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17.08.2014
Wood Carving, High Speed Engraving, Power Carving and Micro Sandblasting equipment, supplies and training for customizing and personalizing anything. The book that I introduced in the last post is Wild and Domestic Animals and in the last post, I only gave you dogs and a cat. Wild and Domestic Animals Book includes 439 Royalty Free Animal Designs – perfect for engraving, sandblasting and more. It covers just about every type of animal you can imagine including aardvark, angelfish, bass, bat, bobcat, buffalo, cat, dogs, coyote, jaguar, gecko, deer, elk, moose, swordfish, otter, tiger, turtle, penguin, and a lot more. It has never been easier to find the perfect animal design for your project – simply insert the disc into your computer, open the image you want, size to fit your project, then print it out!
I was wondering if I can use all the free patterns for items that I wish to sell provided I do not take any credit for them?
A great profit was made by the merchant ships that returned to the Italian port cities of Venice, Pisa, and Genoa filled with the greatly sought-after goods from Asia. In addition to Venice, Genoa developed into a major port city for ships that carried the new goods to the rest of Europe. According to the accounts published years later by Marco Polo, son of Niccolo, arriving in China in 1265 A.D. They also brought back from the Khan a request to the pope for 100 Christian missionaries to teach the Chinese the Christian faith. In their travels along the Silk Road, the Polos saw many strange animals, heard numerous strange languages, tasted exotic foods, and experienced other sights in a long and difficult three-year trip eastward.
Whether or not Marco embellished his stories with exaggeration, he recorded that the Khan took a strong liking to the young Venetian and sent him on many official tours of his vast kingdom as his representative on commercial and political business.
They left China in an entourage of 14 ships and 600 people, most to serve the princess and to impress her new husband. While in prison Marco dictated to another prisoner an account of his travels and experiences in the advanced civilization of the Yuan Dynasty. The account, published under the title, Il Milione, was widely read in Europe and stimulated an even greater interest in the wonders of the Far East. An extensive world of trade had existed in the Indian Ocean for centuries, to the virtual exclusion of Europe.
Although trade and travel between China and Europe existed even during the Roman Empire, the rise in power of the Ottoman and Persian empires from the 12th century on made travel and trade increasingly difficult for the Europeans. The Persians, as was the case also with the Ottomans, extracted heavy taxes from merchants traveling through their territories.
The Ottoman interference in the Mediterranean threatened the commercial survival of Venice, Genoa, and Milan. Of great concern was the increasing blockage of the important slave trade that existed between the Mongols in the Balkans and Eastern Europe who were shipping European slaves to Africa and the Middle East. A new religious fervor spread throughout Europe in reaction to the rapid expansion of Islam into North Africa and the Christian Balkans.
A whole generation of young, highly trained soldiers in Spain, after the defeat of the Moors was completed in 1492, were looking for new campaigns. New technology in ship building created faster, sleeker ships (the caravel), the sternpost rudder which made steering ships much more accurate and easy, arming of ships with the new canon, the magnetic compass, the astrolabe (which enabled captains to plot their travel using latitudinal and longitudinal readings), and more accurate charting methods drove the desire of Europeans to new areas of exploration. The bankruptcy of Spain caused by the long campaign to drive the Moors from Spain, made exploration to find new routes to the Spice Islands and new deposits of gold and silver necessary. The loss of financial revenue in Portugal, the leading merchant fleet linking the Spice Islands to Europe, due to the new Ottoman dominance in the Indian Ocean forced new alternatives to be obtained. And when these factors resulted in two actual, successful trips to be achieved in 1429 A.D.
They traded porcelain, lacquerware, silk, and cotton in exchange for gold, silver, and ivory.
Had the Chinese emperors in the 15th century continued in their quest to develop world trade, the history of the world would be radically different. However, increasing pressure from the Mongols to the north diverted the attention of the emperors away from trade expansion to defense of the dynasty, and Chinese naval explorations inexplicably ceased. The Ottoman Empire relied upon Greek sailors and captains from Ottoman-controlled Greece to conduct most of their sea trade during the 15th and 16th centuries. They found something other than shipping to be much more profitable -- the capture of ships, crews, captains and cargo.
Their piracy continued on into the 18th century when the Barbary pirates were finally defeated by the fledgling navy of the United States under President Thomas Jefferson.
From the 15th century onward ships sailed from Europe in search of not only new routes to Asia, but also to find the cities of gold that were featured in the fables of European sailors. The Dutch sailed successfully around the tip of Africa into Asian waters and there they competed with the Portuguese and English for control of the spice trade. The Dutch also made a brief attempt to colonize North America where they founded New Amsterdam (now New York), but were soon driven out by the English.
The Portuguese were the first to find a route around the tip of Africa to India and then to Asia. To settle the conflict between the two Catholic countries, Pope Alexander VI in May 1493 drew an imaginary line down the middle of the Atlantic Ocean 480 km (298.25 miles) west of the Cape Verde Islands.
At the time of Alexandera€™s initial intervention, little land in the Americas had been discovered or explored. The major sponsor and encourager of the Portuguese explorations was Prince Henry the Navigator (1394-1460), son of the Portuguese king. With Henrya€™s funding and encouragement over 50 expeditions were sent out, including Vasco da Gama, who in 1498 became the first European to sail around the tip of Africa to India. Several enduring Portuguese colonies were established in Brazil (where the national language is still Portuguese), the Spice Islands (Portuguese East Timor), Macao (a neighbor of Hong Kong), the Portuguese Azores, and the African colonies of Portuguese Angola and Mozambique. England under Queen Elizabeth I developed an expansive trade and exploration campaign, supported by the worlda€™s largest and most powerful navy.
One of Elizabetha€™s favorites at the royal court was Sir Walter Raleigh, a daring sea captain who consistently thwarted and badgered the Spanish by seizing Spanish galleons filled with gold and silver on their way to Spain from the colonies in Peru and Bolivia.
One hundred years earlier John Cabot, a Venetian seaman and explorer, sailed under the sponsorship of King Henry VII, Elizabetha€™s grandfather. His son, Sebastian Cabot, was later commissioned to find a Northwest Passage through present-day Canada to the Orient.
Sir Francis Drake (1545-1596) was selected by Queen Elizabeth to lead a sailing expedition around the world.
John Cook was a late 18th century English explorer and navigator who sailed three times to the Orient, was the first European to touch Australiaa€™s eastern shore, discovered many Pacific islands, and was the first to sail around present-day New Zealand.
During his travels, Cook created the first accurate maps of the Pacific Ocean and the first accurate maps of the coastlands of Europe. Under Queen Elizabeth I and James I, the first English colonies in the New World were established.
Queen Elizabeth I also founded the East India Company in 1600 for the purpose of developing trade with the Dutch East Indies. The Italian, da Verrazano, sailing under the French flag was the first European to locate the bay of New York, reaching it in 1524.
In 1603 Samuel de Champlain explored the Saint Lawrence River, traveled south into New England, and in 1609 established the colony of Quebec in the newly formed New France. By the early 17th century French fur trappers and missionaries traveled as far west as Wyoming, established bases throughout the Great Lakes region, including present-day Chicago and Michigan, and conducted fur-trade along the Mississippi River as far south as present-day New Orleans, establishing there an important trade base and French colony. About a century later, France was defeated by Britain in the Seven Yearsa€™ War (1754-1763), known to Americans as the French and Indian War.
The last chapter of the Reconquista was written in 1492 when the last of the Moors were driven from Grenada in southern Spain. The article below, a€?Why Did Columbus Sail?,a€? further points out the major events of 1492 in Spain. In 1492, six years before Vasco da Gama of Portugal made his historic trip around the tip of Africa to India, opening up a new sea route to Asia, a sea captain from Genoa, Italy, Christopher Columbus, was commissioned by the king and queen of Spain to explore a new route westward to the Spice Islands. From childhood he was fascinated by the sea and dreamed of becoming a sailor--maybe even one day becoming the captain of his own ship! When he was about twenty years of age, his dream of going to sea was finally realized and saw many different peoples and lands on his voyages around the Mediterranean. After escaping a pirate attack at sea, Columbus settled in the Portuguese city of Lisbon, Europe`s most important center of world navigation. After his marriage to a Portuguese woman, and fathering several children, Columbus became convinced he could reach Asia by sailing westward from Europe across the Atlantic Ocean.
A fervent Christian, Columbus also had a burning passion to evangelize peoples along his route to Asia. Columbus took his plan to Henry VII of England, Francis I of Spain, to the king of Portugal, and was turned down by all three monarchs.
Three swift ships were purchased and stocked with supplies for the voyage -- the Nina, the Pinta, and the Santa Maria. For the rest of his life Columbus believed that he had landed on perimeter islands of either India or a€?Cathaya€? (the 15th century name for China).
Columbus on this first trip to the New World visited numerous nearby islands, including Cuba, which he made his main base of operations and center of the new colony established. Why does history say that Columbus a€?discovereda€? the New World, when other peoples had already inhabited North and South America for thousands of years before his a€?discoverya€?? The a€?Ba€? people, however, came to South America probably from Japan and the South Pacific islands via boats. And to complicate the matter further, a fifth haplogroup, labeled a€?X,a€? has been identified, and a€?Xa€? is not found anywhere in Asia! Recent finds in Oregon (2012) also have located a distinct, heretofore unknown, people who migrated into North America along land bridges that connected Siberia to North America during the Ice Age. Other finds also point to early arrivals in Latin America that pre-date the arrival of migratory peoples from Asia.
A skull was found in 1999 in South-Central Brazil by archeologists and numerous skeletons in a nearby burial site that seem to indicated that these were people with Negroid features. Therefore, the settling of North and South America probably was done in numerous waves of migration into the two continents and from different places in Asia and perhaps the South Pacific and even Europe.
If you are interested in DNA studies and current thinking about how and when the ancestors of the Native Americans came to the Americas, see the following articles and videos. If Columbus was a€?the first Europeana€? to have a€?discovereda€? the Americas, why are they called the a€?Americasa€? and not the a€?Columbiasa€?? Between 1497 and 1507 an Italian explorer, Amerigo Vespucci, made six trips to South America.
Although his actually landings were few and brief, he later recounted his journeys to a friend, Lorenzo de Medici, who was so fascinated by the stories that he personally published what became very popular and widely-read accounts. The anti-Columbus authors point to the introduction of European diseases into the Americas that decimated whole populations of original inhabitants, that Columbus seized slaves, not only to work for the Spanish but were sent back to Spain for exhibit much as one would an animal, and that he ruled over the new colony as a despot. Political correctness tends to see any claims by any particular religion to be a€?the only waya€? to be absolutist and arrogant. Furthermore, the argument goes, Columbus opened the door to centuries of ill-treatment of the Meso-Americans, as they were to be referred to rather than the supposedly demeaning term a€?Indian.a€? The ill-treatment continued not only through the later Spanish conquistadors, but also through the American settlement of the West and the disruption of the native American cultures. And so, his detractors maintain, Columbus stands for everything that went wrong as a result of the invasion by Europeans into the Americas. There were no existing university courses or books available on a€?how to best contact a foreign culturea€? or a€?how to best evangelize another people.a€? Columbus and the Spanish put into practice what was common to all European nations at the time.
European diseases carried by explorers into the New World was hardly a planned attack on the native population, since there was no knowledge in that day about germs or how contagions developed. The Spanish and Columbus viewed themselves as possessors of a superior Christian culture who had an obligation to treat the native inhabitants more as children to be protected and instructed than as slaves. Columbus showed a great compassion for the peoples he encountered and saw his trips as designed by God for their evangelism. Columbus did sign an agreement with the monarchs of Spain which guaranteed him 10% of the profits from not only his own trips but for all those that followed. The entry of Columbus into the New World opened two continents to European and Asian cultures, civilizations, technologies, medicine, trade, and eventually united an entire southern American continent with one language. The next morning, Friday, August 3, 1492, at dawn, the Santa MarA­a and its companion caravels caught the ebb tide and drifted toward the gulf. In that Ocean of Darkness, some feared, the water boiled and sea monsters gulped down sailors so foolish as to sail there. Commander Cristoforo Colombo (as he was known in his hometown of Genoa, Italy) was taller than most men; so tall, in fact, he couldna€™t stand inside his cabin on the Santa MarA­a.
The textbook answer, as any schoolchild could recite, is that Columbus wanted to find a trade route to the Orient.
Columbus was visibly and verbally a€?an exceptionally pious man,a€? writes historian Delno C.
His son Ferdinand wrote, a€?He was so strict in matters of religion that for fasting and saying prayers he might have been taken for a member of a religious order.a€? He knew his Vulgate Bible thoroughly, and he probably took it (or a collection of Scriptures) on his voyages.
A main source for information about Columbus is his contemporary Bishop Bartolome de Las Casas. But only in the last 40 yearsa€”and particularly in the last 10 have scholars examined Columbusa€™s religious motivations.
But why explain away his intense religious devotion, when it was obvious to those who knew him and persistent throughout his writings?
On September 23, the ship hit a calm, causing the seamen to complain theya€™d never be able to get back to Spain. At daylight, the wide-eyed Europeans saw people a€?as naked as their mother bore thema€? and many ponds, fruits, and green trees. Las Casas agreed that a€?Columbus showed the way to the discovery of immense territoriesa€? and many peoples a€?are now ready and prepared to be brought to the knowledge of their Creator and the faith.a€? As a sign of that work, on every island he explored, Columbus erected a large wooden cross.
After ten weeks of exploring the coastline of Cuba and Hispaniola, continually trading trinkets for gold, Columbus and his men hit a problem. But what most would have viewed as a calamity, Columbus did not: a€?It was a great blessing and the express purpose of Goda€? that his ship ran aground so he would leave some of his men.
Although the words are recorded only indirectly, God spoke to Columbus and assured him that God would take him to safety.
The next day Columbusa€™s men spotted an island in the Azores; less than three weeks later they landed triumphantly on the Iberian peninsula. When Columbus anchored the NiA±a in Palos, seven months after hea€™d left, shops closed and church bells rang. According to Las Casas, a€?The King and Queen heard [Columbusa€™s report] with profound attention and, raising their hands in prayer, sank to their knees in deep gratitude to God.
Columbus thought that Ferdinand and Isabella were Goda€™s chosen instruments to recapture Jerusalem and place the Holy City under Christian control. As soon as Columbus had returned to Spain, he told Ferdinand and Isabella he would provide 50,000 soldiers and 4,000 horses for them to free Christa€™s Holy Tomb in Jerusalem. But much to Columbusa€™s disappointment, the longed-for crusade to recapture the Holy City was never undertaken. In 1499, he said, a€?When all had abandoned me, I was assailed by the Indians and the wicked Christians the Spanish settlers who were rebelling against his inept administration]. In 1518 Carlos of Spain, who was to become Charles V of the Holy Roman Empire, signed an agreement to sponsor a journey by Magellan to seek a route around the world, but primarily a route to the Spice Islands in the East Indies from the Pacific side, so as to avoid the confrontations with Islamic pirates in the Mediterranean. His journey around the tip of South America and across the uncharted Pacific Ocean included many dangerous and threatening situations and his crew threatened mutiny on numerous occasions.
Several weeks later Magellana€™s crew continued their trip west, eventually visited the Spice Islands, and then continued their journey westward to Europe. Ponce de Leon in 1513 explored the east coast of Florida for Spain in search for gold and what was rumored to be the fountain of youth. Vasco de Balboa in 1513 sailed along the northern coast of South America, and landed in present-day Central America. Hernan Cortes in 1519 landed on the coast of present-day Mexico with a small band of 600 men.
The introduction of European diseases whcih wiped out a vast majority of the native people, the introduction of guns, and mounted soldiers on horseback with their war dogs, resulted in a speedy and complete conquest of the Aztec Empire and surrounding tribes.
Francisco Pizarro in 1531 set out from Central America with only 200 soldiers to locate the rumored Inca Empire. The gold and silver from Peru and Bolivia filled the Spanish treasuries with immense wealth and created the numerous routes between South America and Spain. De Soto landed at present-day Bradenton, Florida, just south of Tampa, and began his journey northward.
De Soto traveled up the present-day Route US 10 to Tallahassee, Florida where he made camp for about a year. The survivors eventually decided to attempt to reach Mexico City, first by foot, and then, returning to the shores of the Mississippi, to build rafts to sail down the river, into the Gulf , and on to Mexico City. He then continued to the west until he reached the Mississippi River, the first European to reach that river.
Viceroys: Spanish elite who were appointed by the monarchy to run the five separate regions of New Spain. Creoles: people born in the colonies to Spanish parents, and considered inferior or a€?hicksa€? by the colonists who came to the colonies from Spain. Native Americans: these people had little freedom or were forced into labor on plantations and in mines.
Their appeals for change were heard by many, but the change that was instituted was not a response of Christian compassion and love for those they sought to convert, but was rather the decision to ease their work load by bringing into the colonies a larger work force.
The clergy fired back with accusations against the viceroys and peninsulares--that they could not care less about the souls of the native Americans and threw them aside when ill or dead as one would trash. Native Americans and African slaves both occupied the very bottom of the social chain in Spaina€™s Ecomienda.
De Sotoa€™s expedition contributed to the founding of what became known as the Columbian Exchange, the exchange of people, animals, foods, plants, and technology between Europe and the New Spain (the Americas). From Europe and Africa pigs, horses, goats, sugar cane, paper, guns, and technology crossed the Atlantic to the America. The introduction of corn and potatoes into Europe produced a fairly rapid growth in population, which had declined because of the a€?Little Ice Agea€? that began around 1350 A.D. Sugar beets and sugar cane that came to the America from India with Columbus, soon became a huge industry in the Americas, especially in the Caribbean. Beyond a new commercial exchange between Europe and Africa and the Americas, the gold and silver flowing to Spain opened up new and expanded doors for trade across the Pacific with the Ming Dynasty in China (whose economic system was based on gold and silver) and with the Spice Islands of the Philippines and Indonesia.
In Africa the Portuguese had established economic ties with strong African kings who provided the Portuguese with large numbers of conquered slaves. As has been the case throughout human history, in general, the treatment of the native and African workers was brutal, harsh, and inhumane. And Islam was presented with a major problem in Africa in a dispute between the Muslim missionaries and Muslim slave traders. Therefore, Islamic trade traders justified their behavior in Africa by declaring the tribal groups living south of an arbitrary line drawn across the African continent as sub-humans, pagans eligible for death or slavery! For this reason, today the continent of Africa is composed of a solidly Islamic north and a majority Christian south where the conversion rate to Christianity is progressing faster than the birth rate. The system of joint stock companies emerged, in which merchants and investors pooled their resources, sold stock in the new companies, reduced the risk to individual investors, and made available vast amounts of working capital for investments in mining and agriculture, as well as the many ships required to transport goods. A new population of middle class merchants arose, acting as middle men in the new system of trade. The Massachusetts Bay Colony, and the colonies planted at Plymouth and Jamestown were all made possible by joint stock companies, who expected a return on their investments through new trade for goods and natural resources with the native peoples and the colonists in those areas.
By 1510 50% of all silver from the mines in Bolivia were being shipped to India to purchase tea and cotton and to China for silk and porcelain.
Contacts between Europe and Asia--especially China, the Spice Islands, and India--greatly increased in the late 13th century, producing important merchant cities in Venice, Milan, Genoa, Lisbon, and Madrid. Formerly most trade routes were overland, but beginning with the 13th century naval shipping became the major means of trade. The Persians, Ottomans, and North African Muslims, through harassment, heavy import and export taxes, and seizing of cargo forced Europeans to find new routes to Asia. Between 1450-1650 several countries became leaders in naval shipping: China, Portugal, Spain, the Netherlands, England, and France, and others, like India and Italy, served as middle men in the expanded trade.
New technologies in the construction of ships and navigation instruments made long sea journeys possible.
The Treaty of Tordesilla in 1491 was negotiated by Pope Alexander VI between Portugal and Spain in an attempt to settle their growing dispute over creating trade routes to the Spice Islands. Prince Henry the Navigator encouraged and funding trade between Portugal and others countries and continents, leading to new routes to India and the Spice Islands, as well as opening the door to trafficking in slaves from Africa. Queen Elizabeth and James I were English monarchs who sponsored a great growth in naval power, shipping, and establishing colonies in the New World.
Christopher Columbus in 1492 was the first European to set foot in the New World since early attempts by the Norsemen in the 9th and 10th centuries. Columbus was commissioned by King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella in 1492 to find a new sea route westward to the Spice Islands. Columbus was a Christian who desired to reach unknown people groups with the Gospel of Christ. The Americas were named for Amerigo Vespucci, an Italian explorer who sailed six times to the east coast of South America and made fairly accurate maps of the coastline.
Ferdinand Magella sailed for Portugal in 1519, successfully made his way around the tip of Africa, across the Pacific, and although he, himself, died in the Philippines, his crew continued the trip westward to Portugal, arriving in 1521, the first known humans to circle the earth by ship. Other Spanish explorers claimed vast areas of North and South America for Spain and established the Columbian Exchange between Europe, Africa, and New Spain. Large gold and silver deposits in New Spain created great wealth in Spain, but ultimately led to its economic decline. The rapid expansion of shipping, plantation building, and trade produced a new system of joint stock companies to fund the new ventures.
Explain the reasons for and the success of the Ottoman Empire in restricting European trade with Asia. Describe the cultural and military collision between the Spanish and the Aztec and the Inca empires and analyze why these empires collapsed. Explain the founding and organization of Spanish and Portuguese colonial empires in the Americas and assess the role of the Catholic Church in the colonial administration and policies regarding indigenous populations. Assess ways in which the exchange of plants and animals around the world in the late 15th and the 16th centuries affected European, Asian, African, and American Indian societies and commerce. Analyze why the introduction of new diseases in the Americas after 1492 had such devastating demographic and social effects on American Indian populations, not only in South America but also in Florida and the Caribbean. Assess the effects that knowledge of the peoples, cultures, geography, and natural environment of the Americas had on European religious and intellectual life. How did the Crusades and the Renaissance open up Europe for an awakened interest in other lands?
What light, fast vessel was popular with the early explorers of the late fifteenth century?
What were maps and other navigational aids like during this period, and how did sailors find their way?
What is not found in the textbook: the motivation of Ferdinand and Isabella to fund the voyage by Columbus during the two years prior to 1492 Ferdinand and Isabella has used all their resources to drive the remaining Islamic forces and citizens from Spain. According to the author of the textbook, why had Europeans not discovered the New World sooner? By the time Magellan was ready to begin his journey in 1519, what had everyone realized about Columbusa€™ earlier trip? Tell the story of what happened when Magellan with his remaining crew finally reached the Philippine Islands.
Tell the story of the miraculous healing of the chief of the island on which Magellan landed. What we knew by 1990 about the 1940 dinner was published in Irregular Memories of the a€™Thirties. In this the first of the BSJa€™s revived Christmas Annuals (a pleasant custom begun by Edgar W. January 30, 1940, was a golden evening, an evening of a€?entertainment and fantasya€? as Edgar W. Finally, after a Great Hiatus of nearly four years, plans were made a€” than to the imminent publication of 221B: Studies in Sherlock Holmes a€” for another BSI Annual Dinner, the first since 1936. I had been planning to take a two weeks' holiday in the south toward the end of the month, but in view of this epic occasion, I have now changed my plans, and shall be leaving on January 12, and returning on the 29th. Please inform the undersigned promptly of your intention to attend so that the Gasogene and the Tantalus may make accurate plans. And on January 30, 1940, the Baker Street Irregulars gathered for their annual dinner once more. The first order of business under the Constitution was the drinking of the canonical toasts. There is also extant a letter from Steele to Vincent Starrett about this drawing, quoted in the previously cited unpublished memoir by Steelea€™s son Robert: a€?I had an absurdly hard struggle with my Sherlock. This was also the first time the Baker Street Irregulars met at the Murray Hill Hotel, where the BSI dinners would continue to be held a€” cocktails in Parlor F, dinner and program in Parlor G a€” until the New York landmark was finally torn down in the late a€™Forties, to be great regret of many sentimental people.
The 1940 dinner might not have included every Irregular of that era with whom one would wish to dine, but it was a fine list nonetheless. Denis Conan Doyle was the eldest son of Sir Arthura€™s second marriage (his mother, Lady Conan Doyle, would pass away later in the year), and Trustee of a very active literary Estate indeed. He went on to describe how, in the lore of the Irregulars, Doyle is pictured as a struggling young physician, delighted at the chance to a€?peddlea€? the cases his friend Dr.
Certainly one would love to have been a fly on the wall that night, or, even better, archy the cockroach darting among the drinks on the table, to hear Denisa€™s charming discourse, and all the other scholarship and tomfoolery that transpired that night, the first BSI dinner in four long years. Meanwhile, and with 221B still rolling off the presses, I am sending you a first very rough-and-ready copy of the Gazetteer which you have egged me on, from time to time, to write.
I hope things are going well for you, and again let me say that your absence was a matter of very genuine regret indeed to all of us who look to you as mentor and guide -- to say nothing of your status as sponsor and editor of the Book of the Day. Re the Gazetteer: I'm inclined to agree with you that it might be extended to advantage by a listing of the more important clubs and restaurants, etc.
I imagine we should not too often bring out a volume of ana; the public might easily tire of us.
In his essay in Irregular Memories of the 'Thirties discussing this first BSI anthol-ogy of Writings About the Writings, neither Robert G. So it should be, from someone who (born 1915) had by 1990 long been one of the nationa€™s foremost authorities on Victorian literature and culture. I know of no other such study as the interesting one you suggest, although it is perhaps odd that the idea did not earlier explode in the skull of some devoted Sherlockian.
It seems to me more than likely that Doyle wrote that scene in His Last Bow quite deliberately, knowing it for what it was - a friendly para-phrase of the parting between Johnson and Boswell; although it may of course have been subconscious. You have chosen a delightful subject for your thesis; and you will pardon me if I hope that you will treat it not too seriously, but with a touch of humor.
I am leaving Chicago inside of a week, I think, for a voyage around the world; so in closing I must wish you - in my absence - all good luck in your efforts. A few years later, an editor was interested in publishing the essay a€” the best of all possible editors for Sherlockian work, Vincent Starrett himself.
The quotation is from Christopher Morleya€™s a€?Notes on Baker Streeta€? in the Saturday Review of Literature, January 28, 1939, not from any letter Starrett received from him. This independent Sherlock Holmes society had been founded in New York in 1935 by Richard W. Since Morleya€™s letter of December 23, 2939, below was unavailable for Irregular Memories of the a€™Thirties, this reference in Edgar W. A copy of Morleya€™s letter to Smith below went to Vincent Starrett in Chicago, with the handwritten note: a€?Merry Christmas, Vincenzio.
When I was in Chicago a week ago I learned from Vincent Starrett that his book 221-B is actually to be published on January 30. Since Christ Cella's place on 45 Street, where we used to hold meetings, has been modernized and the old upstairs room there no longer exists (he has only a not very attractive cellarage; which makes me think of The Fiend of the Cooperage; do you know it?) I am wondering if the Murray Hill Hotel would not be a singularly pleasant place for the meeting?
You yourself would, I hope, perhaps feel inclined to present a proceeding of some sort; I mean a few remarks on the Obliquity of the Ecliptic, or whatever may be momently on your mind. Just for the fun of starting trouble, I am sending a copy of this both to Starrett and to Harold Latham of Macmillan; who will I'm sure see to it that each convive gets a presentation copy of the Book. I hope I may assume that like Peterson the commissionaire, or No, it was Henry Baker, you are carrying a white goose and walking with a slight stagger.
Beginning in 1945, Titular Investitures were conferred at the annual dinners to denote membership in the BSI.
That it was the first one Smith prepared is indicated by a letter to Christopher Morley dated three days later (November as the month, in Irregular Memories of the a€™Thirties, p. There are forty-eight names on the somewhat woolly list, below, and they bear some analysis, following Miss Mouillerata€™s cover letter. The other names on Smitha€™s list are familiar ones, though some of them are surprises to see here.
Members by 1935, according to Morley's list that year: Ronald Mansbridge, Harrison Martland, John Sterling, Lawrence Williams.
Ones who came into the BSI at the 1940 dinner: John Connolly, Peter Greig, Howard Haycraft, James Keddie (his son James Jr. A few more details about some of these Irregulars of the a€™30s and a€™40s can be provided now, for the record. Of other names on this list, Harold Latham was, as we have seen, Trade Editor at the Macmillan Company responsible for publishing 221B: Studies in Sherlock Holmes. This was a 1940 collection of essays by Vincent Starrett, published by Random House, with an a€?Unconventional Indexa€? by Christopher Morley. More serious still, two more toasts stipulated by our Constitutional ar-rangements are absent altogether, and missing ever since.
As to The Second Most Dangerous Man: The query about his identity was a€” as Bill Hall will tell you a€” the original, first, quickie, abbreviated examination for eligibility to membership in the pre-natal Baker Street club. Resting imposingly on the long table at which the BSI dined on January 30, 1940, was an a€?orthodox coal-scuttle,a€? authentically Victorian, which James P. The coal box was an ornament, and in it were stored such details of fireside comfort as slippers, unread magazines and so forth. Although Keddie was a contributor to 221B: Studies in Sherlock Holmes, he came close to missing the 1940 dinner until Morley unearthed his address barely ten days before. Because of money, and his second wifea€™s health, Vincent Starrett never made it back to New York for a BSI dinner after the one in 1934. Bill Halla€™s copy bears the affectionate raspberry Christopher Morley often sent his old frienda€™s way. It also bears the notation a€?$5.00 casha€? which was probably the true cost of the evening. The pattern followed by the BSI for quite a few years thereafter, of oysters (a€?shall the world be overrun bya€?), pea soup (as in London fog), curried chicken (minus one ingredient as served in a€?Silver Blazea€?), and a sweet, was set by Christopher Morley whose handwritten draft of the printed menu has survived. The quotation from this letter, taken from an article by the artista€™s son, was incomplete. Meanwhile, Starrett was already building a new Sherlock Holmes collection, with a big start in August 1940 from Logan Clendening. When this was written in 1990, the hope was that Sir Arthur Conan Doylea€™s sur-viving child, Dame Jean, might come to New York for a BSI dinner. All this within your ear; but the circumstances being what they are, you will understand why I can't be any place but Reno on January 30. I could and would, of course, if the dinner were postponed, keep you posted as to developments, and the probable time I should be free to make a New York visit. My brother Felix has a subtle scheme which he will bring direct from the State Department in Washington. The errata slip in 221B, as by Jane Nightwork, reads: a€?In the unavoidable absence of the Editor, a volunteer hand must call attention to the curious incident of what the Proofreader did in the night-time.
Everybody is too pooped this morning to be able to give you any intelligible report but I must let you know at once that the evening was a grand success in every way.
The only sadness is that I intended to have a copy signed for you by all those present, and in the general uproar this did not get done.
Since you seem not to have heard the news, I am sending this by pony express so that you may know at once that the Irregulars met, feasted, d---k, and thought of you. Denis Conan Doyle made a neat little address in which he stuck to the tradition of the Irregulars and told us about his father's acquaintance with Holmes. Of course Christopher himself in person (but he WAS a moving picture!) was the glowing heart of the nebulae. And, by the way, I think having vindicated Watson in the matter of the coal scuttle, it now behooves me to vindicate him in the Persian Slipper. BOOKS ALIVE: Man, oh man, WHAT a title, and doubly good for your book because none has a greater faculty for bringing books ALIVE than you. I was glad to get your note of February 27th, and to learn from it that you may be coming back East soon.
Since the first draft of the Gazetteer, I have added about 150 more names - still without resorting to bars or theatres - but more important, I have fallen in with Dr.
Who the members were of the Irene Adler Division with which Christopher Morley and other Irregulars convened immediately following the BSI dinner in New York is a mystery, however. For many years, it was believed that BSI dinner photographs commenced after World War II, with the one of the 1946 dinner. So it was a surprise when James Keddiea€™s letter above referred to a dinner photo, and a thrill when a print turned up in the hands of Mary Hazard, daughter-in-law of the late Irregular whose it had been: Harry Hazard, a solver of the Sherlock Holmes Crossword in 1934.
But to confound us, in the photograph are at least two men whose names are not in Smitha€™s minutes: William C. None of the seven surviving copies of 221B I have seen bears all the signatures of everyone we can say was at the dinner. Comparing signatures in one copy of 221B after another makes for further confusion Some men seem to have stayed glued to their seats throughout the signing session, as the copies of Starretta€™s book made their way around the table, while others seem to have gotten up and roamed around the room, signing one copy here, another copy there.
Three particular signatures appear as a trio in one copy after another a€” James Keddie, Edgar W. Bill Vande Water has picked up where Harry Hazard left off, and carried on with his typical valiant job of assigning names to faces, but a few remain unidentified. The photograph a€” Ia€™ve been having enormous fun, showing my friends what I looked like nearly sixty years ago. I was also given a bit of a nudge by Archie Macdonell, who founded the first Sherlock Holmes Society in England in June 1934.


I remember David Randall, and discussion of the cash value of certain Sherlock Holmes first editions. The man who got me started in all this Sherlock Holmes stuff was not present at the dinner. The images are scanned at 600 dpi and saved in 6 (six) different formats including TIFF, JPG, GIF, and BMP. Simply cut out the pattern, place it on your engraving project, and trace the lines – right through the stencil film!
Venice grew to become one of Europea€™s largest and most prosperous cities, largely as a result of its trade in luxury goods from the Far East. Milan became a major trade center for goods that were carried by land over the Alps into central Europe. Arriving in China, the Polos were welcomed back by the Mongol troops of their old friend, the Khan. Finally, after nearly two decades in the service of the Khan, the Polos were permitted by the Khan to return home, if they would agree to accompany a Yuan princess who had been promised in marriage to a Persian king (probably to create stronger trade ties between Persia and the Yuan Dynasty).
They traveled through Indonesia to Sri Lanka and India and then to their destination in the Persian Gulf. They arrived during a time of warfare between Genoa and Venice and, probably because they were viewed as possible spies, were imprisoned in Venice. In it he described such Chinese inventions as the magnetic compass, movable type printing, paper making, and the use of paper currency.
Il Milione was translated into several European languages, including English (The Travels of Marco Polo). China, India, and the African kingdoms regularly trades silk, slaves, spices, gold, silver, metalwares, and ivory. The Ottomans controlled all trade in the Eastern Mediterranean Ocean, North Africa (most countries in North Africa by this time had converted to Islam), and the Spice Islands (Indonesia had also converted from Hinduism to Islam). The growing demand for silk, cotton, gold, silver, ivory, textiles, spices, and gun powder became a major concern for European rulers. The Mongol Empire traded European slaves and guns to Venice for trade with Africa for gold, silver, and ivory.
A new passion to a€?get there before the Muslims doa€? motivated exploration and discovery of new peoples. The Chinese were poised technologically to sail around the tip of Africa and to sail westward in search of new trade centers.
Trading partnerships between Venice and the Ottomans established shipping lanes across the Adriatic Sea from Greece to Italy. The semi-autonomous Ottoman states of Algiers, Morocco, Tunis, and Tripoli made sea traffic through the Mediterranean a dangerous business for European shipping. They also raided the coastal areas of Spain, Southern France, and East Africa to seize slaves for the slave markets in the Middle East. They colonized what became known as the Dutch East Indies (present-day Indonesia) in the mid-16th century and held that colony until 1948.
In 1609 an English explorer, Henry Hudson, who was under the employment of the Dutch Republic, reached the harbor of present-day New York, and sailed up the river that now bears his name. Portugal was granted free access to all sea routes to Africa, India, and Asia east of that dividing line, and all previously unclaimed lands east of that line. But when the Portuguese realized the great advantage Spain gained through Alexandera€™s arrangement in potential land in the Americas, they petitioned for an adjustment to Alexandera€™s solution. Because the boundaries of Brazil were poorly defined, the Portuguese pushed for expanded borders without significant opposition from the Spanish. Henry was the prime mover in developing trade between Portugal and other countries and continents.
By 1452 the Portuguese had so successfully developed trade routes circumventing the Ottoman-controlled trade routes, that Portugal became the European trade center for gold and slaves.
They competed with the Dutch and the Portuguese for trade with the Orient, leading to their eventual colonization of India, and, in the 19th century, port cities in China. Raleigh also forced Phillip II to postpone launching the Armada by raiding the coast of Spain and destroying the seasoned wood that was necessary to construct the water kegs needed by the sailors of the Armada. In 1497 his ships landed in North America, the first Europeans to do so since the Vikings. Setting sail from Plymouth, England in December 1577 with six ships, Drake sailed to Brazil, then through the dangerous Magellan Straits at the southern tip of South America, up the coast to Panama, then reached as far, possibly, as California, or even Vancouver Island. He later was the first European to discover Lake Champlain, Lake Huron, and Lake Ontario, all components of the Great Lakes. Although best known as the year in which Columbus sailed to the New World, several other events also made 1492 A.D. In fact, Columbus had to use the port of Palos instead of the larger port of Cadiz because Cadiz was flooded with ships carrying thousands of Jewish refugees fleeing to the Middle East, North Africa, Italy, and Greece. And with that voyage Columbus changed the world -- as the Europeans had known it --for all time. It is perhaps no accident that some of the foremost explorers of the late 1400s and early 1500s were Italians, men who were exposed to the far-reaching cultural awakening that was the Renaissance. He listened eagerly to tales told by seafarers who had sailed the length and breadth of the Mediterranean Sea, bringing back rich cargoes for Genoa`s wealthy merchants. At the age of twenty-five, he had the most exciting time of his life when he sailed aboard a ship that sailed out onto the immense Atlantic Ocean. Columbus spent eight years in Lisbon, working as a mapmaker and receiving the greater part of his education. Most with whom he shared his ideas dismissed him as an idle dreamer, but Columbus was determined and ambitious in his quest. His journals expressed his belief that God had chosen him to carry the Gospel of Christ to the people of Asia. The royal riches had been depleted by the military efforts to drive the Muslim Moors from Spain. The next day, October 12, 1492, Columbus was the first European to set foot on an island in the present-day Bahamas. He immediately referred to the islandsa€™ inhabitants as a€?Indians.a€? However, he also sent men inland on one larger island to look for the capitol city of a€?the Khana€? (the term used in Spain for the Chinese emperor). We now know from DNA test results that the Siberian people who settled and today live in South America are distinct from the Siberian people who settled and live today in North America. The a€?Ba€? DNA is found today only in aboriginal people in Japan, Southeast Asia, Melanesia, and Polynesia.
A trawler in the North Atlantic pulled up a mastedon skeleton, and with it a stone spear head or cutting tool probably used to butcher the mastedon. Speculation is that they may have been related to the early Aborigines of Australia who traveled across the Pacific.
And archeologists have long wondered at the great similarities between the pyramids of Egypt and those constructed in Central and South America. His major contribution to Europea€™s knowledge of the New World were his very accurate maps, primarily of the eastern South American coast.
A German mapmaker, Martin Waldseemuller, published Vespuccia€™s map of South America in 1507 and labeled it a€?Americaa€? in honor of Vespucci. Is he a hero or a villain, a Christian missionary or a slave trader, an explorer in search of souls or a merchant in search of financial profits? Who is to say, they maintain, that the original inhabitants Columbus encountered were any less ignorant of a true God than he? Columbus must be viewed, not through 20th century eyeglasses, but t as a man who lived in a 15th century culture.
In fact, on returning to Spain, the explorers, including Columbusa€™ crews and those that came after, carried back new diseases to Europe contracted in the Americas.
His diaries and letters written both before and after his historic trips contain personal compassion for the natives he encountered and his zeal to seek their conversion to Christ. Such an agreement does not make him necessarily a despicable exploiter but a typical businessman.
Hea€™d had a€?very reda€? hair in his younger years, but since hea€™d passed age 40, it had turned prematurely white. He had sailed the Mediterranean and traveled to parts of Africa, to Ireland, and probably even to Iceland.
Writer Robert Hughes expressed the conventional wisdom: a€?Sometime between 1478 and 1484, the full plan of self-aggrandizement and discovery took shape in his mind.
Whenever he faced a storm, a waterspout (tornado-like whirl of seawater), or rebellious crewmen, he made vows to God. In 1501 Columbus wrote, a€?I am only a most unworthy sinner, but ever since I have cried out for grace and mercy from the Lord, they have covered me completely. He died more than a decade before Martin Luther would post his 95 Theses protesting the abuse of indulgences. Not until last year was his most important religious writinga€”the Libro de las profecA­as, or Book of Propheciesa€”translated into English. Some scholars attribute his recurring encounters with a heavenly voice to mental instability, illness, or stress. The voyage was immediately beset by calamities a broken rudder, leaks so bad they needed immediate repair, and threatened capture by the Portuguese. But on October 11, the shipa€™s log records, they began seeing signs of shore: seabirds, bits of green plants, stacks that looked they had been carved, a small plank. Columbus and his captains went ashore in an armed launch and unfurled the royal banner and two flags.
As he wrote to Ferdinand and Isabella late in his life, a€?I spent six years here at your royal court, disputing the case with so many people of great authority, learned in all the arts.
So he called the Taino-speaking peoples of the Arawak tribes a€?Indians.a€? The name, though flatly wrong, stuck. They had coarse black haira€”a€?almost like the tail of a horsea€?a€”with a€?handsome bodies and good facesa€? painted with black, red, or white paint. In the wee hours of Christmas morning, a sailor decided to catch some sleep and left the tiller in the hands of a boy. Yes, the ship was wrecked beyond repair, but now he had lumbera€”lots of ita€”for building the necessary fort.
On February 14th, Columbus gathered his crew on the heaving and rolling deck to pray and make vows.
In his youth, he felt God had promised him that his name would be proclaimed throughout the world. Ferdinand and Isabella, who had just united their kingdoms, soundly defeated the Moors, signaling the end of an Islamic presence in Europe. A new country, militantly united behind Christianity, had arisen and would dominate the world for a hundred years. Zion will come from Spain.a€? For hundreds of years, the holy sites of Jerusalem had been held captive by the infidel Muslims.
Augustinea€™s teaching, Columbus knew that all history fell into seven agesa€”and he was in the sixth, the next to last. When he says sincerely,a€?Our Lord in his goodness guides me so that I may find this gold,a€? we cringe. Although Ferdinand and Isabella made military strikes into Muslim-held North Africa, they never mounted a grand crusade.
He took three more voyages across the Atlantic, each lasting several years and filled with harrowing storms, crew rebellions, illnesses (at one point his eyes bled), and encounters with native Americans. In May 1493, he asked Ferdinand and Isabella to set aside 1 percent of all gold taken from the islands to pay for establishing churches and sending monks.
Columbus became absolutely wealthy, a€?a millionaire by any standard.a€? But he had driven such a hard bargain with the crowna€”hereditary titles and a€?the tenth part of the wholea€? of gold he founda€”that the monarchs continually had to limit his power and wealth. I found myself in such a pass that in an attempt to escape death I took to the sea in a small caravel. Late in life, with the help of a friend, a monk, Columbus assembled excerpts from the Bible and medieval authors.
But he wasna€™t the first or last Christian to read his personal destiny into a Scripture verse. It was the Portuguese navigator Ferdinand Magellan who in 1519 embarked on a trip which would be the first to sail across the Pacific Ocean--and all the way around the world.
He and his crew made a great friendship with their early contacts on the islands and were persuaded to stay several months to recuperate and replenish their supplies of food and water. Whether urged on by the now Christian chief or due to a threatened invasion, Magellan set sail for their island with 40 of his men. They had completed their journey around the world, proving once and for all that the earth was a sphere and that trade with Asia was possible via a route across the Pacific. In 1539 De Soto returned to the New World, this time as leader of an expedition of nine ships, 620 men, 220 horses, and numerous priests, craftsmen, engineers, and farmers who came from Cuba and various sections of Spain. Hearing of gold deposits in the north, in 1540 De Soto made his way north through Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, and Tennessee, seeking gold. They distributed land to the peninsulares, who, in turn, were expected to protect the native Americans as parents would their children, and instruct them in the Christian faith. Because not born in Spain, they were refused access to leadership positions in the government, but because born to Spanish parents, had full access to education and business. They were at the bottom of the pecking order, and were especially mistreated by the creoles, mestizos, and mulattos.
In many cases they were treated worse than animals, because they were replaceable while animals like horses were less so. What they had in mind was not more colonists from Spain, but, rather, the introduction of slave workers from Africa! The clergy were accused of attempting to create a Church-dominated kingdom with the clergy in charge of the kingdom.
From the Americas corn, potatoes, yams, squash, beans, cocoa, peanuts, gold, and silver flowed to Europe.
The earlier supply of Islamic slaves from Spain and Christian slaves from Eastern Europe in the slave markets of Europe and the Middle East dried up after the fall of Constantinople in 1453 and the expulsion of the Moors from Spain in 1492. Up until this time slavery was identified with conquest and victory in war -- not ethnicity or skin color.
Increasingly African slaves were identified as descendants of Ham, one of the sons of Noah. In England the Muscovy Company for trade with Russia and the East India Company for trade with India were created.
The easy acquisition of silver and gold from Peru and Bolivia resulted in a major miscalculation that severely damaged the economic future of Spain. What five groups of people from Europe gradually made their way along the coasts of Africa, Asia, and the New World? In the East Indies, now know as Indonesia, were spices, coffee, rubber and Portugal got there first. If you were looking t the map in 1493 instead of 2008, who would you have thought got the better of the deal, Spain or Portugal? Why did he go to his death with only a few soldiers and refuse the help of the friendly chiefs? It revived the BSI after four years of dormancy, and ushered in a new era at the Murray Hill Hotel. Smith in the 1950s, but lost along the way), we begin by reprinting the account of the 1940 BSI dinner which appeared in Irregular Memories of the a€?Thirties. I didn't get a blue carbuncle, or, for that matter, did I even get a goose - but the day was a very pleasant one notwithstanding. The date crept up very quickly, and when I finally reached Earle Walbridge yesterday, to look over the proofs of my section, I found a number of errors which it is now probably too late to correct, since Miss Prink at Macmillans tells me the binding has already started. There being no Goldini's or Marcini's available, the Murray Hill Hotel seems to meet the necessities next best. Anything I can do toward contributing to the preparations for the event I shall therefore have to undertake during the next two weeks. The errors will probably be discernible only to the inner circle of the cognoscenti, and to those select few they can easily be explained away.
Shortly afterward, Edgar Smith a€” now the BSIa€™s Buttons, an extra-Constitutional office later to be superceded by the grander and rolling title of Buttons-cum-Commissionaire a€” sent out to those on the mailing list he had received from Christopher Morley some minutes of the annual dinner. Revision of this constitutional requirement was, however, adopted, viva voce, and amendment to the Constitution hereby imposed, in that it is required hereafter that the toast shall not be canonical but Conanical.
Christopher Morley announced that the meeting, which was held as usual on a date at variance with the constitutional specification, had been called to celebrate the publication by Macmillans of 221B - a compilation of the writings of various members of the Society.
Vincent Starrett, whose unfortunate absence from the meeting can be compared only with the intolerable absence of Mrs. We are able to reproduce opposite the appropriately fanciful menu of the evening a€” it initiated a custom of oysters, pea soup, curried chicken, and a sweet which was observed by the BSI for many years (until, Robert G. I tore up two or three attempts to do it from an old drawing, finally put on my old dressing gown and posed for it in the mirror.a€? And in a letter to Edgar Smith dated December 13, 1942, Christopher Morley wrote: a€?Would Freddy Steele like to design a menu card or would we use again the one he did years ago? Located at 41st and Park Avenue in Manhattana€™s Murray Hill district, the venerable hotel had seen better days by the time the Baker Street Irregulars arrived in 1940, but it captured and preserved the atmosphere of Victorian London far better than any other possibility in New York at that time (let alone today). In the United States on Estate business, making Sherlock Holmes publishing and radio and motion picture deals, and doing some lecturing on his fathera€™s Spiritualist cause as well, he had been invited to the BSI dinner by Christopher Morley. Smith, prominent Sherlockian and secretary, or a€?Buttons,a€? as he is called, of the Irregulars, informed this writer that the trouble began several years back, when Denis Conan Doyle attended a Baker Street dinner in New York.
He added that it was probably the highest compliment ever paid in the history of literature.
Hudson to sit down at a meeting of the Baker Street Irregulars and to count you among the missing.
It isn't as comprehensive a thing as I had thought it might be -- perhaps I should add hotels and clubs and restaurants to the list of countries, U.S. Altick wrote his paper on Holmes and Johnson as an undergraduate at Franklin & Marshall College in Lancaster, Pa. Certainly I shall be happy to have a copy of your paper - entire - and I trust that you are right in believing it to be publishable.
I am sorry you had to wait so long for an acknowledgment of your MS - which I received, read, and enjoyed. I had thought that he was sent to China by the Chicago Tribune as its Far Eastern correspondent. The photograph below is of the lobby, looking past the reception desk and grand staircase at the corridor which led to the private meeting rooms.
Smith, eager for the BSI to convene again for what would be his first annual dinner, had suggested the Murray Hill Hotel as an appropriate place. We could have one of their private dining rooms, which are so entirely in the Baker Street manner and decor. I might tell you that the addresses may not be 100% correct, but I think you will find them O. Smith is about the busiest person on earth at the moment, although he has taken time out to read your new book BOOKS ALIVE which he thinks is excellent. Warren Force, Harry Hazard, Harvey Officer, Allan Price, Harrison Reinke, Stuart Robinson, and Earle Walbridge.
Since Smith was working from a list supplied by Morley a€” Woollcotta€™s name was on the 1935 list, but crossed off on the only copy surviving to be printed in the September 1960 Baker Street Journal a€” we must wonder about the legend of Woollcott cast out into utter darkness after crashing the 1934 dinner, and publishing his mocking account of it in The New Yorker. In a letter to Morley on May 10, 1939, discussing the progress of 221B, Vincent Starrett mentioned that a€?Incidentally, Ia€™ve included tentatively Woollcotta€™s bit on the Gillette dinner in 1934, from the New Yorker, as a sort of pendant to Fred Steelea€™s contribution from the same journal, which mentions the dinner. It was not until 1945 that any of the original Pips a€” Gordon Knox Bell, Richard Clarke, Owen Frisbie, Norman Ward, and Frank Waters a€” began to attend the BSIa€™s dinners. Starrett later used the title for his bookmana€™s column in the Chicago Tribune, which appeared Sundays for some twenty-five years. In the first place, they were declared no longer canonical but Conanical a€” Christopher Morleya€™s whimsical way of tipping his hat to Sir Arthur Conan Doyle in his son Denisa€™s presence.
When, in the course of luncheon at Christ Cellaa€™s or elsewhere, some acquaintance would hear about the Sherlock Holmes society and ask how to get in, he would be asked a€?Who was the Second Most Dangerous Man in London?a€? If he could answer that one, he might get asked others if anybody present wanted to ask them. That was getting late to make plans to attend, apologized Morley; but Keddie made it nonetheless. On the occasion of the 1940 dinner, however, the editor of 221B: Studies in Sherlock Holmes was not even in Chicago, a mere overnight run on the 20th Century Limited to New York. Smitha€™s minutes say that a€?The meeting voted simultaneously to send greetings and a fully autographed copy of the book to Mr.
This meeting was held to celebrate the 50th anniversary of Sherlock Holmesa€™s first appearance in American ink (Lippincotta€™s Magazine, February 1890).a€? Not a great way to sell copies of the real reason for the 1940 dinner, Vincent Starretta€™s 221B: Studies in Sherlock Holmes a€” especially since lack of funds had forced Starrett to sell that superb collection of his the year before! Dame Jean Conan Doyle did not share her brothersa€™ antipathy toward the Baker Street Irregulars, and in fact was pleased to accept membership in 1991. Keddie, a publisher of his as well, at the company where he was vice-president, took it upon himself each year to write Starrett a report of the dinner. On January 30, barring accidents, I shall be four weeks along in a Reno residence of six, in an effort to procure a divorce which will enable me to marry Ray. Indoctrinated students will deduce that (by an innocent misunderstanding) a portion of this work was set from unrevised copy, and this first edition will remain identifiable by a number of irregularities, notably in Mr Edgar Smitha€™s valuable concordance.
However, it was signed by several at a most successful meeting of the Irene Adler division or Ladies' Auxiliary held immediately after the dinner.
Copies of 221-B were distributed and autographed more or less by all present, and a jolly good time was H. Now, as Holmes has pointed out, Curry is an excellent disguise for the taste of opium, and (you remember) would be the logical flavor to use in food into which opium was to be introduced. He said that his father had known Holmes very intimately, and he even went so far as to say that Holmes's mental processes had influenced his father's thinking. He also suggested that only Hitler could have written the impetuous and irresponsible letter which caused all the trouble. Julian Wolff, who made a couple of neat little maps of spots in the stories about a year ago (I asked him at the time to send copies to you), and he is doing a bang-up job with London, England, the Continent and the world - creations that will be well worth framing and hanging.
I had photostats made of it, and am sending you a copy herewith, in case you haven't seen it.
And none have been found from 1941 through 1945, though some pictures were taken by others at the BSIa€™s special Trilogy Dinner at the Murray Hill Hotel on March 30, 1944. Christopher Morley (still beardless at this time) is at the head of the table, in black tie, leaning to catch something Frederic Dorr Steele is saying to him. Absent from all seven are the signatures of Elmer Davis, Malcolm Johnson, and Warren Jones, all of whose names are in Smitha€™s minutes.
Smith took on the work of Buttons in January 1940, sending out dinner invitations to the rather casual list of members Christopher Morley provided, and preparing minutes afterward, it was all new to him. His name appears in Smitha€™s minutes, but his signature does not in any of the seven surviving copies of 221B. Some names do not appear on either the 1935 or 1940 membership lists, and we will not see them again after this night.
Yet one man there a€” the man with the dapper mustache, raising a wine-glass in salute a€” is still in the ranks.
Of course no one of my generation can forget the overwhelming, all-pervading atmosphere of the Depression, the atmosphere of fear, fear for onea€™s job, fear for all onea€™s friends, half of whom were out of work.
My friend Basil Davenport, the one man I knew who literally lived in a garret, in the depths of the Depression, supporting himself by writing for that same Saturday Review of Literature a€” precariously, because the Saturday Review didna€™t always have the money to pay contributors. However, the ships traveled back and forth between Europe ferrying the Crusaders to the Holy Land brought back to Europe many new and exciting products from Asia through the Middle East. Silk, porcelain, and metalware from China, spices and coffee from Indonesia and the Philippines, tea and spices from India, and a variety of rare new woods never seen before in Europe, were but some of the goods that excited Europe. It was also a description of the cultural practices, the languages, and religious practices of China. It fueled the interest and imagination of soon-to-be explorers, including John Cabot of England and Christopher Columbus, a native of Genoa who would sail to the New World under the sponsorship of the king and queen of Spain. European industries that produced textiles, wool, and German metalware needed to find new routes to their customers in Africa and Asia. Genoa dominated trade in the Black Sea and Western Mediterranean areas, but were increasingly harassed by the Ottomans. Marco Polo described huge five-masted ships that regularly traded with Ceylon, India, the Philippines, and Indonesia.
Because most of the raiders were from the Berber tribes of North Africa, the north coast of Africa was called the Barbary Coast and the Islamic raiders became known as the Barbary Pirates. Their raids were so frequent that parts of the coastal areas of southern Spain were abandoned by their original inhabitants.
This enabled them to control the production and trade of three crucial spices: nutmeg, cloves, and mace, as well as controlling the exporting of precious woods from Indonesia. Spain had free access to all routes to the Americas, Asia, and India, and all previously unclaimed lands west of that line. Thus, in June 1494 the line was re-negotiated westward to a new distance of 1,770 km (1,099.83 miles) through the Treaty of Tordesilla, so named for the Spanish town of Tordesilla where the treaty was signed. The company soon controlled the production and exportation of Indian cotton, indigo dye, saltpeter ( nitrate needed in the production of gunpowder), tea, and opium. In 1629 he persuaded Cardinal Richelieu, French regent who served the young king Louis XIII, to encourage French nobility to fund the new colony of Quebec. In 1803, France also lost its land possessions west of the Mississippi River through a sale made by Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte to the American President Thomas Jefferson. Little by little the control of the Moors was eroding, beginning in the north of Spain where the Kingdom of Asturias was overthrown in 718 A.D. So, there was evident confusion on Columbusa€™ part about where his ships had actually landed. Original studies indicated that four distinct haplogroups migrated into North and Central America in waves across the Bering Sea bridge. It has been found, for instance, in the ancient ancestors of the Basque people in northern Spain. It closely resembles tools made by a migratory group whose remain have been found in Spain and Portugal.
The name stuck and the two continents have been known as the Americas from that point forward.
He urged the king and queen of Spain to send priests to work with the people and to instruct them in the Christian faith. After all, he was the one who took the greatest of risks in making his initial trips across the Atlantic.
Inside, in the cool quiet, knelt CristA?bal ColA?n, captain general of three small ships anchored in the towna€™s inlet below.
Their missiona€”the wild-eyed idea of their foreigner captaina€”was to sail west, away from all visible landmarks.
There, in the land of the Great Khan, houses were roofed with gold, streets paved with marble. He boasted later in life, a€?I have gone to every place that has heretofore been navigated.a€? He knew the Atlantic as well or better than anyone, and he probably knew more about how to read currents, winds, and surfaces of the sea than do sailors today.
He would win glory, riches, and a title of nobility by opening a trade route to the untapped wealth of the Orient. He saw them as the fulfillment of a divine plan for his lifea€”and for the soon-coming end of the world. I have found the most delightful comfort in making it my whole aim in life to enjoy his marvelous presence.a€? He constantly associated with reform minded Franciscans and spent perhaps five months at the white-walled monastery of Santa MarA­a de La Rabida. Others complain that Columbusa€™s biographers described him as more religious than he really was. A week after losing sight of the Canary Islands, the pilots discovered to their consternation that the compasses no longer worked right. This a€?astonished them,a€? and Columbus compared it to the miracles that accompanied Moses.
Each was white with a central bright green cross flanked by a green F and Y for a€?Ferdinanda€? and a€?Isabella.a€? Columbus declared that these obviously inhabited lands now belonged to the Catholic sovereigns. In a sense, he would be like the legendary giant Christopher, who carried Christ on his back across a wide river. Waves broke over the ships, sails had to be lowered, and soon they were driven by the wind until they were wildly lost.
They put chick-peas in a cap and had sailors draw to see which one picked the chick-pea with a cross cut into it.
And at age 25, he had survived a shipwreck and six-mile swima€”a sign, he told his son Ferdinand, that God had a plan for him. Columbus had used the port of PalA?s, in fact, because the larger CA?diz was flooded with thousands of fleeing Jewish refugees. The Crusadersa€™ Book of Secrets, written in the early fourteenth century, said it would take 210,000 gold florins to mount a crusade. They instructed him a€?to win over the peoples of the said islands and mainland by all ways and means to our Holy Catholic Faitha€? and sent 13 religious workers on his second voyage. As a colonial governor, he ruled the farmers and settlers with such a heavy hand they rebelled. Columbus spent his last years in legal battles and worries that his estate would be whitled away. Then the Lord came to help, saying, a€?O man of little faith, be not afraid, I am with thee.a€™ And he scattered my enemies and showed me the way to fulfill my promises.
The unfinished work, titled Book of Prophecies, uses Scriptures to show that God had ordained his voyages of discovery and that God would be doing further wonderful things for the church. Although their commander, Magellan, died in battle in the Philippines, a handful of survivors of Magellan`s well-planned voyage returned home in 1522 after three grueling years at sea. The Christian chief pleaded with Magellan to accompany him with his warriors, but Magellan refused, stating that if God could raise one chief from the death bed, he could deliver Magellan and prove His power.
The intention was to explore the west coast of Florida and the middle of the newly discovered continent.
De Soto took male slaves from each area and forced them to carry cargo until they could continue no longer.
Frustrated with the results, the expedition headed south to meet two supply ships in the Gulf of Mexico, but they were attacked by the Mobila tribe (present-day Mobile, Alabama). Those who did remain were introduced to European feudalism by means of the Spanish Encomienda System. This caused Catholic missionaries to complain to the viceroys, the monarchy, and even to the Pope in Rome, requesting intervention to make life more humane for the native Americans. The viceroys and peninsulares dismissed the complaints brought by the clergy as coming from biased, self-seeking opponents.
Increasingly Spain depended on native American slaves to work the gold and silver mines and to serve on the sugar plantations. The Dutch East India Company funded and controlled shipping to the Spice Islands (Indonesia) and led to the colonization of Indonesia by the Dutch.
Because of the new wealth Spain did not engage in new methods of production as did other nations in Europe, relying instead on its wealth to purchase the goods demanded by its people. If you could go back in time to attend just one BSI dinner from years gone by, which one would it be?
It was a publication party for the first BSI anthology of Writings About the Writings, Vincent Starretta€™s 221B: Studies in Sherlock Holmes, with most of its contributors present that night. Mistakes can be corrected, assumptions confirmed, missing passages filled in, and hitherto-unsuspected aspects revealed. Starrett could be excused for overlooking it, since he had been out of the country at the time, on an extended tour of duty. The changes I would have made are of a rather minor character, and probably if it were not my own child I would not be conscious of the few warts that disfigure it.
Our dearly beloved public won't know Staphonse from Staphouse (if that's not in the eight pages) and even if they do find ground for pinning us down, the controversy might actually be profitable. I hope everything comes out satisfactorily, and that you will be East again before too long. It was the first of an unbroken series of annual minutes prepared by Smith through 1960, the year of his death.
A copy of the book, presented with the compliments of the publishers, was put at each place. Cecil For(r)rester, who expressed his sympathy and pledged his assistance in the Society's research in the matter of his ancestral relations with a certain governess. Harris says, the Irregulars meeting every January, at Cavanagha€™s by then, grew so many for the room, that diners no longer had the elbow-room to wield an oyster fork).
His talk that evening, Morley reported in writings reprinted earlier in this volume, was a€?probably the most charming discourse to which we have listened.a€? Later, though, as Morley also observed, Denis Conan Doyle (not to mention his sometimes volcanic younger brother Adrian) came to regard the BSI as some sort of conspiracy dedicated to usurping their fathera€™s reputation and accomplishments. Very different from Woollcott, he wrote in a vein of decorous modesty asking if he could be put on the waiting list and offered to undergo any sort of inquest of suitability. In every respect but this the dinner at the Murray Hill Hotel last week was a roaring success, and the book -- however it may ride the seas -- was properly launched. Altick is the author of many books, including the evocatively titled Victorian Studies in Scarlet in 1972.
How he came to write to Vincent Starrett in Chicago, he no longer remembers, but from his papers at Franklin & Marshall come these two letters from Starrett, who encouraged him, commented on his paper, and saved it until 221B came along as a convenient outlet a few years later.
It seems to me that you have made out an excellent case and I hope you may find an editor who will publish the paper. It was, instead, a trip around the world of his own, paid for by the sale of his 1935 novel The Great Hotel Murder to the movies. Unable to identify Latham, I offered a complimentary copy of the next volume of BSI History to anyone who could. I propose that you and I appoint ourselves a committee, perhaps together with Harold Latham of the Macmillan Company, to arrange this matter. It isna€™t so hot, in my opinion a€” only about 400-500 place names, and many of the richest ones not geographical at all. Just as soon as he gets a little breathing spell he is planning to write you a lengthy epistle.
His paper a€?The Creator of Holmes in the Flesha€? reads as if it had originally been a talk a€” perhaps at the a€™36 dinner, about which we have few details. Warren Force (died 1959) was in the tar business a€” founder and chairman of the Hydrocarbon Products Company, Inc., and a director and the treasurer of the Tar Distilling Company and Old Colony Tar Company at the time of his death.
The Five Orange Pips had been founded in 1935 independently of the BSI, perhaps in blissful ignorance of its existence; and for ten years they regarded the BSI as the lesser body.


Leavitt, BSI by way of the Grillparzer Club well before 1934, railed about it to Julian Wolff many years later, when Wolff had succeeded Smith as the BSIa€™s Commissionaire. An uncle of mine who must have been a contemporary of Watson in Edinburgh continued to put the sundries of his evening comfort in the coal box a€” which never had held coal a€” until his death a few years ago.
He was across the prairies and over the Rockies in Reno, Nevada, in the process of getting a divorce from his first wife, Lillian Hartsig, in the days when six weeksa€™ residence in a€?The Biggest Little City in the Worlda€? was the quickest way. Starrett, an action which, in the preoccupations which ensued, was probably not accomplished.a€? But other Irregularsa€™ copies did make the rounds of the table.
Steelea€™s hand was steady, but some signatures show signs of having been inscribed a few rounds of drinks later.
I tore up two or three attempts to do it from an old drawing, finally put on my old dressing gown and posed for it in the mirror.a€? The parenthetical passage which had been missing held the clue. Randall hoped to resell it intact to someone, perhaps a library where it would be available for scholarly use, but in 1943 finally offered it up piecemeal.
Latham writes me from Macmillan that he will see that a complimentary copy goes to everyone. I carried a coal scuttle of the Baker Street variety to New York, and it was placed in triumph, and, I hope, in complete vindication of Watson's reporting, in the middle of the table - we kept the cigars in it. And, yes, I'll hang on to the remaining two chapters I have and use them (I am sure) before your book goes into print.
We are thinking of putting out the Gazetteer together about June 1st, as a private effort, illustrated with reductions of these maps, which would really touch it off.
This was his first BSI dinner and he was meeting virtually all these men for the first time that night. Ronald Mansbridge was born in England in 1905, attended Cambridge University, and came to the United States in 1928 to teach at Barnard College. 6, sitting next to my old friend Basil Davenport, who has another old friend of mine, Peter Greig, on his right. When I arrived in New York in 1928, I had a letter of introduction to Chris from Sheldon Dick, whom I knew at Corpus, Cambridge. I missed that one, but I happened to follow Archie on a trip across America, about a week behind him, staying at some of the same hotels. Basil was too proud to accept money from a rich aunt Juliet; but he did let her pay his membership dues at the Yale Club, which he called a€?the most inclusive club in New York,a€? and which he liked because he could take their thick correspondence cards and cut them to fit inside his shoes perfectly when the soles wore out.
Like so many others, he was hit by the Depression, but made ends meet by doing public relations work for various and sundry. I remember an animated discussion with him once about a book on Horace we had published at Cambridge University Press. Although he didna€™t attend the dinner, he made arrange-ments for copies of 221B: Studies in Sherlock Holmes to be distributed at the dinner. Genoa provided the sailors, ship captains, and the know-how for the later Portuguese and Spanish explorations. Food that was spoiled or even rotten became palatable when the rich spices of the Orient were added. They were four to five times larger than European ships and possessed a technology not known to Europeans. At other times they extorted large payments in order to allow merchant ships to pass through their waters. He was especially interested in exploring the west coast of Africa, which became the key area for providing African slaves to Portugal -- now the key European slave market.
Some believe it was in Nova Scotia, others in Newfoundland, and some believe it might have been in Maine. He then successfully sailed across the Pacific Ocean to the Indonesian islands, westward through the Indian Ocean to the tip of Africa, and then northward to England where he arrived in 1580.
Later colonies were established at Plymouth (1620) by Pilgrim settlers, the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1629, and the Connecticut Colony in 1636. Because India had traditionally served as a middle man in trading Chinese products, especially porcelain and silk to Africa and Italy, the company gained control of that industry as well.
Columbus seemed to them to be a means by which new wealth could be acquired from a new route to the Spice Islands as well as confiscation of the fabled gold deposits in the New World.
They were offered one alternative to emigration, and that was conversion to the Christian faith.
He and the crew immediately gave thanks to God for a safe arrival in a worship service and he planted both the royal banner of Spain and a wooden cross on the beach of the island he named a€?San Salvadora€? -- Holy Savior. Walter Neves, an anthropologist at the University of Sao Paulo, who made the initial discovery along with an Argentine colleague, Hector Pucciarelli. Not to mention Egyptian mummies and German skeletons that show strong amounts of nicotine in their remains, people who died long before the European voyagers of the 16th century began shipping tobacco from the New World to Europe. But we do know that from the traditional European perspective, the explorer who first a€?discovereda€? the New World in modern times was Christopher Columbus. However, towards the end of the 20th century other voices began to question and attack his motives and his treatment of the islandsa€™ original inhabitants.
Did not Christ die for their salvation as well as for the Spanish, Portuguese, and Italians? With Columbus saying confession and hearing mass, were some ninety pilots, seamen, and crown appointed officials. They would leave behind Spain and Portugal, the a€?end of the world,a€? and head straight into the Mare Oceanum, the Ocean Sea. And most bizarre of all, we dona€™t knowa€”and will probably never knowa€”the spot where he came ashore. As he put it in 1500, a€?God made me the messenger of the new heaven and the new earth of which he spoke in the Apocalypse of St. He read from the Vulgate Bible and the church fathers but, typical for his era, mingled astrology, geography, and prophecy with his theology.
Some protest that Columbus was greedy and obsessively ambitious, so he couldna€™t have been truly religious, as if competing qualities cannot exist in one person.
Few took it as a sign of land, but when the crew gathered to sing Salve Regina (a€?Hail, Queena€?), Columbus instructed his men to keep careful lookout. In spite of that it later came to pass as Jesus Christ our Savior had predicted and as he had previously announced through the mouths of His holy prophets.a€¦ I have already said that reason, mathematics, and maps of the world were of no use to me in the execution of the enterprise of the Indies. He also, a Christopher, a a€?Christ-bearer,a€? would carry Christ across the wide Ocean Sea to peoples who had never heard the Christian message.
That sailor would go on a holy pilgrimage to a shrine of the Virgin Mary if they landed safely. That was a mere 155 years away, and much had to happen: all peoples of the world would convert to Christianity, the Holy Land would be rescued from the infidels, the Antichrist would come. If Columbus could find enough gold in the Indies especially if he could find the lost mines of Solomon, which were known to be in the Easta€”he could pay for a Holy Land crusade. Columbus wanted gold not only for himself, but also for a much larger reason: to pay for the medieval Christiana€™s dream, the retaking of the Holy Land. In his will, Columbus instructed his son Diego to support from his trust four theology professors to live on Hispaniola and convert the Indians. Some have criticized Columbus for the a€?providential and messianic delusions that would come to grip him later in lifea€? and accused him of megalomania. Magellan spent several days with the man and prayed for him, asking God to heal him and to show the islanders His power.
He then had them killed and took slaves from the other peoples through whose territories he passed.
Rather than covering him and hiding the event, Ham told his brothers, who then went in to cover their father.
The steady use of silver and gold by Spain greatly increased the amount available in Europe, drove the value of silver and gold down, and resulted in Spain becoming one of the least financially healthy nations in Europe. The very first, in 1934, when Alexander Woollcott rode across Manhattan in a hansom cab with Vincent Starrett to crash the party?
And we can get a glimpse of the magical evening of January 30, 1940, in a BSI dinner photograph a€” apparently the first ever taken a€” which in 1990 we did not know had ever existed. Much new is there: the dinner photo and a key to it, letters from Vincent Starrett, Edgar W.
But he went on to implicate Christopher Morley in defense of such a deplorable situation: a€?To quote Mr. I doubt that time remains to enable the development of an essay on the Obliquity of the Ecliptic, but it is barely possible, if I apply myself assiduously, that I might have ready for confidential distribution for those present, a typewritten copy of the Gazetteer on which I have recently been making fairly decent progress. I was altogether too finicky, anyway, in writing you as I did, and I hope you'll forgive me. The meeting voted spontaneously to send greetings and a fully autographed copy of the book to Mr.
There were some veterans of the Three Hours for Lunch Club and the Grillparzer Sittenpolizei Verein, like Frank Henry, Malcolm Johnson, Bill Hall, Mitchell Kennerley, and Robert K.
In my capacity as Buttons, I shall be sending you as sober an account of the evening as I can see my way clear to put together. Anyway, let me know what you think of it, and how it might be improved, and perhaps for Christmas or some time before I can get my bargain-price printer to put it in type. There was a short session of the Irene Adler division here in Reno, at which I presided - Basil Rathbone being at the Wigwam Theatre in The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes.
He is still at work, and his most recent book, a study of the first ten years of Punch, was published in 1997. You will be more likely to find one favorable to the idea of publication, I think, if you will abbreviate the essay skillfully; its length just now is against it, I'm afraid. Starretta€™s journey began in the Orient and ended in Europe, with his first visit to London in some years.
The suggestion of the Murray Hill, as well as the impetus for the 1940 BSI dinner, came from Christopher Morley. A cost estimate I recently saw for a businessman visiting New York in 1941 gave $3.35 a day for breakfast, lunch, and dinner.
Smith as Buttons communicated with the membership through memoranda to the BSI, sometimes enclosing whatever membership list was current at the time. Bell, who was unaccountably omitted from the list of those invited to last Januarya€™s celebration; and that of Dr.
Stolper and Howard Swiggett, respectively a professor of English at Columbia University who scandalized his colleagues by contending that literature should be taught by writers, and a novelist well-known in his day, with links to the New York Police Commissioner, and later to certain cryptic wartime British missions in New York. Leavitt, and Gene Tunney, plus at least one other, non-fiction and mystery writer Hulbert Footner, whose only known connection with the BSI is his name on this 1940 list. Leavitt swore to this version of history in a€?The Origin of 221B Worship,a€? his 1961 memoir of the BSIa€™s early years. Smith eventually coaxed the Pips into the BSI, and then struggled to save them in 1947 when Christopher Morley felt the BSI had grown too large and unruly. Hence the membership of people like Don Marquis, Frank Henry, Bucky Fuller and other friends of Chris Morleya€™s who couldna€™t be annoyed with studying the Sacred Writings.
It was, I tell you, an ornamental piece of furniture, and when the fire needed replenishing, the bell-pull at the end of the mantel-piece brought the servant lassie from the kitchen with a cannily measured a€?scuttlea€? of coal, from which the fire was fed with great daintiness and dexterity. Smith sat next to Keddie at the dinner, and the two men hit it off a€” less than three months later, Smith was in Boston to join the Keddies Sr. To do so, he and Starrett produced a catalogue still highly desirable for its own sake, both for the many splendid items at what today seem sheer giveaway prices, and for the rich canonical fantasy which Starrett and Randall wrote into it. We will try to keep the actual dinner within the blood royal, but as soon as it has taken place Macmillan can make good boblicity out of it to help the book. Watson, but probably not so well - at least he didn't seem to understand him as well as he did Holmes. Denis Conan Doyle is off to himself a bit in the corner; not intentionally perhaps, but capturing a sense of the remove between the Conan Doyle Estate and the BSI. How well he managed to associate names with faces that evening, when high spirits and hard spirits were the order of the day, is unclear. A few of them, Irregulars active today were able to know in person before they fell from the ranks. In 1930 he was appointed Cambridge University Pressa€™s representative here, a position he held for forty years. It was clear that he had made quite an impression; at one hotel they asked me whether I wanted whisky for breakfast. Roberts, author of A Note on the Watson Problem, and then Doctor Watson, which Frank Morley at Faber & Faber published. The largest ships were over 400 feet long and 150 wide and were protected by a fleet of military vessels manned by over 20,000 soldiers. A second exploratory journey in 1498 was ill-fated and probably returned to England by 1500. Drake was the second European to successfully sail around the world, and achieved what Magellan did not -- he personally completed the entire trip (Magellan died in the Philippines).
The establishment of these colonies resulted in a great wave of English settlers arriving in North America during the decade 1630-1640. Quebec remained the only significant French land holding in North America, which was quickly engulfed by large numbers of English who founded and settled British Canada. Thus, in seventy days Columbus completed an historic transatlantic voyage that eventually led to European settlement in what would later be called the New World. The term a€?Indiana€? was decried as a demeaning term, and Columbus was described as a slave trading, gold seeking, ego-maniac. Later that day they would row to their ships, ColA?n taking his place on the Santa MarA­a, a slow but sturdy flagship no longer than five canoes.
But even if they reached the Indies, how would they get back, since currents and winds all seemed to go one way?
At least once he appeared in public wearing a Franciscan habit and the ordera€™s distinctive cord. Even when Columbus forcibly subjugated Hispaniola in 1495, he believed he was fulfilling a divine destiny for himself and for Aragon and Castile and for the holy church.
Feverish and in deep despair, he wrote, a€?I dragged myself up the rigging to the height of the crowa€™s nest.a€¦ Still groaning, I lost consciousness.
Fearing his men would tell the story of the Spanish losses to the Spanish ships, in 1541 he turned westward into Arkansas, Oklahoma, and Texas, then to the banks of the Mississippi River in present-day Mississippi where De Soto died if a high fever. Or the 1941 dinner, when Rex Stout came for the first time, and electrified Irregulars with a€?Watson Was a Womana€?? That a photo had been taken that night came to light later in a letter from James Keddie of Boston to Vincent Starrett. Smith, James Keddie, and Christopher Morley, Starretta€™s telegram to the BSI dinner, Morleya€™s handwritten menu, autographs of the Irregular diners that night, the picture of Sherlock Holmes that Frederic Dorr Steele drew that night, the first BSI membership list Edgar W. Incidentally, I think you did us all a service by naming Mycroft Holmes as the detective who solved his problems without ever visiting the scene of the crime or seeing the evidence. Later that year, he wrote the few words about it that follow, in a letter to Allen Robertson of Baltimore (then unknown to the BSI, but later founder i??of The Six Napoleons of Baltimore, and a€?The Reigate Squires,a€? BSI). After the Woollcott condescension most of us were content to go on without any Stated Meetings .
It includes the membersa€™ chosen noms de canon, a practice of the Pips which may have inspired the Titular Investitures adopted by the BSI later under Smitha€™s leadership. But it bespoke his confidence in Smith, who had yet to attend a BSI dinner, when he turned first to him for help organizing the 1940 affair. Julian Wolff, whose notable Sherlockian maps qualify him, I think, beyond any suspicion of a doubt for membership. This list has been compiled in a piecemeal fashion from many sources but as time goes on we hope to show improvement!
Christopher Morley cited Swiggett in an Irregular way once, in his March 4, 1939, a€?Trade Windsa€? column. Stone of Waltham, Mass., had been in Sherlockian circles since the late a€™Thirties, was a contributor to 221B, and had at-tended the 1940 dinner a€” as he would the a€™41 dinner a month after this list.
As a matter of fact, by God, I doubt like hell if Bill Hall could ever have passed a really probing quiz in those early days.
Keddie, who had come from Scotland as a child, had a particular interest in this Baker Street relic in which Sherlock Holmes kept his cigars. I have in my possession a coal box which to my knowledge is nearly fifty years old, but which, until it fell into the hands of the philistines in this country had never held so much as a spoonful of coal. Across the table from him, a nonchalant David Randall tilts his chair back, his hand stuck in his pocket.
Of all his twenty years of writing up BSI dinner minutes, it seems safe to say that this is the one most likely to contain some errors in the list of attendees.
On the basis of the signatures plus the dinner photograph, thirty-seven, if that is Elmer Davis at no. He arrived in New York with a letter of introduction to Christopher Morley in his pocket; and, with no less a Holmesian than S. Cambridge University Press had published Shakespearea€™s Imagery and What It Tells Us by Caroline Spurgeon, and I wanted to get publicity for it. He was the BSIa€™s food-and-drink expert, and worked with me on the annual Oxford and Cambridge dinners in New York too.
Four priests eventually volunteered to travel to China but soon returned to Rome after experiencing culture-shock along the Silk Road.
Drake was also a major participant in the active slave trade in which England was a main competitor with the Spanish and Portuguese in the lucrative slave trade which dealt with not only African slaves, but also slaves taken from the Caribbean Islands. This is considered to be the first Christian victory over the Islamic Moors in Spain, in the long struggle called the Reconquista. How could the Spanish Catholic determine who truly converted and who did so outwardly simply to avoid emigration? I heard a voice in pious accents saying, a€?O foolish man and slow to serve your God, the God of all! Church leaders began to identify this curse with skin color -- dark slaves taken from Africa. She was very interested in early explorers and told her children many of these stories over and over again. Hence, with rumors of vast supplies of gold and silver in the New World, and even the possibility of reaching the Spice Islands from the opposite direction taken by the Portuguese had great promise. The 1946 dinner, when the premiere issue of The Baker Street Journal arrived arrived at the last moment to be handed out?
It was the only one ever attended by a Conan Doyle, Sir Arthura€™s son Denis a€” and the decades-long feud between the BSI and the Conan Doyle Estate dates to that night. Only a few dozen men had been present that night, and it seemed unlikely that a copy would ever surface now, after all these years. According to Smith, Denis listened with bewilderment to the various toasts offered to Holmes and his entourage, and to the scholarly reports on various aspects of the investigatora€™s career.
Keddie sent me a jolly letter about it, which, with yours, goes into the permanent records.
The difficulty is that it is rather too scholarly for any of the really popular journals - and they are the only ones that pay worthwhile rewards.
I hope in my menial capacity as Boots [sic], I have not, in doing this, incurred the wrath of my Gasogene and Tantalus.a€? Presumably the Morley list from which Smith worked was the 1935 one printed in Irregular Memories of the a€?Thirties (pp. But beyond that, their Irregular con-nections in 1940 are a mystery, and their names do not appear again in surviving Irregular records.
His inscription in the copy of Appointment in Baker Street that he sent Woollcott in 1939 read a€?To Alexander Woollcott in appreciation for loyal work as a Baker Street Irregular,a€? and in 1944, the year following Woollcotta€™s death, he referred to him in Profile by Gaslight (to Leavitta€™s lasting annoyance) as a founder of the BSI. What do you think?a€? I have not seen Morleya€™s reply, but Woollcotta€™s New Yorker article about the 1934 dinner did not appear in 221B.
Other veteran BSIs-to-be not on it, but at the a€™41 dinner and many more to come, were Philip Duschnes the bookseller, Charles Honce the A.P. Watson,a€™ a€?The Game Is Afoot!a€™ and a€?The Second Most Dangerous Man in London.a€™a€? These were suggestions, if you will, at the original meeting, but they were approved, and the Davis Document makes them Constitutional. His defense, when threatened with inquiry, was to roar (and I use the word deliberately a€” ROAR), a€?Dona€™t put me to the question!a€? As him and dare him, for me, to deny it. In that instance, the coal box, which stood by the fireplace chair, had been used by my mother and by my grandmother before her for the odds and ends of sewing and knitting utensils that a Scotswoman picks up in the afternoon that even her time of rest may not be entirely wasted! Eliot), FVM had returned to New York in 1938 to be trade editor at the Harcourt, Brace company.
Suit will be filed as soon as possible after my residence (six weeks) is established; and if there is no opposition there will be no delay. But, simply to put the reader on the alert, a few obvious corrections may be noteda€? a€” and Miss Nightwork, perennial Ph.D.
Elmer Davis was perhaps the best known national celebrity in the BSI at the time, from his work as a CBS radio newsman. In those days the very best place to get a book mentioned was Morleya€™s a€?Trade Windsa€? column in the Saturday Review of Literature.
We played a game to see who would be the first to telephone the other each year on December 16th, with the words a€?O Sapienta,a€? which we always found on that day in our Cambridge Pocket Diaries.
I dona€™t remember his attendance at any of the BSI dinners; but I recall vividly that when we would meet him at dinner at the St. The continents of North and South America were so large almost anyone could land there sailing from Europe.
The 1948 a€?committee in cameraa€? dinner, when the BSI's future hung by a thread upon Christopher Morleya€™s discontent? There were Crossword Puzzle winners like Basil Davenport, Harry Hazard, Harvey Officer, and Earle Walbridge. Bell was there at the time, and when Bell died in 1947, Starrett recalled in his a€?Books Alivea€? column in the Tribune walking up and down Baker Street with Bell, arguing about which house had been Sherlock Holmesa€™s. Jackson of Barre, Vermont, a Crossword solver, and Morleya€™s friend and Grillparzer crony Buckminster Fuller. Williams (died 1940), who brought his son Peter to the 1940 BSI dinner, was art director at the American Book Company, a well-known book and print collector, and an author of childrena€™s travel books. Would Smith have added Alexander Woollcott to the BSIa€™s membership list without consulting Christopher Morley? If we are met with hostility, the case will have to be argued, and I've no way of knowing how long it might take. Smith is down the table on the opposite side, not yet at its head where he soon will be for the rest of his life.
So are the signatures of two more men not named in Smitha€™s minutes, who may be among the unidentified faces in the picture: Ernest S. Following the dinner, Harry Hazard prepared a partial key to the photograph.Elmer Davis is not on it, and the face at no. Roberts as a mentor back home, found himself a Baker Street Irregular on Morleya€™s 1935 membership list. I met him when I was an undergraduate at Cambridge, attending his lectures on Samuel Johnson, but it was in publishing that he made his reputation. Spurgeon showed the kind of man Shakespeare must have been by tabulating all the metaphors and similes he used, showing him to be familiar with the countryside, gardens, and domestic animals. We thought it began one of the Collects in the Prayer Book; but we were puzzled at its having a special day.
Regis Hotel with that most generous host, Howard Goodhart, Rosenbach always had a full bottle of whisky at his place at the table, while the rest of us drank wine. But to find his way back again to his home port in Spain -- that was a demonstration of his advanced sailing skills.
From the hour of your birth he has always had a special care of you.a€™ a€? The voice continued at length and closed with a€?Be not afraid, but of good courage.
He was nicknamed Henry the Navigator because when he became an influential prince, he spear headed the drive for Portugal to hit the seas and travel to Asia.
Or perhaps the dinner a€” the date still uncertain a€” when Jim Montgomery sang a€?Aunt Claraa€? for the first time. Recently (within a year) I had the same problem on my hands - and found no American editor whatever for a Sherlockian essay which has since found place in an English Symposium or anthology issued as a book. As a charter member, I call for a prompt and continued honoring of the wise provisions of The Founding Fathers.
Weber declared himself a€?Judge Lynch,a€? his pen-name as chief mystery book reviewer in the Saturday Review of Literature. James Keddie sits next to him, and on the table nearby is the orthodox coal-scuttle he has brought from Boston.
Colling, a former New York Evening Post colleague of Morleya€™s (its movie critic, who helped turn Morleya€™s 1922 novel Where the Blue Begins into a play in 1925), and H. He attended the annual dinner for the first time in 1936, and is the only living person to have attended BSI dinners at both the Murray Hill Hotel and, before that, Christ Cellaa€™s speakeasy. He was Secretary to the Syndics of Cambridge University Press from 1922 to 1948, and more than any other one man he had brought the University Press out of the academic backwaters into the mainstream of publishing. My wife and I spent three long evenings reading four of Morleya€™s books and doing the same to him. THESE VERY SAME ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES, WHO HAVE SWORN TO PROTECT AND SERVE, OUR COUNTRY, AND CITIZENS ,ARE BUT SOME, OF THE CORRUPT,GREEDY TRAITORS .ENGAGED IN THE TYRANNY AND TORTURE. Edgar Smitha€™s affectionate zeal, not less than his Sherlockian scholarship, his gusto in pamphleteering, his delight in keeping orderly records, and his access to mimeographic and parchment-engrossing and secretarial resources, all these were irresistible. Henry Morton Robinson was a popular writer whose 1943 Saturday Review article about the BSI, a€?Baker Street Irregularities,a€? was reprinted in Irregular Memories of the a€™Thirties. Weber, had been at the 1936 dinner, and the 1940 too, despite the silence of Smitha€™s minutes on that score. Bell at the Victoria Hotel, to found the BSIa€™s first scion society, The Speckled Band of Boston. Price, the American Bank Note Company executive who had solved the Sherlock Holmes Crossword in 1934.
Davis and Hazard had been at the 1936 dinner together a€” their signatures are both on a surviving copy of that nighta€™s menu.
His a€?Profile of a New York Irregular,a€? about Basil Davenport, appeared in Irregular Proceedings of the Mid a€™Forties.
The Spanish take credit for naming the Philippine Islands for Philip II of Spain, but their competitor, Portugal, claimed that they named the islands for Philippa, the mother of Henry the Navigator.
I dona€™t suppose that any society of Amateur Mendicants has ever had a more agreeable or competent fugleman. Simeon Strunsky at the New York Times, a€?dean of grammarians,a€? as Morley liked to call him, had been on the 1935 membership list as well, though he (like Rosenbach) never attended a BSI dinner. Standing against the wall are two of Morleya€™s closest friends, Bill Hall in deerstalker, and Robert K.
He was the author of A Note on the Watson Problem, 100 copies, privately printed at the Cambridge U.P.
John Winterich was a prominent critic who had also been a colleague of Morleya€™s at the Saturday Review of Literature.
Mans-bridge lives in Connecticut, and it is an honor to publish the following reminiscence here.
Leavitt, Harvey Officer, James Keddie, Earle Walbridge, and other legendary figures from the BSIa€™s early days. He could be serious, but never solemn; the lighter side of letters and life appealed to him, and he became prominent in the affairs of both Sherlock Holmes Societies (pre-war and post-war) in England. Stone and Howard Haycraft, sitting against the wall further down, preserve a serious demeanor. He ended up with two-thirds of a column in Whoa€™s Who, and many honors: Master of Pembroke College, Cambridge, Vice-Chancellor of Cambridge University, and finally Sir Sydney. Across the table, Charlie Goodman and his brother Jack beam at the camera, while Mitchell Kennerley the bookman, who will take his own life ten years hence, studies the back of his hand somberly. Further down, Harvey Officer, soon to be the BSIa€™s first songster with his Irregular anthem a€?The Road to Baker Street,a€? smiles shyly at the camera. C.,a€? bluff, friendly but business-like, at ease in any company and in any country a€” even riding a camel in Egypt, winning a race against another one ridden by an Oxford man. The owlish bespectacled man at the bottom of the picture may or may not be Elmer Davis; across from him, Earle Walbridge makes another appearance in what will long stand as the record for unbroken attendance at the annual dinners. Basil Davenport turns toward Peter Greig, as Ronald Mansbridge raises a wine-glass in salute. The school district has moved to a biometric identification program, saying students will no longer have to use an ID card to buy lunch.A  BIOMETRICS TO TRACK YOUR KIDS!!!!!i»?i»?A TARGETED INDIVIDUALS, THE GREEDY CRIMINALS ARE NOW CONDONING THEIR TECH! Paul Weindling, history of medicine professor at Oxford Brookes University, describes his search for the lost victims of Nazi experiments. The chairman of the board at ESL a€” then proprietor of the desert wasteland in Nevada known as a€?Area 51a€? a€” was William Perry, who would be appointed secretary of defense several years later. EUCACH.ORG PanelIn a 2-hour wide-ranging Panel with Alfred Lambremont Webre on the Transhumanist Agenda, Magnus Olsson, Dr. Henning Witte, and Melanie Vritschan, three experts from the European Coalition Against Covert Harassment, revealed recent technological advances in human robotization and nano implant technologies, and an acceleration of what Melanie Vritschan characterized as a a€?global enslavement programa€?.Shift from electromagnetic to scalar wavesThese technologies have now shifted from electromagnetic wave to scalar waves and use super quantum computers in the quantum cloud to control a€?pipesa€? a reference to the brains of humans that have been taken over via DNA, via implants that can be breathed can breach the blood-brain barrier and then controlled via scalar waved on a super-grid. Eventually, such 'subvocal speech' systems could be used in spacesuits, in noisy places like airport towers to capture air-traffic controller commands, or even in traditional voice-recognition programs to increase accuracy, according to NASA scientists."What is analyzed is silent, or sub auditory, speech, such as when a person silently reads or talks to himself," said Chuck Jorgensen, a scientist whose team is developing silent, subvocal speech recognition at NASA Ames Research Center in California's Silicon Valley. We numbered the columns and rows, and we could identify each letter with a pair of single-digit numbers," Jorgensen said.
People in noisy conditions could use the system when privacy is needed, such as during telephone conversations on buses or trains, according to scientists."An expanded muscle-control system could help injured astronauts control machines. If an astronaut is suffering from muscle weakness due to a long stint in microgravity, the astronaut could send signals to software that would assist with landings on Mars or the Earth, for example," Jorgensen explained. These are processed to remove noise, and then we process them to see useful parts of the signals to show one word from another," Jorgensen said.After the signals are amplified, computer software 'reads' the signals to recognize each word and sound. Our Research and Development Division has been in contact with the Federal Bureau of Prisons, the California Department of Corrections, the Texas Department of Public Safety, and the Massachusetts Department of Correction to run limited trials of the 2020 neural chip implant. We have established representatives of our interests in both management and institutional level positions within these departments. Federal regulations do not yet permit testing of implants on prisoners, but we have entered nto contractual agreements with privatized health care professionals and specified correctional personnel to do limited testing of our products. We need, however, to expand our testing to research how effective the 2020 neural chip implant performs in those identified as the most aggressive in our society. In California, several prisoners were identified as members of the security threat group, EME, or Mexican Mafia. They were brought to the health services unit at Pelican Bay and tranquilized with advanced sedatives developed by our Cambridge,Massachussetts laboratories. The results of implants on 8 prisoners yielded the following results: a€?Implants served as surveillance monitoring device for threat group activity.
However, during that period substantial data was gathered by our research and development team which suggests that the implants exceed expected results.
One of the major concerns of Security and the R & D team was that the test subject would discover the chemial imbalance during the initial adjustment period and the test would have to be scurbbed. However, due to advanced technological developments in the sedatives administered, the 48 hour adjustment period can be attributed t prescription medication given to the test subjects after the implant procedure.
One of the concerns raised by R & D was the cause of the bleeding and how to eliminate that problem. Unexplained bleeding might cause the subject to inquire further about his "routine" visit to the infirmary or health care facility.
Security officials now know several strategies employed by the EME that facilitate the transmission of illegal drugs and weapons into their correctional facilities. One intelligence officier remarked that while they cannot use the informaiton that have in a court of law that they now know who to watch and what outside "connections" they have.
The prison at Soledad is now considering transferring three subjects to Vacaville wher we have ongoing implant reserach.
Our technicians have promised that they can do three 2020 neural chip implants in less than an hour. Soledad officials hope to collect information from the trio to bring a 14 month investigation into drug trafficking by correctional officers to a close. Essentially, the implants make the unsuspecting prisoner a walking-talking recorder of every event he comes into contact with.
There are only five intelligence officers and the Commisoner of Corrections who actually know the full scope of the implant testing.
In Massachusetts, the Department of Corrections has already entered into high level discussion about releasing certain offenders to the community with the 2020 neural chip implants.
Our people are not altogether against the idea, however, attorneys for Intelli-Connection have advised against implant technology outside strick control settings. While we have a strong lobby in the Congress and various state legislatures favoring our product, we must proceed with the utmost caution on uncontrolled use of the 2020 neural chip. If the chip were discovered in use not authorized by law and the procedure traced to us we could not endure for long the resulting publicity and liability payments. Massachusetts officials have developed an intelligence branch from their Fugitive Task Force Squad that would do limited test runs under tight controls with the pre-release subjects.
Correctons officials have dubbed these poetnetial test subjects "the insurance group." (the name derives from the concept that the 2020 implant insures compliance with the law and allows officials to detect misconduct or violations without question) A retired police detective from Charlestown, Massachusetts, now with the intelligence unit has asked us to consider using the 2020 neural chip on hard core felons suspected of bank and armored car robbery. He stated, "Charlestown would never be the same, we'd finally know what was happening before they knew what was happening." We will continue to explore community uses of the 2020 chip, but our company rep will be attached to all law enforcement operations with an extraction crrew that can be on-site in 2 hours from anywhere at anytime. We have an Intelli-Connection discussion group who is meeting with the Director of Security at Florence, Colorado's federal super maximum security unit.
The initial discussions with the Director have been promising and we hope to have an R & D unit at this important facilitly within the next six months.
Napolitano insisted that the department was not planning on engaging in any form of ideological profiling. I will tell him face-to-face that we honor veterans at DHS and employ thousands across the department, up to and including the Deputy Secretary," Ms.
Steve Buyer of Indiana, the ranking Republican on the House Committee on Veterans' Affairs, called it "inconceivable" that the Obama administration would categorize veterans as a potential threat.



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