plans Templates as tools to help standardize IT Delivery. A mature enterprise usually has between three (3) and ten (10) standard IT Project Plan Templates, for common IT Project Types, that are published to all Project Managers and Project Teams for reuse.
You can always identify a good Project Manager because he or she looks for or creates highly reusable Project Plan Templates.
Release or IT Project versioning allows for things like segmentation of work, against other Releases, and also is a great way to capture and correlate knowledge about that specific Release. A Release Plan or IT Project Plan should be set up to follow the phases of an SDLC, whenever possible, so as to reduce the risk of unaccounted for Tasks, within the Project.
Each individual IT Project or Release is part of a greater Program, often associated with a multi-year plan for an Asset or a Solution, such as but not limited to Systems, Applications, Software, and Hardware. The patterns that IT Projects or Releases follow can be represented by Template Project Plans. Using Templates for Project Plans allows many advantages, such as rapid setup of a new IT Project or Release as well as the constant improvement of each Template, with each new IT Project or Release, leading to higher quality of delivery. Templates can be used to address the simplest IT Projects, such as incremental updates to an Asset, or complex IT Projects, such as Mergers, Acquisitions, and Divestitures.
You can always identify a good IT Project manager because he or she constantly pushes for reuse, through solutions such as IT Project Templates.
In this article, I'd like to share with you a sample project charter milestone template that I've used with great success in my projects. Before we go deeper into the project charter milestone, let's understand what a project milestone plan is for. The key purpose of a project milestone plan is to allow tracking of project progress against plan - ideally in a visual manner.


I see that these initiatives tend to be missed out by junior PMs - but they MUST be reflected in some way, especially if there are dependencies between these existing initiatives and the ones you're implementing. The minor milestones tend to be the ones which "lead up" to the major milestone, in a logical manner. In the example above, you can see that the minor milestones for Project 1 (i.e AAA, BBB and CCC) have been missed. Hopefully, you now have a much better understanding of how a sample project charter milestone template looks.
Ia€™ve written a practical, easy-to-read guidebook that will help you find your best path to Project Management a€“ one that leverages your unique skills, experiences and career background to your advantage. An important part of any Project Management Report are the Project Milestones which are detailed in the Project Management Plan.
It further should detail when important phases of the Project life Cycle conclude, for example the end of Requirements, or the end of Development. Below please see an excerpt of a Project Management Report and what you might be asked to report in the Milestones section. As you will see, this is reported in much the same way as the Project itself via the RAG (Red, Amber, Green) Statusa€™s.
This shows whether the delivery date of that Milestone is becoming more or less achievable. In this section you should state any reason why a Milestone is slipping or has been missed. When it comes to the Project Schedule and Milestones, it is best to ensure there is as much contingency as possible in these.
TweetIt’s admirable how this illustration of the average web design project plan condenses the essentials. I find planning for iterations quite important so when constraints allow it, I make room for iterations at least inside the content, design and development phases respectively. Also interesting to notice in the illustration is that they put the content phase before the design and development phase. As an avid fan of visual communication I tip my hat to the fine people at Simple Square who made this, they specialize in portfolio website design. GrowthStories helps businesses to design and optimise their services for a social and networked world. I'm a firm believer of continuous improvement and sharing lessons learned is a major part of that.
The reason being, that whilst you are creating a project plan, it will be a milestone plan ie high level. The reason being that any project time and cost quotes which they provide will be heavily caveated because the business requirements documentation wona€™t even be documented yet. Whilst you might think that no-one could possibly hold you accountable for the information in the project justification document (PJD) and delivery of it, the reality is that despite the project risks being all too apparent and the project management requirements being vague, if you do not properly document this in the assumptions section you will find yourself in a world of pain all too quickly. At the core of this development lie vast economic opportunities and societal gain, as well as inherent obstacles and pitfalls. Research so far has not properly accommodated the socially complex and many-faceted nature of this type of technology, in particular in a Norwegian context. The project will further develop into a methodology for studying future innovations and potential consequences (opportunities and obstacles), both on a micro (individual) and macro (societal) level. Consequently, often building on the theory of planned behavior (Ajzen 1991), the technology adoption model (Davis 1989), or the diffusion model (Rogers 1983, Moore & Benbasat 1991), a lot of studies on technology adoption both within information systems literature and consumer behaviour literature have been conducted. These studies have been analysed in terms of the role they play in the lives of Europeans, and the cases have been evaluated in terms of maturity, function, owners, users, etc.
Generally, an RFID-system consists of RFID tags (transponders), readers (transceiver), while information can further be transmitted to central databases. Frequently, a whole range of issues needs to be addressed when studying variations in RFID innovations, functionality and implications. Tacit trust is implicit and unspoken (unbroken trust), while reflexive trust refers to situations where trust is made explicit (reasons for a€?activatinga€™ trust).
These theoretical perspectives will guide the analytical thinking, and lead to operationalisations of areas and aspect to pay attention to in the case-studies, and later in the methodological development. These are to be limited to application areas (products and environments) that somehow activate relations between individuals and technology.
The quantitative study will be based on extended adoption models and hence analyse the antecedents of consumersa€™ adoption of RFID-incorporating products and services. The completed methodology will be presented in two ways: 1) in a manner that can be used by academia when conducting studies on RFID in practical use, or when studying societal implications, and 2) in a manner that can be used by innovators and businesses, for understanding the complexity, implications, a€?classesa€™ or a€?conceptual understandingsa€™ of RFID.
The project manager has long experience in managing large and complex projects containing many research partners, while SIFO has an established quality system for serving large projects.
The WPs are managed and conducted according to the various fields of expertise in the consortium (see project plan above). TIKA?s research group Science, Technology and Culture, have strong competence in the area of technology studies (in particular ANT) and the post. The participating research institutes have longstanding experience with projects involving high ethical standards (NSD). This is highly relevant for this project, as it purports a societal perspective, being engaged in issues like digital divides, control, privacy issues, extracting the potential of applications. In terms of dissemination there will be a range of efforts activated: Key deliverables will be a methodological a€?handbooka€™ (for innovators and researchers), guidelines (for policy-makers and organised interests), academic publications (for academia), feature articles in mass-media (for the general audience), and a web-site a€“ that will function as an ongoing a€?knowledge-disseminatora€™ throughout, and after the end of, the project.
Reitan, Arnfinn TA?nnesen og Ragnar Waldahl 2000:a€?Reporting Radiation and Other Risk Issues in Norwegian and Swedish Newspapersa€?, i Nordicom Review nr 1 2000, s. If you're a project manager, one of the things you'll be required to do regularly is to develop a project charter.
A project milestone is essentially a stake in the ground, specifying a juncture in the project where a major deliverable or goal has been achieved (e.g. The first thing you'll realize about the template here is that my milestones are quite high-level.
You'll notice that this template has a number of "in-flight" initiatives and projects (sevn of them) that are reflected in the plan.
You'll also note that I comment against each milestone, just to briefly describe what each milestone is about. One final point abou the template above is the ability to visually track progress against milestones. You just have the "essence", a list of milestones, each with their Start Dates and End Dates.
These are essentially markers in the sand by which progress can be judged and ensure that if your project is in danger of not delivering, this problem is picked up early enough to ensure it can be dealt with.
Please note that if any Milestone is in Red this means that it is outside Tolerance and Unrecoverable. Please note that you could keep a careful note of the version number of the plan you have baselined with the PMO.
So for example if you think a piece of work will take 10 days to complete, try to put it down as 15 days.
It shows the common sequence, level of involvement, milestones, priorities and phases of all in one infographic. Putting content first is not only smart, it’s the only way to do this kind of project properly. Clients would love this brief overview showing project steps, milestones, and their own involvement. You'll find plenty of advice here together with the checklists, mindmaps and templates that I use in my day-to-day work. However you will quickly find that your project management stakeholders expect those milestones to be met.
Hence they need to ensure that when they are estimating project costs, should the defined project scope change dramatically, that they are not still held to their initial estimate.
The framework will be limited to innovations that somehow involve interaction between people, products and social environments. The Electronic Product Code (EPC) is at the core of RFID, being the successor to the Universal Product Code (UPC), or the barcode.
The RFID in Society projectwill delve into this complexity by way of being theoretically multi-disciplinary and methodologically multi-pronged. Rather than being understood as a theory in its own right, ANT can be seen as a tool for exploring and describing how the social is assembled by way of technologies; objects and artefacts (Latour 2005). Becka€™s work will provide a framework for thinking about risk issues in the project, also when delving into single user-evaluations of risk likelihood and potential risk harm.
This means that such technologies should not only be viewed in a mere functional way, but that technologies (objects and mediated content) have to be meaningfully integrated by their users into domestic contexts, and must be studied accordingly (Silverstone et al. Hence, the RFID in Society framework will be based on a number of research operations, separated into Work Packages, that later will be analysed in an integrated manner. This latter methodology is more practically oriented, and can be used in RFID piloting, or when conducting preliminary user-experiments. Within the field of Science and Technology Studies (STS) and, more specifically, the field of Actor-Network-Studies (ANT) or material semiotics, there is a long tradition of studying science and technology in the making, as sketched in the theory section (T1). WP 4 will be a highly integrative effort as all project partners gather and contribute in the methodological development. Such innovation can, if properly anchored in research and coherent policy, revolutionise innovation and business. Hence, project-related inquiries will be based on active permissions, data anonymization, secure handling of data during the project, while deletion of sensitive or personal data at the end of the project will be effectuated, according to NSD standards.


What European consumers think about radio frequency identification and the implications for business.
Well, there are many ways to do it - from simple lists, to more complex, graphical formats. You should be able to, at a ballpark level, say that progress against the "Business Requirements" milestone is about 60% right now.
Because this template is for the eyes of senior management, I don't go into deep details on each and very milestone. There are three major milestones in this example - and they tend to be "broad" project goals. By their nature, project milestones tend to be one-liners and are difficult to understand if you don't at least elaborate on them to some extent. When you're firsting drawing up a milestone plan, remember it has to align to your overall project timeline and delivery dates. I like to use this format if I'm knocking out a simple project charter for a small budget project. If the project is small-scale, there's no sense spending huge amounts of time crafting a very elaborate milestone plan. Because in a core banking project, a milestone like "User Acceptance Testing signed off" is a HUGE undertaking. The last thing you'd want is to have all these milestones locked into a senior management presentation, but none of your stakeholders agree to the dates indicated. That means it will be impossible to ensure the Milestone date is met even if the tolerated slippage of 15 days is taken into account. Ensure you put this into your report in the Baseline box at the bottom as this will ensure the PMO are comparing your report to the correct version of the plan they hold.
In the example above this is set at 15 days tolerance but often this is set to just 10 days slippage. This means in theory that your milestones will always be in Green and you will deliver ahead of schedule. My guess is that they probably left the iteration part out of the illustration to keep it more coherent. Such an approach to RFID and IoT innovation does not exist in Norway, and appears internationally only in separate and fragmented research, and where theoretical and methodological emphasis and rigidity is limited. 2009), but only a few have investigated antecedents of adoption of RFID-technology among consumers (Sill et al. Others address post-sale services and fears of privacy infringement and lack of control (Roussos 2006), or perceptions related to privacy-enhancing technologies (PETs), revealing deep-seated distrust in RFID-based, intelligent environments (GA?nther & Spiekermann 2005). There are in essence three types of RFID tags in operation, with completely different application potential: active (bulky, own power source radiating signals, strong signals), semi-passive (own power source, data transmission facilitated by the energy of signals),and passive tags (powered by incoming electromagnetic or inductive signals, radiating weak signals). This is one reason for why we see this approach as particularly fruitful for this project. In terms of theories on trust, this aspect emerges as a central, multi-level theme in several existing RFID-studies, and should be pursued to improve the theoretical foundation.
The existing studies on RFID adoption among consumers are based on traditional adoption models used to predict adoption criteria for visual and often interactive products and services. The qualitative study seeks to a€?follow the actora€™, in this case the RFID-application, by way of interviews and ethnographic research (approx.
Lately, there has been a keen interest towards normative issues and the production of a€?goodsa€™ (Pols 2003, Mol 2002).
This makes it easy to justify extensive RFID deployment a€?closer to the consumera€™ in order to extract the benefits of closer interaction between people and products. At the same time, the project itself is highly engaged with the ethical, normative, cultural and legal aspects of RFID innovations in society.
The key thing is that your milestone plan should show, very clearly, how each part of the project is moving against plan.
If you can't make this judgment call, then either the milestone is too granular or ill-defined. That kind of detail belongs in a Microsoft Project plan, not a project charter level milestone plan.
You can also indicate a percentage on each blue bar to show just how much it has progressed. For larger sized projects, I'll use the template shown in the previous section above - to add visual clout and impact.
I'd best consider carefully whether I can easily complete that milestone before committing them to paper. The flip side is that if things go wrong, as they always do, youa€™ve given yourself additional contingency to rectify matters before you are dragged in to explain yourself to those higher up the reporting line!
The project addresses the need for research to develop methodologies for modelling complex interaction patterns, A enabling end-users (non-experts) to identify and utilize relevant implementations. Further studies have addressed item-level RFID tagging in the retail marketplace and the relevance of government regulation for purchase intention (Angeles 2007), while the study by Jensen et al. Furthermore, RFID applications can be differentiated according to (at least) two product groups: products with RFID as a central feature of the object itself, and objects that are tagged with RFID.
Another reason is the concern with a€?translationsa€™ (a translation sociology) and a€?usersa€™.
These various approaches will provide different perspectives to the phenomenon of RFID, and enable a critical, holistic and analytical approach to the methodology to be developed. This can be fruitfully combined with more Foucauldian approaches directed towards the study of neo-liberal forms of government through which individuals are inscribed with the right to choose, however expected to steer itself towards doing a€?the gooda€™ (Asdal & Jacobsen 2009). Q1 in 2013 will be the wrap-up works-shop for the project (also discussing and evaluating dissemination efforts and deliverables). At the same time consumer and privacy advocacy groups have expressed concern for a developing surveillance society, privacy infringements and loss of control. This permeates the whole structure of the project; a main goal is to shed light on various ethical aspects when RIFD applications are developed and implemented.
Don't do something like two major system roll-outs for the same department both within six months of each other. These technical and functional characteristics of RFID are important to identify and separate when assessing new innovations. This is due to a thorough concern with the study of movements and transformations (Latour 1987) and the ways in which actors take part in changing society through making technology a€?their owna€™. Luhmann addresses trust as a mechanism for reducing social complexity in modern societies. Helle-Valle & SlettemeA?s 2008), in order to turn the notion of domestication away from the private and the domestic, and over to more general processes of a€?taminga€™. We therefore claim that antecedents of adoption of products and services incorporating RFID tags may differ compared to traditional technological products and services, and that new drivers of adoption for RFID-incorporating products and services must be explored. A post.doc-study (WP 6) will run parallel with these efforts, and draw on theory and data-gathering from the project.
Two professors (Kristin Asdal and GA¶ran Sundkvist) of TIKA?s research group Science, Technology and Culture, have profound competence in this area, and will secure the methodological part of the project. Furthermore, there has been a discrepancy between technological (optimistic) and public (dystopic) discourse on RFID.
Making the a€?MOSTa€™ out of RFID technology: A research agenda for the study of adoption, usage and impact of RFID.
Mitigating consumer perceptions of privacy and security risks with the use of residual RFID technologies through governmental trust. Hence proper risk-benefit calculations might not assist consumersin their RFID evaluations. Trust becomes the answer to specific risk problems, or a way to handle uncertainty, whether real or anticipated.
In this way it can be applied more widely, to areas where individuals engage with technologies in a variety of shifting contexts. Research will be done on existing applications (these have not yet been identified, but relevant cases might be AutoPass and consumer products with integrated RFID). Key deliverables will be a methodological a€?handbooka€™ (for innovators and researchers) and guidelines (for policy-makers and organised interests). This project will study these various issues and controversies in a manner that rarely have been addressed in similar innovation processes, seeking to bridge this gap. When new technological systems pervade society and reduce the possibilities of creating relationships based on personal trust, individuals resort to system trust. SIFO, IMK, TIK (including the post.doc), SNF, and stakeholders will develop this methodology in collaboration.
Hence, system trust is activated when the complexity of a system increases and the trust relationship must be expanded. Both groups will discuss the same issues: functional aspects and potential implications of specific RFID-products. Luhmann points out that trust is an implicit part of a larger system of technology, regulations, institutions and people and must be studied accordingly.
Hence, the significance of various antecedents of consumersa€™ adoption of RFID products will vary across products involving RFID technology.
This second approach is seen as dynamic, potentially revealing differing controversies and relevant meaning-making positions.




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