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13.11.2014
These [drawings of the surrounding mountains] was all taken from the shape of their tops as appeared from the camp on Tuesday 24 of November, 1846.
We traveled from these hills the same direction as we had the day before, southwest, making 12 in the morning and 18 in the afternoon, making 30 miles. This morning marched 10 miles and came to these hills where we are now passing southwest direction to find a pass, if possible, for the wagons into another valley. We continued our course, southeast, until we make 20 miles and camped on another plain between the mountains on a creek in the center of the flats. We have had some beautiful plains to pass over as we have come along, but a lack of water and timber. This morning the whole guard has to go on extra duty because one man run his bayonet in a mule. We traveled until 10 oa€™clock and I got ahead of all the train and stopped and took a picture of the mountains around. There was in the evening, an Indian Chief come in and told us that we was on the right road and that last summer there was one wagon went down where we was calculating to go yesterday. Accordingly, on Sunday morning the 29th day, all hands was engaged in fixing for a pass to go into the valley. We left one wagon above and yesterday another as we was descending and we are not yet down and out of this hole that is here marked out. On the north is a hollow where water sometimes rises, putting down from the mountain into the river or creek. The weather is rather cool and the clouds are in the west, hovering over the mountains as far as you can see.
This chain of hills or mountains runs from 12 miles southwest from here to the northwest, out of sight running northwest. On the sixth day, the camp traveled through the brush for about 12 miles and passed in among the hills and I found a beautiful grove of young timber of ash and a kind of walnut, a little like black walnut and a great variety of other wood or brush which grows on the mountains and in the valleys, good to burn. This place is where the camp passed through into a small valley, where we found an old yard that we understand from one of our guides was built by the man who owned the little town we passed through. One of the Spanish drovers left and went to the Spanish settlement below here a short distance.
This is a large valley and we are calculating to descend it northwest until we come to the river Saint Padra.
I awoke and told my dream and went to sleep and dreamed that I was called up by the brethren to tell it which I did and told them I thought it was for not keeping the covenants, but use the name of the Lord, their God in vain and it had become common language to curse each other. The bottom land here is about one mile wide, with now and then a scrape of bottom much wider.
This day, some of our hunters informed me that they have seen a number of bear tracks and one was the width of his hand and length of his thumb. I understand there is a plenty of wild oxen here among these hills, which is excellent beef. These bottoms look like the best of soil in these valleys for about one mile wide, some places wider. Where our camp is, a small town called a€?Barnadenoa€™, once owned by a rich man who built it for himself.
Last night I took a view of our camping ground and saw that it was like the one we had the night before. This is the mountains east are very high, running south until they come against this camp, then they turn east rounding corner and then turns north as I have laid down on another map down the St. As curious a thing as I have seen with thorns, is the large prickly pear or water plant or tree, which is often as high as 20 feet, 16 inches over.
On the morning of the 18 of December {LNa€™s note: This day was the 32nd birthday of Levia€™s wife, Clarissa Reed Hancock. These mountains are from the left of the center line, running southeast to northwest and on the other side of the road is mountains that are as high as these on the left.
This land that we have passed between here and town is baron, desolate waste and nothing grows here and it looks like the best of land, a plenty of wood here, fires. North, half mile from the road to the foot on the right of this center line as I was facing the mountain, I took this map.
I then looked and I stood at the right hand of him and expected he would say something, but did not. I remembered a dream I had before, which was this: I saw him all alone and said I, a€?There is my fathera€? and got him by the hand and said, a€?Bless me, O my father. These mountains are those that are on the right hand and is about the same distance and height of those on the left. Along our last days travel, which is the 21 day and I am now in camp, in the borders of the Pema town or on the east side of town. This, the 22 day of December, on Tuesday morning, we left our first camping ground on the Hely and went down this river 8 miles to the Pemo village and pitched our tents. On the 24th day, I got in conversation with one of our guides and showed him my map of Hely River and the Colorado, Salt and Francisco. Marched at 10 oa€™clock from our camp and the maricopers and raveled southwest by west 8 miles, then by the end of the mountains four miles southwest then west, far enough to make 18 miles and camped on the desert on the left hand side of some hills. This is Christmas Day and yesterday there was watermelon brought in camp for sale and they was good melons, too.
I saw the Chief last night and he said that he knew who we was and some time he meant to go and see the Mormons in California. In one hollow or gully, it is said that this valley is the best of any and that here is a good place for raising any kind of grain, also anything of the fruit kind, and by the looks of the land here, it seems that a nation might be fed here as in Egypt, by watering the land which might be easily done.
Early in the morning, the old doctor came to one tent where some had been boiling beans and asked, a€?What is this?a€? a€?Beans and corn.a€? was the answer. This day I had a talk with Brother Dikes and traveled about 2 miles with him, in which time he told me that he had wanted some conversation for some time and would be glad if I would give him some council and then said that there was considerable feelings existing against him in the Battalion and he would like to do right and that he considered that I was the one to come to get council. I told him I already had that laid to me and I had had a put down for it when there never had been any cause for it and if I should give any council, it would be said again that I sought power and authority and I had concluded not to give any council to any officer, lest it should cause further jealousy. And then he said that he could clear himself of the charges that was against him and that he had defied any man to prove either Eclyseastacle or Military Law against him, for he had kept them both and when he got to the Church things he thought would be differently represented and would not appear as bad as many suppose and then asked me if I did not think that he had better be independent and do the thing strictly according to law.
This day we traveled ten miles and come to the river northwest, then turned west by north and went ten miles further and being 18 miles over the best kind of land. James Pace has now brought in a petrified bone which he wished was in the Church, which must have an enormous large animal, about 9 inches across one end, four inches the other way.
We came to the top of the hill and the mountains presented a sight and I stopped and drew the shape of them.
This day made 7 miles over the hill, down on the flats near the bank of the river near a mountain which many ascended and viewed the country and I could see the winding Hely for a long distance. While passing along down the bottoms today, I saw another prickly body of the pear or appears to be a species of the same, in another form here.
I tell the brethren to wait until they can have a hearing before the authorities of he Church and to be as patient as possible. But, thank God we have served 6 months, save eleven days and we will try to heave it as good soldiers, although our shoes are worn out, our torn clothes are all almost gone, the skins of beavers are used for moccasins. Took a northwest course for four miles and turned around a mountain and in two miles further west, I took the shape of the end of the long mountains seen a long way back.
Here the river has a bend and the valleys are not so wide as they are above, and sometimes to be narrow down below here, which is a southwest course from here and looks like the worst of going.
These hills was seen west of northwest a long ways back and sometimes the peak that is above, was west. After we had turned around here, we had to pass through the bottoms, the thickest kind of brush and small cane and cottonwood or poplar, willow and many other kinds of small brush. I have now got in camp and the course we traveled from the bluffs was a northwest course for about two miles and began to bear a little around towards the west and now we are going west and I take some peaks that I can just see on the top of a hill or mountain as we are on the bottoms.
We traveled through sand and over gravel, course and fine, until we made 12 miles and camped on the bank of the Colorado.
There is no chance for any landscape here, only on the other side and up stream is a mountain. I thought I would go and see him myself not knowing it was against orders, as I afterwards heard it was. I am now about 8 miles from our last nighta€™s camp and while on my way here I sometimes discovered something on the ground that looked like a red clear stone. Hah-yo-de-yah, is all he scrub that grows here on this desert and no grass and in the aroyohs, muskeet and a few other scrubs. This day traveled northwest by west course until we came to where men was digging a well and found water, but it was poor and but little of it and we was ordered to march on to the next, which was 20 miles ahead.
This day made 18 miles over some hills of sand and the bottoms or flats was gravel and sand.
In the hollow, when we got to the top of this hill, we saw that there was no outlet to this valley, nor inlet. Last night, one man catched up with us who had been sent back after a p low that had been left on Hely River by the commissary. Here is a vineyard that looks beautiful and I am told that there have been clusters of grapes that would weigh 14 pounds and that not uncommon. We put up, making 20 miles this day, by a good creek that would make the best of mill seats, not more than two rods to dam in between the mountains of rocks and there might be a lake formed big enough to water all the country below, but lack of building timber here.
It made me think of the storm when Joseph Smith was with us between the two Fishing Rivers, only here we had no thunder. Once I felt it in my heart and although our men, many of them had become basically wicked, He would spare them.
4 miles from last nights camp and in plain sight of the snow top mountain described here, which I took yesterday and soon after I took it, I ascended a hill and looked at the northwest and between the hills down a valley, I saw a wide extended plain and an arm of the big waters, putting up a point of land, running into the sea about northwest.
At the northeast mountains covered with snow and here it is hot and all things in bloom, birds singing and all around presents a beautiful sight. To understand ourselves it is important to understand our ancestors, and a part of them, and their heritage, lives on in us today. To the world the American Indians seemed like a forgotten people when the English colonists first arrived and began to occupy their lands. I want to give special thanks to my cousin, Mary Hilliard, for her assistance and encouragement in researching and preparing this book. Wherever possible I have tried to find at least two sources for the genealogical data, but this has not always been possible.
I have also found Franklin Elewatum Bearce's history, Who Our Forefathers Really Were, A True Narrative of Our White and Indian Ancestors, to be very helpful.
It is certainly possible that such a record may contain errors, but it is also very fortunate that we have access to this record as it presents firsthand knowledge of some of the individuals discussed in this book. 8 Newcomba€? Cpt. Sometime before the colonial period, the Iroquoian tribes began moving from the southern plains eastward across the Mississippi River and then northeasterly between the Appalachians and the Ohio River Valley, into the Great Lakes region, then through New York and down the St.
Though they were neighbors and had similar skin color, these two groups of Indians were as dissimilar as the French and the Germans in Europe.
Federations, as well as the individual tribes, were fluid organizations to the extent that the sachem was supported as long as he had the strength to maintain his position. Belonging to a federation meant that an annual tribute had to be sent to support the great sachem and his household, warriors had to be sent if he called for a given number to go to war, and strictest obedience and fidelity was demanded. Some of these federations had as many as thirty member tribes supporting their Great Sachem, although many of these tribes would be counted by more than one sachem, as any tribe that was forced to pay tribute was considered as part of that Great Sachem's federation. Any member of the society who dishonored himself, in anyway, was no longer worthy of the respect of his people.
When viewing the typical Indians of America, one would describe them as having a dark brown skin.
They wore relatively little clothing, especially in summer, although the women were usually somewhat more modest than the men. The English resented the fact that the Indians wouldn't convert to Christianity as soon as the missionaries came among them. The various tribes of New England spoke basically the same language and could understand each other well. There are many words used commonly in our language today that were learned from these New England Indians: Squaw, wigwam, wampum, pow-wow, moccasin, papoose, etc. Today there is little doubt that prior to Columbus's voyage, the Norsemen sailed to the coast of North America early in the eleventh century.
We do not have a record of all of the European contact and influence on the Indians in the early years of exploration because the greatest exposure came from the early European fishermen and trappers who kept no records of their adventures, as opposed to the explorers. In 1524, Giovanni da Verrazano wrote the first known description of a continuous voyage up the eastern coast of North America. As the fur trade became increasingly more important to Europeans, they relied heavily on the Indians to do the trapping for them. Another problem with which the Indians had to contend was the White man's diseases for which they had no tolerance nor immunity.
In the spring of 1606, Gorges sent Assacumet and Manida, as guides on a ship with Captain Henry Chalons, to New England to search for a site for a settlement. In 1614, Captain John Smith, who had already been involved in the colony at James Town, Virginia, was again commissioned to take two ships to New England in search of gold, whales or anything else of value.
Dermer wanted to trade with the local Indians of the Wampanoag Federation and asked Squanto if he would guide them and be their interpreter.
Derner was given safe passage through Wampanoag land by Massasoit and soon returned to his ship. When the Pilgrims left England in the Mayflower, their stated intent was to establish a settlement on the mouth of the Hudson River, at the site of present day New York City. The Pilgrims returned to the Mayflower and, after many days of exploration, found a more suitable location.
On March 16, 1621 the Pilgrims were surprised by a tall Indian who walked boldly into the plantation crying out, "Welcome! The Pilgrims gestured for Massasoit to join them in their fort but, he in turn, gestured for them to come to him. When the amenities were ended, the English brought out a treaty they had prepared in advance, which specified that the Wampanoags would be allies to the English in the event of war with any other peoples and that they would not harm one-another; and that when any Indians came to visit the plantation they would leave their weapons behind. After the ceremonies were ended, Governor Carver escorted Massasoit to the edge of the settlement and waited there for the safe return of Winslow. Part of Massasoit's willingness to make an alliance with the English must be credited to his weakened condition after suffering from the recent epidemics which left his followers at about half of the strength of his enemies, the Narragansetts.
In June of 1621, about three months after the signing of the treaty, a young boy from the Colony was lost in the woods. When the English could not find the boy, Governor William Bradford, (who replaced John Carver, who died in April) sent to Massasoit for help in locating the boy. That summer Governor Bradford sent Edward Winslow and Stephen Hopkins, with Squanto, to Pokanoket (Massasoit's own tribe, on the peninsula where Bristol, R.I.
From this trip of Winslow's, we learn more about the daily life of the Indians in this area. Massasoit urged his guests to stay longer but they insisted they must return to Plymouth before the Sabbath. Less than a month following this visit, Massasoit sent Hobomock, a high ranking member of the Wampanoag Council, to Plymouth to act as his ambassador and to aid the Pilgrims in whatever way they needed.
Hobomock and Squanto were surprised at what they heard, and quietly withdrew from the camp to Squanto's wigwam but were captured there before they could get to Plymouth. Although the Narragansetts and Wampanoags were historical enemies and continually feuding over land, they did not usually put hostages of high rank to death.
Normally, treason was punishable by death and Massasoit would certainly have been justified in executing Corbitant for his part in the plot against him but, for some reason, Massasoit complete forgave him. Their first harvest was not a large one but the Pilgrims were.happy to have anything at all.
During the winter, a rivalry developed between Squanto and Hobomock, the two Indians who now lived continually at Plymouth. According to the treaty he had signed with Plymouth, they were to turn over to him any Indians guilty of offense. In June and July, three ships arrived at Plymouth with occupants who expected to be taken in and cared for. In the winter of 1622-23, Governor William Bradford made trips to the various Indian tribes around Cape Cod to buy food to keep the Pilgrims from starvation.
Next, Standish went to Cummaquid (Barnstable, MA.) where Iyanough was Sachem of the Mattachee Tribe. Thinking that Massasoit was dead, they went instead to Pocasset, where they sought Corbitant who, they were sure, would succeed Massasoit as the next Great Sachem. Winslow describes their arrival, where the Indians had gathered so closely that it took some effort to get through the crowd to the Great Sachem. Since the Pow-wow's medicine had not produced any results, Winslow asked permission to try to help the ailing Sachem. Their second Thanksgiving was combined with the wedding celebration of Governor Bradford and Alice Southworth. Because of Massasoit's honored position, more was recorded of him than of other Indians of his time. Massasoit most likely became Sachem of the Pokanokets, and Great Sachem of the Wampanoags, between 1605-1615. The second son of Massasoit was Pometacomet, (alias Pometacom, Metacom, Metacomet, Metacomo or Philip.) Philip was born in 1640, at least 16 years younger than Alexander. The third son, Sunconewhew, was sent by his Father to learn the white man's ways and to attend school at Harvard. When his two oldest sons were old enough to marry, Massasoit made the arrangements for them to marry the two daughters of the highly regarded Corbitant, Sachem of the Pocasset tribe. The tribes of Cape Cod, Martha's Vineyard, Nantucket, as well as some of the Nipmuck tribes of central Massachusetts, looked to him for Military defense and leadership. Following the plagues of 1617, which reduced his nation so drastically and left his greatest enemy, the Narragansetts of Rhode Island, so unaffected, Massasoit was in a weakened position. In 1632, following a battle with the Narragansetts in which he regained the Island of Aquidneck, Massasoit changed his name to Ousamequin (Yellow feather) sometimes spelled Wassamegon, Oosamequen, Ussamequen.
In 1637, the English waged an unprovoked war of extermination against the Pequot Federation of Connecticut, which shocked both the Wampanoags and the Narragansetts so much that both Nations wanted to avoid hostilities with the feared English. After hearing of the death of his good friend, Edward Winslow in 1655, Massasoit realized that his generation was passing away.
As Massasoit's health began to decline, he turned more and more of the responsibilities over to Alexander who was a very capable leader and who was already leading the warriors on expedition against some of their enemies. Massasoit was succeeded, as Great Sachem, by his son Alexander, assisted by his brother, Philip. The younger generation saw, in Alexander, a strong, new leader who could see the danger of catering to the English.
Both Philip and Weetamoo were very vocal in their condemnation of the English and word of their accusations soon reached Plymouth.
Together, Philip and Canonchet reasoned that it would take a great deal of preparation for such a war. Immediately on their arrival at 201 McCord, these two critters entered the food-chain, by recycling table scraps; the word recycling wasn't trendy back then, although it was in the dictionary. By the time this phase had been well established-around the first of October, Mother's fall garden was beginning to flourish. By now November was nigh with shorter cooler days and of course cooler nights; the season for serious pig fattening had arrived. I think for me Hog Killing Day was the most memorable of all the recurring events of the year at 201 McCord.
The pig-sticking was critically important, blood had to be thoroughly and quickly drained from the carcass. In the meantime the heated water had reached just about the right temperature (just short of boiling), the tilted barrel filled to a level so that about half the carcass would be covered when it was plunged into the water.
After the bristles were thoroughly removed ,the tendons to the back feet were accessed and the gantline stick, only in our case a single tree was hooked around the tendons, this implement spread-eagled the carcass and with the block-and-tackle attached to it, was easily hoisted to vertical under the gin-pole or gantry. Now the butcher, down-stage-center, with his scalpel-sharp knife started, with the concentration and precision of a surgeon, and began to open the body cavity. Before the sides were quartered, (hams and shoulders detached) a lot of fat was trimmed off; there was a lot of it too. Now that the carcass had been dismantled, it metamorphosed into hams, shoulders, and ribs and another critically important phase started.
The salt seemed to be drawn into the meat rather quickly, and in the process a lot of water was driven out, that was the reason for the seep-tight surface of the table top. Dad had built a big box, about two-and-a-half by three-and-a-half feet and possibly thirty inches deep with a hinged lid A‘the box was constructed for this specific purpose.
My memory gets somewhat hazy on many of the details but I have clear and vivid recollections of heaping bowls and platters of steaming-, freshly-picked string beans, corn (on and off the cob) and sliced tomatoes and onions, all in an abundance we didnA•t even think about.
As the salting-down phase was started, another very significant production got underway: processing the fat for lard, making sausage, converting the heart and liver into edible and enduring by-products, and donA•t forget the HEAD!
The operation started with a large kettle filled with this accumulation of trimmings, heated over a slow fire so that it wouldn't scorch or burn, and allowed to simmer for a long time. These parts, heart and liver, were ground up and reduced to a single mass, then a pretty liberal amount of cornmeal was added. Now the head and feet and many miscellaneous bones that might have some meat fragments still attached were assembled into one huge pot, enough water added to cover it all, seasoned with salt and brought to a slow boil.
After this whole kettle full of stuff began to simmer along, the meat began to separate from the bones; the head still pretty much intact was a much bigger chunk and took a lot more time to cook.
There is now a rather generous sized heap of cooked meat to be dealt with, most of it in small bits. In this cooking process, to separate the bone from the meat, the water that was added had been reduced to a pretty rich meat stock and now it was all added together, put into a baking pan and into the over to cook slowly until it was firm.
I think that any of those Girls could spin a great story about those hot summer days when they were out there under the fig tree, peeling, pitting, and preparing the fruit, then into the steaming kitchen to get the stuff into the fruit jars, and all the neighbor kids were parading up the street in their bathing suits to go swimming in one the irrigation canals. The introduction of the Linnaean sexual system of plant classification in 1737 and its almost universal acceptance gave a tremendous impetus to the production of illustrated botanical books.
IN the art of botanical illustration, evolution was by no means a simple and straightforward process.
There are a number of other manuscript herbals in existence, illustrated with interesting figures. This work contains coloured drawings of exceptional beauty, which are smaller than those in the Vienna manuscript, but quite equally realistic. It is however with the history of botanical figures since the invention of the printing press that we are here more especially concerned. Botanical wood-engravings may be regarded as belonging to two schools, but it should be understood that the distinction between them is somewhat arbitrary and must not be pressed very far.
The first school, of which we may take the cuts in the Roman edition of the ` Herbarium' of Apuleius Platonicus (? The illustrations of the ` Herbarium' of Apuleius were copied from pre-existing manuscripts, and the age of the originals is no doubt much greater than that of the printed work. Colouring of the figures was characteristic of many of the earliest works in which wood-engraving was employed. The engravings in the ` Herbarium' of Apuleius are executed in black, in very crude outline. The figures in the ` Herbarium' are characterised by an excellent trait, which is common to most of the older herbals, namely the habit of portraying the plant as a whole, including its roots. We now come to a series of illustrations, which may be regarded as occupying an intermediate position between the classical tradition of the ` Herbarium' of Apuleius, and the renaissance of botanical drawing, which took place early in the sixteenth century. Das puch der natur' of Konrad von Megenberg occupies a unique position in the history of botany, for it is the first work in which a wood-cut representing plants was used with the definite intention of illustrating the text, and not merely for a decorative purpose. A wood-cut, somewhat similar in style to that just described, but more primitive, occurs in Trevisa's version of the medi?val encyclop?dia of Bartholomaeus Anglicus, which was printed by Wynkyn de Worde before the end of the fifteenth century.
The illustrations to the Latin 'Herbarius' or ` Herbarius Moguntinus,' published at Mainz in 1484 (Text-figs. A more interesting series of figures, also illustrating the text of the Latin ` Herbarius,' was published in Italy a little later. In 1485, the year following the first appearance of the Latin `Herbarius,' the very important work known as the German `Herbarius,' or ' Herbarius zu Teutsch,' made its appearance at Mainz. A pirated second edition of the `Herbarius zu Teutsch' appeared at Augsburg only a few months after the publication of the first at Mainz. In the `Ortus Sanitatis' of 1491, about two-thirds of the drawings of plants are copied from the ` Herbarius zu Teutsch.' They are often much spoiled in the process, and it is evident that the copyist frequently failed to grasp the intention of the original artist. The use of a black background, against which the stalks and leaves form a contrast in white, which we noticed in the Book of Nature,' is carried further in the ` Ortus Sanitatis.' This is shown particularly well in the Tree of Paradise (Text-fig. An edition of the `Ortus Sanitatis,' which was published in Venice in 151 I, is illustrated in great part with woodcuts based on the original figures.
During the first three decades of the sixteenth century, the art of botanical illustration was practically in abeyance in Europe.
Brunfels' illustrations represent a notable advance on any previous botanical wood-cuts, so much so, indeed, that the suddenness of the improvement seems to call for some special explanation.
The engravings in Brunfels' herbal and the fine books which succeeded it, should not be considered as if they were an isolated manifestation, but should be viewed in relation to other contemporary and even earlier plant drawings, which were not intended for book illustrations. In Italy, Leonardo da Vinci's exquisite studies of plants, of which Plate XVI I I is an example, must also have pointed the way to a better era of herbal illustration. We are thus led to the conclusion that, though the engravings in Brunfels' herbal are separated from previous botanical figures by an almost impassable gulf, they should not be regarded as a sudden and inexplicable develop-ment. The illustrations in Brunfels' herbal were engraved, and probably drawn also, by Hans Weiditz, or Guiditius, some of whose work has been ascribed to Albrecht Durer. The title ` Herbarum vivae eicones'—` Living Pictures of Plants '—indicates the most distinctive feature of the book, namely that the artist went direct to nature, instead of regarding the plant world through the eyes of previous draughtsmen.


In one respect the welcome reaction from the conventional and generalised early drawings went almost too far.
Our chronological survey of the chief botanical wood-cuts brings us next to those published by Egenolph in 1533, to illustrate Rhodion's ' Kreutterbuch.' These have sometimes been regarded as of considerable importance, almost comparable, in fact, with those of Brunfels. It is interesting to notice that, as the third part of Brunfels' great work had not appeared when Egenolph's book was published, the latter must have been at a loss for figures of the plants which Brunfels had reserved for his third volume. In the third volume of Brunfels' herbal (which appeared after his death) there is a small figure, that of Auricula muris, which differs conspicuously in style from the other engravings, and which appears to represent a case in which the tables were turned, and a figure was borrowed from Egenolph. In his later books, Egenolph used wood-cuts pirated from those of Fuchs and Bock, which we must now consider.
In the work of Leonhard Fuchs (Frontispiece) plant drawing, as an art, may be said to have reached its culminating point.
Fuchs' figures are on so large a scale that the plant frequently had to be represented as curved, in order to fit it into the folio page.
Sometimes in Fuchs' figures a wonderfully decorative spirit is shown, as in the case of the Earth-nut Pea (Text-fig.
The figures here reproduced show how great a variety of subjects were successfully dealt with in Fuchs' work. We have so far spoken, for the sake of brevity, as if Fuchs actually executed the figures himself. The drawing and painting of flowers is sometimes dismissed almost contemptuously, as though it were a humble art in which an inferior artist, incapable of the more exacting work of drawing from the life, might be able to excel. As far as concerns the pictures themselves, each of which is positively delineated according to the features and likeness of the living plants, we have taken peculiar care that they should be most perfect, and, moreover, we have devoted the greatest diligence to secure that every plant should be depicted with its own roots, stalks, leaves, flowers, seeds and fruits. How dull and colourless the phrases of modern scientific writers appear, beside the hot-blooded, arrogant enthusiasm of the sixteenth century! Fuchs' wood-cuts were extensively pirated, especially those on a reduced scale, which were published in his edition of 1545. In general character, Bock's illustrations are neater and more conventional than those of Brunfels or Fuchs.
In point of time, the illustrations to the early editions of Mattioli's Commentaries on the Six Books of Dioscorides follow fairly closely on those of Fuchs, but they are extremely different in style (Text-figs. Another remarkable group of wood-engravings consists of those published by Plantin in connection with the work of the three Low Country herbalists, Dodoens, de l'Ecluse and de l'Obel. There is little to be said about de l'Obel's figures, which partook of the character of the rest of the wood-cuts for which Plantin made himself responsible. The wood-cuts illustrating the comparatively small books of de l'Ecluse are perhaps the most interesting of the figures associated with this trio of botanists.
The popularity of the large collection of blocks got together by the publishing house of Plantin is shown by the frequency with which they were copied.
Professor Treviranus, whose work on the use of wood-engravings as botanical illustrations is so well known, considered that some of the drawings published by Camerarius in connection with his last work (` Hortus medicus et philosophicus,' 1588) were among the best ever produced. A number of wood-blocks were cut at Lyons to illustrate d'Alechamps' great work, the ' Historia generalis plantarum,' 1586-7. Among less important botanical wood-engravings of the sixteenth century we may mention those in the works of Pierre Belon, such as `De arboribus' (1553).
Some specimens of the quaint little illustrations to Castor Durante's `Herbario Nuovo' of 1585 are shown in Text-figs.
The engravings in Porta's 'Phytognomonica' (1588) and in Prospero Alpino's little book on Egyptian plants (1592) are of good quality. Passing on to the seventeenth century, we find that the ` Prodromos' of Gaspard Bauhin (162o) contains a number of original illustrations, but they are not very remarkable, and often have rather the appearance of having been drawn from pressed specimens. Parkinson's ` Paradisus Terrestris' of 1629 contains a considerable proportion of original figures, besides others borrowed from previous writers. Among still later wood-engravings, we may mention the large, rather coarse cuts in Aldrovandi's `Dendrologia' of 1667, one of which, the figure of the Orange, or Mala Aurantia Chinensia, is reproduced in Text-fig. In the present chapter no attempt has been made to discuss the illustrations of those herbals (e.g. This brief review of the history of botanical wood-cuts leads us to the conclusion that between 1530 and 1630, that is to say during the hundred years when the herbal was at its zenith, the number of sets of wood-engravings which were pre-eminent—either on account of their intrinsic qualities, or because they were repeatedly copied from book to book—was strictly limited.
At the close of the sixteenth century, wood cutting on the Continent was distinctly on the wane, and had begun to be superseded by engraving on metal. In the seventeenth century, a large number of botanical books, illustrated by means of copper-plates, were produced. In 1615 an English edition of Crispian de Passe's work was published at Utrecht, under the title of `A Garden of Flowers.' The plates are the same as those in the original work. The purchaser of ` The Garden of Flowers' receives detailed directions for the painting of the figures, which he is expected to carry out himself. As we have already mentioned, it is not our intention to deal with the books published in the latter part of the seventeenth century.
In the plates which illustrate Blankaart's herbal, a landscape and figures are often introduced to form a back-ground, and the low horizon, to which we referred in speaking of the ` Hortus Floridus,' is a very conspicuous feature.
Etching and engraving on metal are well adapted to very delicate and detailed work, but from the point of view of book-illustration, wood-engraving is generally more effective.
The History of Botanical Prints  What is a Botanical Print? The first school, of which we may take the cuts in the Roman edition of the ` Herbarium’ of Apuleius Platonicus (? The illustrations of the ` Herbarium’ of Apuleius were copied from pre-existing manuscripts, and the age of the originals is no doubt much greater than that of the printed work. The engravings in the ` Herbarium’ of Apuleius are executed in black, in very crude outline. The figures in the ` Herbarium’ are characterised by an excellent trait, which is common to most of the older herbals, namely the habit of portraying the plant as a whole, including its roots. We now come to a series of illustrations, which may be regarded as occupying an intermediate position between the classical tradition of the ` Herbarium’ of Apuleius, and the renaissance of botanical drawing, which took place early in the sixteenth century. Das puch der natur’ of Konrad von Megenberg occupies a unique position in the history of botany, for it is the first work in which a wood-cut representing plants was used with the definite intention of illustrating the text, and not merely for a decorative purpose. A wood-cut, somewhat similar in style to that just described, but more primitive, occurs in Trevisa’s version of the medi?val encyclop?dia of Bartholomaeus Anglicus, which was printed by Wynkyn de Worde before the end of the fifteenth century. A more interesting series of figures, also illustrating the text of the Latin ` Herbarius,’ was published in Italy a little later. A pirated second edition of the `Herbarius zu Teutsch’ appeared at Augsburg only a few months after the publication of the first at Mainz. An edition of the `Ortus Sanitatis,’ which was published in Venice in 151 I, is illustrated in great part with woodcuts based on the original figures. Brunfels’ illustrations represent a notable advance on any previous botanical wood-cuts, so much so, indeed, that the suddenness of the improvement seems to call for some special explanation.
The engravings in Brunfels’ herbal and the fine books which succeeded it, should not be considered as if they were an isolated manifestation, but should be viewed in relation to other contemporary and even earlier plant drawings, which were not intended for book illustrations. In Italy, Leonardo da Vinci’s exquisite studies of plants, of which Plate XVI I I is an example, must also have pointed the way to a better era of herbal illustration. We are thus led to the conclusion that, though the engravings in Brunfels’ herbal are separated from previous botanical figures by an almost impassable gulf, they should not be regarded as a sudden and inexplicable develop-ment. The illustrations in Brunfels’ herbal were engraved, and probably drawn also, by Hans Weiditz, or Guiditius, some of whose work has been ascribed to Albrecht Durer. Fuchs’ figures are on so large a scale that the plant frequently had to be represented as curved, in order to fit it into the folio page. Sometimes in Fuchs’ figures a wonderfully decorative spirit is shown, as in the case of the Earth-nut Pea (Text-fig.
We passed over the best kind of land I ever saw and came to another creek, putting down from the west into this river large enough to carry a grist mill continually and might be brought onto a overshot wheel as clear as crystal. At first I was very skeptical of this record as it was a family tradition passed down for many generations. She was very fond of her Grandmother, Freelove, knew all about her and stated on several occasions that Freelove's Mother was Sarah Mauwee, daughter of Joseph Mauwee, Sachem of Choosetown, and not Tabitha Rubbards (Roberts). Massasoit was the Sachem of this tribe, as well as being the Great Sachem over the entire Wampanoag Federation, which consisted of over 30 tribes in central and southeastern Massachusetts, Cape Cod, Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket. Welcome, Englishmen!" It was a cold and windy day, yet this Indian, who introduced himself as Samoset, Sachem of a tribe in Monhegan Island, Maine, wore only moccasins and a fringed loin skin. Since they had been weaned, they were called shoats (remember that if you are ever in a Trivial Pursuit game).
When they arrived they were maybe ten or twelve inches high and twenty inches long; more or less. Beets, turnips, mustard-greens, spinach, and other stuff I can't remember, except one leafy greens plant called RAPE, ( I'm told it is grown extensively in the northern planes of the mid-continent for the oil extracted from it's seed). The butcher's skill at locating and severing the main artery from the head to the heart verified first thing his claim to competency. Now strong backs and hands thrust this object that was rapidly being transformed from pig to pork into the very hot water, one end at a time of course, and if you got a good scald, the bristles slipped off easily with diligent application of the scraper, but clearing the head and ears of bristles and hair was a tedious chore to say the least, but the processing of this particular item, was an even more daunting task. Us kids looked on with near hypnotic stares as the mysteries of a pig's viscera began to be revealed. With the shoulders and hams off, the backbone was separated from the ribs, again with a butcherA­s saw.
It was about five feet long and maybe thirty inches wide, had a tongue-and-grove pine top to forestall seeping (plywood was not available then). The process started with a layer of shelled corn, two or three inches deep, then the meat (one layer), then another layer of corn and so on. In the trimming of the various parts, there was quite a lot of lean scraps accumulated and they were saved for sausage.
It seemed like there were always a few people around that had their own special formula that they wanted to pass on.
First, this big pile of ground meat was changed to a big pile of rolled balls; not as big as a golf ball, maybe a little more than an inch in diameter. This is where the livermush label came from I supposeA‘then a generous allowance of salt and pepper and enough water was added to about the consistency of heavy pancake batter and this was poured into a large casserole-type pan and baked in the oven until it was firm. The eyes have been removed and disposed of - - oh yes, I forgot the tongue -- I believe it had been relegated to the livermush mass. I never did adjust to chewing on those bits of gristle that I still recognized as snout and ear. Dad had built a lot of shelves down there, and I remember the snug secure feeling when we saw those shelves all loaded with those Mason jars filled with all manner of the past yearA•s bounty. Benefiting from improved printing techniques, botanical depiction in the latter half of the 18th century saw the marriage of beauty and scientific accuracy. This period saw the publication of many botanical magazines modeled on the success of William Curtis's Botanical Magazine.
The transfer of the artist's image to the printing plate was now achieved by mechanical processes, rather than the plate being worked on directly by the artist or craftsman.
The quality of the printmaking techniques used (now associated with fine art prints) and the quality of the papers will soon make apparent to the beginning collector the reason genuine antique prints (as opposed to modern reproductions) are sought after.
We do not find, in Europe, a steady advance from early illustrations of poor quality to later ones of a finer character. The Library of the University of Leyden possesses a particularly fine example', which is ascribed to the seventh century A.D. From this epoch onwards, the history of botanical illustration is intimately bound up with the history of wood-engraving, until, at the extreme end of the sixteenth century, engraving on metal first came into use to illustrate herbals. One of these may perhaps be regarded as representing the last, decadent expression of that school of late classical art which, a thousand years earlier, had given rise to the drawings in the Vienna manuscript. 1484) as typical examples, has, as Dr Payne has pointed out, certain very well-marked characteristics. Those here reproduced are taken from a copy in the British Museum, in which the pictures were coloured, probably at the time when the book was published. In cases where uncoloured copies of such books exist, there are often blank spaces in the wood-cuts, which were left in order that certain details might afterwards be added in colour. Figures of the animals whose bites or stings were supposed to be cured by the use of a particular herb, were often introduced into the drawing, as in the case of the Plantain (Text-fig.
This came about naturally because the root was often of special value from the druggist's point of view.
These include the illustrations to the ` Book of Nature,' and to the Latin and German Herbarius,' the ` Ortus Sanitatis,' and their derivatives, which were discussed in Chapters II and III.
It was first printed in Augsburg in 1475, and is thus several years older than the earliest printed edition of the ` Herbarium' of Apuleius Platonicus which we have just discussed. 57) there is an attempt to represent the tuberous roots, which are indicated in solid black. As we pointed out in Chapter II, its illustrations, which are executed on a large scale, are often of remarkable beauty. The figures, which are roughly copied from those of the original edition, are very inferior to them. They have, however, a very different appearance, since a great deal of shading is introduced, and in some cases parallel lines are laid in with considerable dexterity. The oft-repeated set of wood-cuts, ultimately derived from the ` Herbarius zu Teutsch,' were also used to illustrate Hieronymus Braunschweig's Distillation Book (Liber de arte distillandi de Simplicibus, 1500). On taking a broader view of the subject, we find that, at the beginning of the sixteenth century, there was a marked advance in all the branches of book illustration, and not merely in the botanical side with which we are here concerned. Some of the most remarkable are those by Albrecht Durer, which were produced before the appearance of Brunfels' herbal, during the first thirty years of the sixteenth century. In his work, the artistic interest predominates over the botanical to a greater extent than is the case with D Durer's drawings.
The art of naturalistic plant drawing had arrived independently at what was perhaps its high-water mark of excellence, but it is in Brunfels' great work that we find it, for the first time, applied to the illustration of a botanical book. This characteristic is best appreciated on comparing Brunfels' figures with those of his predecessors.
Many of Brunfels' wood-cuts were done from imperfect specimens, in which, for example, the leaves had withered or had been damaged by insects.
A careful examination of these wood-engravings leads, how-ever, to the conclusion that practically all the chief figures in Egenolph's book have been copied from those of Brunfels, but on a smaller scale, and reversed. It is true that, at a later period, when the botanical importance of the detailed structure of the flower and fruit was recognised, figures were produced which conveyed exacter and more copious information on these points than did those of Fuchs. 87) which fills the rectangular space almost in the manner of an all-over wall-paper pattern. The falsity of this view is shown by the fact that the greatest of flower painters have generally been men who also did admirable figure work. Furthermore we have purposely and deliberately avoided the obliteration of the natural form of the plants by shadows, and other less necessary things, by which the delineators sometimes try to win artistic glory : and we have not allowed the craftsmen so to indulge their whims as to cause the drawing not to correspond accurately to the truth.
The crowns of the trees are often made practically square so as to fit the block (Text-fig. In the original edition of Dodoens' herbal (` Cruydeboeck,' published by Vanderloe in 1554), more than half the illustrations were taken from Fuchs' octavo edition of 1545.
Many of these figures were taken from the herbals of Fuchs, Mattioli and Dodoens, but they were often embellished with representations of insects, and detached leaves and flowers, scattered over the block with no apparent object except to fill the space.
In this book there are some graceful wood-cuts of trees, one of which is reproduced in Text-fig. Some curious examples of the former, which will be discussed at greater length in the next chapter, are shown in Text-figs. We might almost say that there were only five collections of wood-cuts of plants of really first-rate importance—those, namely, of Brunfels, Fuchs, Mattioli, and Plantin, with those of Gesner and Camerarius, all of which were published in the sixty years between 1530 and 1590. The earliest botanical work, in which copper-plate etchings were used as illustrations, is said to be Fabio Colonna's ` Phytobasanos' of 1592. The majority of these were published late in the century, and thus scarcely come within our purview.
The artist is particularly successful with the bulbous and tuberous plants, the cultivation of which has long been such a specialty of Holland. The book is divided into four parts, appropriate to the four seasons, and each part is preceded by an encouraging verse intended to keep alive the owner's enthusiasm for his task.
We may, however, for the sake of completeness, mention two or three examples in order to show the kind of work that was then being done. In the latter the lines are raised, and the method of printing is thus exactly the same as in the case of type, while in the former the process is reversed and the lines are incised.
This period saw the publication of many botanical magazines modeled on the success of William Curtis’s Botanical Magazine. The transfer of the artist’s image to the printing plate was now achieved by mechanical processes, rather than the plate being worked on directly by the artist or craftsman. This came about naturally because the root was often of special value from the druggist’s point of view. It was first printed in Augsburg in 1475, and is thus several years older than the earliest printed edition of the ` Herbarium’ of Apuleius Platonicus which we have just discussed. Some of the most remarkable are those by Albrecht Durer, which were produced before the appearance of Brunfels’ herbal, during the first thirty years of the sixteenth century.
In his work, the artistic interest predominates over the botanical to a greater extent than is the case with D Durer’s drawings.
The art of naturalistic plant drawing had arrived independently at what was perhaps its high-water mark of excellence, but it is in Brunfels’ great work that we find it, for the first time, applied to the illustration of a botanical book.
This characteristic is best appreciated on comparing Brunfels’ figures with those of his predecessors.
Many of Brunfels’ wood-cuts were done from imperfect specimens, in which, for example, the leaves had withered or had been damaged by insects.
A careful examination of these wood-engravings leads, how-ever, to the conclusion that practically all the chief figures in Egenolph’s book have been copied from those of Brunfels, but on a smaller scale, and reversed. 87) which fills the rectangular space almost in the manner of an all-over ” wall-paper pattern. She obtained her copy of Zerviah Newcomb's Chronical from Zerviah's original diary, in the hands of Josiah 3rd himself. By late August, they had almost doubled in size and were ready to move on to a more pampered phase of their brief life. These rape greens were kinda favored at our table, so there was a good-sized area reserved for this particular veggie, and besides the pigs liked them; especially after Dad started baking them a bran bread, with the rape cooked in ( he had acquired a small wood stove with an oven, and did his cooking outside). That generous-sized feed trough came into itA­s own, with the water trough right there, it wasn't many days until they just sort of hunkered down on their sterns pivoting from feed trough to water trough and back.
The procedure was a layer of salt first, maybe a half inch thick, then the slab of side-meat covered completely with salt, then the other slab, again liberally covered with salt, then the two shoulders and the two hams, none of the pieces touching, all separated by a layer of salt. There were no spots that were not covered; this kept any aggressive flies or any predatory germs or bugs at bay. The shelled corn was totally dry and the kernels provided enough air-space to keep the temperature constant in the mid-sixty range. I donA•t remember the quantities by volume or weight, but I do remember what seemed to me dozens of two-quart Mason jars filled with that vital ingredientA‘lard. From this container the liquid (lard) was poured into the afore mentioned jars and the jars were capped; this very hot liquid created a partial vacuum when it cooled, making a secure seal. Barbecued ribs were not on the agenda back then so there was lean meat trimmed from them and because sausage was such a favorite much of the loin was chosen also.
My memory of the making of this particular product is very vague, might be because I never cared for it. At first glance, this doesnA•t appear to be such a daunting task, but next time you go to the fair, when you pass by the 4-H pigs, take a close look at the critters ears!!
Of course they had all the hair removed too, as well as the horny part -- I suppose we would call it the hoof. Now the snout and the ears are very different from the rest of the pigA•s connective tissueA‘cartilaginous I guess you would say -- they survived this prolonged stewing pretty much intact. Peaches, apricots, tomatoes, string beans, pears, plums, black berries and not forgetting all the varieties of jam and jelly, and then all the great preserved pork products.
Both black-and-white and color reproduction reached a standard that has never since been surpassed, largely owing to the skills developed by artists, engravers and printers, in response to the demands of the botanists. While allowing for great accuracy, the aesthetic appeal of the manual printmaking processes (woodcut, wood-engraving, intaglio engraving, and lithography) is lacking in these process prints. On the contrary, among the earliest extant drawings, of a definitely botanical intention, we meet with wonderfully good figures, free from such features as would be now generally regarded as archaic. During the seventeenth century, metal-engravings and wood-cuts existed side by side, but wood-engraving gradually declined, and was in great measure superseded by engraving on metal. Probably no original wood-cuts of this school were produced after the close of the fifteenth century. The origin of wood-engraving is closely connected with the early history of playing-card manufacture.
It is to be regretted that, in modern botanical drawings, the recognition of the paramount importance of the flower and fruit in classification has led to a comparative neglect of the organs of vegetation, especially those which exist underground. The single plant drawing, which illustrates it, is probably not of such great antiquity, however, as those of the ` Her-barium,' for its appearance suggests that it was probably executed from nature for this book, and not copied and recopied from one manuscript to another before it was engraved. The figures are much better than those of the ` Herbarium' of Apuleius, but at the same time they are, as a rule, formal and conventional, and often quite unrecognisable. Dr Payne considered some of them comparable to those of Brunfels in fidelity of drawing, though very inferior in wood-cutting. That the conventional figures of the period did not satisfy the botanist is shown by some interesting remarks by Hieronymus at the conclusion of his work. But, in 1530, an entirely new era was inaugurated with the appearance of Brunfels' great work, the ` Herbarum viv? eicones,' in which a number of plants native to Germany, or commonly cultivated there, were drawn with a beauty and fidelity which have rarely been surpassed (Text-figs.
This impetus seems to have been due to the fact that many of the best artists, above all Albrecht Durer, began at that period to draw for wood-engraving, whereas in the fifteenth century the ablest men had shown a tendency to despise the craft and to hold aloof from it. In each of his coloured drawings of sods of turf, known as das grosse Rasenstuck, and das kleine Rasenstuck, a tangled group of growing plants is portrayed exactly as it occurred in nature, with a marvellous combination of artistic charm and scientific accuracy. It is strange to think that numerous editions of the ' Ortus Sanitatis' and similar books, with their crude and primitive wood-cuts, should have been published while such an artist as Leonardo da Vinci was at the zenith of his powers. It is true that the style of engraving is different, and that, as Hatton has pointed out, Egenolph's flowing, easy, almost brush-like line is very distinct from that of Weiditz. Nevertheless, at least in the opinion of the present writer, the illustrations to Fuchs' herbals (` De historia stirpium,' 1542, and ` New Kreziterbuch,' 1543) represent the high-water mark of that type of botanical drawing which seeks to express the . 30, 31, 32, 58, 69, 70, 86, 87, 88) do not give an entirely just idea of their beauty, since the line employed in the original is so thin that it is ill-adapted to the reduction necessary here. It must not be forgotten, when discussing wood-cuts, that the artist, who drew upon the block for the engraver, was working under peculiar conditions.
30) is realised in a way that brings home to us the intrinsic beauty of this somewhat prosaic subject. He employed two draughtsmen, Heinrich Fullmaurer, who drew the plants from nature, and Albrecht Meyer, who copied the drawings on to the wood, and also an engraver, Veit Rudolf Speckle, who actually cut the blocks. Fantin-Latour is a striking modern instance, and one has but to glance at the studies of Leonardo da Vinci (e.g.
Vitus Rudolphus Specklin, by far the best engraver of Strasburg, has admirably copied the wonderful industry of the draughtsmen, and has with such excellent craft expressed in his engraving the features of each drawing, that he seems to have contended with the draughtsman for glory and victory. 55, Hieronymus Bock [or Tragus] undoubtedly made use of them in the second edition of his `Kreuter Buch' (1546) which was the next important, illustrated botanical work to appear after Fuchs' herbal. Details such as the veins and hairs of the leaves are often elaborately worked out, while shading is much used, a considerable mastery of parallel lines being shown. Daydon Jackson has pointed out that the wood-cut of the Clematis, which first appeared in Dodoens' ` Pemptades' of 1583, reappears, either in identical form, or more or less accurately copied, in works by de l'Obel, de l'Ecluse, Gerard, Parkinson, Jean Bauhin, Chabr?us and Petiver. 92, Gesner's drawings were not published during his lifetime, but some of them were eventually produced by Camerarius, with the addition of figures of his own, to illustrate his ` Epitome Matthioli' of 1586 (Text-figs.
109 and i 1o, and the Glasswort, one of the best wood-cuts among the latter, is reproduced in Text-fig.
They are poor in quality, and the innovation of representing a number of species in one large wood-cut is not very successful. In the majority of such cases, the source of the figures has already been indicated in Chapter IV.
The wood-blocks of the two botanists last mentioned cannot be considered apart from one another ; from the scientific point of view they show a marked advance, in the introduction of enlarged sketches of the flowers and fruit, in addition to the habit drawings. Plate X I X is a characteristic example, but only part of the original picture is here re-produced. The stanza at the beginning of the last section seems to show some anxiety on the part of the author, lest the reader should have begun to weary over the lengthy occupation of colouring the plates.
Paolo Boccone's Icones et Descriptiones' of 1674 was illustrated with copper-plates, some of which were remarkably subtle and delicate, while others were rather carelessly executed. As a result, there is a harmony about a book illustrated with wood-cuts which cannot, in the nature of things, be attained, when such different processes as printing from raised type, and from incised metal, are brought together in the same volume.
The single plant drawing, which illustrates it, is probably not of such great antiquity, however, as those of the ` Her-barium,’ for its appearance suggests that it was probably executed from nature for this book, and not copied and recopied from one manuscript to another before it was engraved.
The figures are much better than those of the ` Herbarium’ of Apuleius, but at the same time they are, as a rule, formal and conventional, and often quite unrecognisable. 8o), for instance, is lamentably inferior to that in the `Herbarius zu Teutsch’ (Text-fig. It is true that the style of engraving is different, and that, as Hatton has pointed out, Egenolph’s flowing, easy, almost brush-like line is very distinct from that of Weiditz. Barrows are castrated male pigs and these were Dad's preferences over the gilts, another term for young female pigs.
Their quarters were improved and their diet upgraded, the skim-milk and table scraps still held, but more grain and bran were added.
This product, steaming from his oven, looked and smelled as tempting as any oven-baked bread ever did, and even if it was pig feed I think all of us kids pinched off a sample more than once. The phrase bleeding like a stuck hog always seemed too graphic for me after my first witnessing of a pig killing.


There was a lot of leaf fat attached to the various parts, and it was carefully trimmed away and saved to be rendered with the rest of the fat that would accumulate by the time the job of butchering was done. The tenderloin was separated from the remains of the backbone and the backbone cut up into small chunks and some of these were fixed for supper. Freshly butchered meat will spoil quickly if it isnA•t refrigerated or as in our circumstances, salted. After some twelve hours or so the absorbing pretty much stopped, then whatever liquid that had been drawn out slowly evaporated.
It all lasted with no spoiling or bugs or any other noxious elements until it was used up, well into the summer. As I remember there was a big round dishpan, twenty inches or more in diameter that was heaped high by the time the trimming for sausage was finished. Now came the seasoning, a simpler formula than that used for the sausage - - mostly pepper as I remember. The development of lithography in the early 1800s allowed many botanical artists to produce their own plates, which played no small role in this artistic burgeoning. With every print in a collection there is the pleasure of establishing the name and origin of the plant, the artist and printmaker, the type of printing technique and the purpose of the publication. The finest period of plant illustration was during the sixteenth century, when wood-engraving was at its zenith. In the second phase, on the other hand, which culminated, artistically, if not scientifically, in the sixteenth century, we find a renaissance of the art, due to a more direct study of nature. Playing-cards were at first coloured by means of stencil plates, and the same method, very naturally, came to be employed in connection with the wood-blocks used for book illustration. Brown appears to have been used for the animals, roots and flowers, and green for the leaves. In this figure the cross-hatching of white lines on black—the simplest possible device from the point of view of the wood-engraveris employed with good effect. The illustration in question is a full-page wood-cut, showing a number of plants, growing in situ (Plate III). 65) is remarkable for its rhizome, on which the scars of the leaf bases are faithfully represented.
They are distinctly more realistic than even those of the Venetian edition of the Latin ` Herbarius,' to which we have just referred.
He tells the reader that he must attend to the text rather than the figures, for the figures are nothing more than a feast for the eyes, and for the information of those who cannot read or write. If internal evidence alone were available, it might plausibly be maintained that the engravings in the ' Ortus Sanitatis' and the drawings of Leonardo da Vinci were centuries apart. 66), for example, contrasts notably with that of the same subject from the Venetian ` Herbarius' (Text-fig.
Regarded from the point of view of decorative book illustration, the beautiful drawings of the period under consideration sometimes failed to reach the standard set by earlier work.
If the drawings have any fault, it is perhaps to be found in the somewhat blank and unfinished look, occasionally produced when unshaded outline drawings are used on so large a scale. It was impossible for him to be unmindful of the boundaries of the block, when these took the form, as it were, of miniature precipices under his hand. Fuchs evidently delighted to honour his colleagues, for at the end of the book there are portraits of all three at work (Text-fig. An examination of the wood-cuts in Bock's herbal seems, however, to show that his illustrations have more claim to originality than is often supposed.
The figures in earlier works, such as the ` Ortus Sanitatis,' are recalled in Kandel's dis-regard of the proportion between the size of the tree, and that of the leaves and fruits. 41, 42, 93, 94), but in some later editions, notably that which appeared at Venice in 1565, there are large illustrations which are reproduced on a reduced scale in Text-figs.
After this, Plantin took over the publication of Dodoens' books, and in his final collected works (` Stirpium historie pemptades sex,' 1583) the majority of the illustrations were original, and were carried out under the author's eye (Text-figs. The actual blocks themselves appear to have been used for the last time when Johnson's edition of Gerard's herbal made its final appearance in London in 1636.
Treviranus pointed out that one of their great merits lay in the selection of good, typical specimens as models. 51, appears also in the illustrations of a book on Simples, by Joannes Mesua, published in Venice in 1581.
Plantin's set included those blocks which were engraved for the herbals of de I'Obel, de l'Ecluse, and the later works of Dodoens. In 1611 Paul Renaulme's 'Specimen Historia Plantarum' was published in Paris, but though this work was illustrated with good copper-plates, the effect was somewhat spoilt by the transparency of the paper. The soil on which the plants grow is often shown, and the horizon is placed very low, so that they stand up against the sky. Among slightly later works, we may refer to a quaint little Dutch herbal by Stephen Blankaart, and to the ' Paradisus Batavus' of Paul Hermann, both of which belong to the last decade of the century. As showing the complete revolution in the style of plant illustration in two hundred years, it is interesting to compare this drawing with that of the same subject in the German 'Herbarius' of 1485 (Text-fig. They are distinctly more realistic than even those of the Venetian edition of the Latin ` Herbarius,’ to which we have just referred. 66), for example, contrasts notably with that of the same subject from the Venetian ` Herbarius’ (Text-fig. Garlock found on firing up the engine salst week that the timbers were too light to hold it in place, and went over to Tehachapi to haul out heavier ones.A  This will necessitate perhaps a fortnight delay, and Messrs. Bearce's Great-aunt, Mary Caroline, lived with Josiah III and Freelove Canfield Bearce for several years, listened to their ancestral stories, and made her own personal copy of Zerviah's diary supplement. Lawrence to what is now known as Lake Champlain where his party killed several Mohawks in a show of European strength and musketry. It must have been stronger than the 2% that we are familiar with today; you couldn't see through it anyhow. Where they previously had free run of the barnyard, the new quarters confined them to an approximately eight-foot-square wood floored pen. Needless to say, I do believe the pigs notched their happiness level up another peg or two with this additional refinement to their fare.
The heart, liver, and kidneys, were separated from this mass and set aside, the lungs and stomach were relegated to the offal tub with the rest of the stuff.
Ah yes I remember so well those tasty bits of meat-seasoned and cooked so artfully, floating around in pure grease in the serving bowl; tell it not in Gath!! It was necessary to turn the parts occasionally to make sure none of it was laying in this accumulated liquid. This magic mix (seasoning) was blended by hand into the meat until it was evenly dispersed. And then study all the clefts and crevasses that contribute to the make up of the creatures physiognomy -- quite hirsute. Granny, in her diligence and near fanaticism for keeping things clean and sanitary, wouldnA•t let anyone off until it was all clean and spotless. Practically every print will have a fascinating story attached to it, and the pleasure is of course in discovering these stories, while admiring the beauty of the object. They show no sign of having been drawn directly from nature, but look as if they were founded on previous work. Sometimes the essential character of the plant is seized, but the way in which it is expressed is curiously lacking in a sense of proportion, as in the case of Dracontea (Plate X V I), one of the Arum family. 3), in which the leaves are represented as if they had no organic continuity with the stem. These drawings are more ambitious than those in the original German issue, and, on the whole, the results are more naturalistic. There is often a tendency, in the later work, to make the figures occupy the space in a more decorative fashion ; for instance, where the stalk in the original drawing is simply cut across obliquely at the base, we find in the ` Ortus Sanitatis' that its pointed end is continued into a conventional flourish (cf. In some cases there seems to have been an attempt at the convention, used so successfully by the Japanese, of darkening the underside of the leaf, but, sometimes, in the same figure, certain leaves are treated in this way, and others not.
It is interesting to recall that the date 1530 is often taken, in the study of other arts (e.g. Killermann has been at pains to identify the genus and species of almost every plant represented, and has described the drawings as das erste Denkmal der Pflanzenukologie.
The artist's ambition was evidently limited to representing the specimen he had before him, whether it was typical or not. The very strong, black, velvety line of many of the fifteenth century wood-engravings, and the occasional use of solid black backgrounds (cf.
88) the fruit and a dissection of the inflorescence are represented, so that, botanically, the drawing reaches a high level. Plate XVII) to feel that the finest plant drawings can only be produced by a master hand, capable of achieving success on more ambitious lines. Some of the drawings suggest that they may have been done from dried plants, and in others the treatment is over-crowded. These figures are very much more botanical than those of any previous author ; in fact—as Hatton has pointed out in ` The Craftsman's Plant-Book '—they are beginning to become too botanical for the artist ! In certain other wood-cuts in d'Alechamps' herbal, solid black is used in an effective fashion.
55 shows a twig of Barberry, which is but a single item in one of these large illustrations. The details of the flowers and fruit are often shown separately, the figures, in this respect, being comparable with those of Gesner and Camerarius, though, owing to their small size, they do not convey so much botanical information. Two years later appeared the `Hortus Eystettensis,' by Basil Besler, an apothecary of Nuremberg. This convention seems to have been characteristic, not only of the plant drawings of the Dutch artists, but also of their landscapes. The latter, which is an Elzevir with very good copper-plates, was published after the author's death, and dedicated, by his widow, to Henry Compton, Bishop of London. The artist’s ambition was evidently limited to representing the specimen he had before him, whether it was typical or not. Also Dad liked to enhance their rations occasionally with a little helping of bran or corn.
A generous sized feed trough and a water trough took two sides of one corner so their running-around space was considerably diminished. Dad didn't think he had the competency to do the actual butchering, but there was always a volunteer who claimed to have the necessary skill. Some people saved the small intestine to use for sausage casing, and I've been told chitlins and collard greens are high on the list of favorite soul food in some circles; not so in ours. After an extended period, maybe two or three weeks, the curing was completed and ready for storage. Many of us remember her nimble fingers mixing her biscuit doughA‘she use the same technique with the sausage. It dates back to the end of the fifth, or the beginning of the sixth century of the Christian era.
They have a decorative rather than a naturalistic appearance ; it seems, indeed, as if the principle of decorative symmetry controlled the artist almost against his will. For instance, in the first cut labelled Vettonia, each of the lanceolate leaves is outlined continuously on the one side, but with a broken line on the other. Ranunculus acris, the Meadow Buttercup, Viola odorata, the Sweet Violet, and Convallaria majalis, the Lily-of-the-Valley) are distinctly recognisable. Some of the figures are wonderfully charming, and in their decorative effect recall the plant designs so often used in the Middle Ages to enrich the borders of illuminated manuscripts.
The fern called Capillus Veneris, which is probably in-tended for the Maidenhair, is represented hanging from rocks over water, just as it does in Devonshire caves to-day (Text-fig. In some of the genre pictures, Noah's Ark trees are introduced, with crowns consisting entirely of parallel horizontal lines, decreasing in length from below upwards, so as to give a triangular form.
In 1526, Durer carried out a beautiful series of plant drawings, among the most famous of which are those of the Columbine, and the Greater Celandine.
In the former the artist has caught the exact look of the leaves and stalks, buoyed up by the water. The notion had not then been grasped that the ideal botanical drawing avoids the peculiarities of any individual specimen, and seeks to portray the characters really typical of the species. It may be that Fuchs had in mind the possibility that the purchaser might wish to colour the work, and to fill in a certain amount of detail for himself. It is not surprising, under these circumstances, that the artist who drew upon the block should often seem to have been obsessed by its rectangularity, and should have accommodated his drawing to its form in a way that was unnecessary and far from realistic, though sometimes very decorative.
Fuchs' wood-cuts are nearly all original, but that of the White Waterlily appears to have been founded upon Brunfels' figure.
But, in spite of these defects, they form a markedly individual contribution, which is of great importance in the history of botanical illustration. These wood-cuts resemble the smaller ones in character, but are more decorative in effect, and often remarkably fine. A few (namely those marked in the Pemptades, Ex Codice Caesareo ) are copied from Juliana Anicia's manuscript of Dioscorides to which we have more than once referred. Camerarius often gives detailed analyses of the flowers and fruit on an enlarged scale (Text-fig. In a later book of Colonna's, the ` Ekphrasis,' analyses of the floral parts are given in even greater detail than in the `Phytobasanos.' Colonna expressly mentions that he used wild plants as models wherever possible, because cultivation is apt to produce alterations in the form.
In the paintings of Cuyp and Paul Potter, the sky-line is sometimes so low that it is seen between the legs of the cows and horses. It must be confessed that the fifteenth-century wood-cut, though far less detailed and painstaking, seizes the general character of the plant in a way that the seventeenth-century copper-plate somewhat misses. In some of the genre pictures, Noah’s Ark trees are introduced, with crowns consisting entirely of parallel horizontal lines, decreasing in length from below upwards, so as to give a triangular form. CALIFORNIA STATE MINING BUREAU, THIRTEENTH REPORT OF THE STATE MINERALOGIST FOR THE TWO YEARS ENDING SEPTEMBER 15, 1896Garlocka€™s Custom Milla€”It is at Caldwell, 30 miles North of Mojave, at 2420a€™ altitude, and has 8 stamps of 750 lbs.
I doubt that concern for their emotional state was considered at all; except as everybody knows, happy pigs are healthy pigs, and they were that for sure.
As far as I could tell though, their happiness level didn't decline with the change; the diet upgrade might have even raised it a notch or two.
Sometimes, I suppose they had reached satiation; they just lay down en route and napped for a while. He procured an Italian butcher who did all the butchering in exchange for the internal organs which our family didn't want to eat. With this phase done, the head was removed and set aside for later processing, and the carcass was split in half with a butcher's saw down the center of the backbone. You must remember, this was years, yes-even generations before the Diet Police came into ascendency. These crops lasted almost all summer and they were always seasoned with salt pork from the last winter's butchering. It is illustrated with brush drawings on a large scale, which in many cases are notably naturalistic, and often quite modern in appearance (Plates I, II, XV). These drawings are somewhat of the nature of diagrams by a draughtsman who generalized his know-ledge of the object. It has been suggested that the illustrations in the ` Herbarium' are possibly not wood-engravings, but rude cuts in metal, excavated after the manner of a wood-block. It is noticeable that, in two cases in which a rosette of radical leaves is represented, the centre of the rosette is filled in in black, upon which the leaf-stalks appear in white. We may, I think, safely conclude that the draughtsman knew quite well that he was not representing the plant as it was, and that he intentionally gave a conventional rendering, which did not profess to be more than an indication of certain distinctive features of the plant. The former is reproduced on a small scale in Plate XVI I ; it is scarcely possible to imagine a more perfect habit drawing of a plant. Throughout the work, the drawing seems to be of a slightly higher quality than the actual engraving; the lines are, to use the technical term, occasion-ally somewhat rotten or even broken. 81) give a great sense of richness, especially in combination with the black letter type, with which they harmonise so admirably.
The existing copies of this and other old herbals often have the figures painted, generally in a distressingly crude and heavy fashion. This is exemplified in the figure of the Earth-nut Pea, to which we have just referred and also in Text-figs. Whereas in the work of Brunfels and Fuchs, the beautiful line of a single stalk is often the key-note of the whole drawing, in the work of Mattioli, the eye most frequently finds its satisfaction in the rich massing of foliage, fruit and flowers, suggestive of southern luxuriance. Some are also borrowed from the works of de l'Ecluse and de l'Obel, since Plantin was publisher to all three botanists, and the wood-blocks engraved for them were regarded as, to some extent, forming a common stock. Trew published a collection of Gesner's drawings, many of which had never been seen before ; but even then, it proved impossible to separate the work of the two botanists with any completeness, since Gesner's drawings and blocks had passed through the hands of Camerarius, who had incorporated his own with them. 1o1, which is also interesting since two of the leaves bear the initials M and H, which were possibly those of the artist. The decorative border, surrounding each of the figures reproduced, was not printed from the copper. In the succeeding year, 1614, a book was published which has been described, probably with justice, as containing some of the best copper-plate figures of plants ever produced. This treatment was no doubt suggested by life in a flat country, but it was carried to such an extreme that the artist's eye-level must have been almost on the ground ! It has been suggested that the illustrations in the ` Herbarium’ are possibly not wood-engravings, but rude cuts in metal, excavated after the manner of a wood-block. The general habit of the plant is admirably expressed, and occasionally, as in the case of the Bean (Plate XV), the characters of the flowers and seed-vessels are well indicated.
In Dr Payne's own words, Such figures, passing through the hands of a hundred copyists, became more and more conventional, till they reached their last and most degraded form in the rude cuts of the Roman Herbarium, which represent not the infancy, but the old age of art. Another delightful wood-cut, almost in the Japanese style, is that of an Iris growing at the margin of a stream, from which a graceful bird is drinking. This attitude of the artist to his work, which is so different from that of the scientific draughtsman of the present day, is seen with great clearness in many of the drawings in medi?val manuscripts. Among the original figures many, as we have already indicated, represent purely mythical subjects. A page bearing such illustrations is often more satisfying to the eye than one in which the desire to express the subtleties of plant form, in realistic fashion, has led to the use of a more delicate line. 89) show that the talents of the artists whom he employed were not confined to plant drawing, but were also strong in the direction of vigorous and able portraiture.
27), here reproduced, are markedly different from those of Fuchs, although, in the case of the first, Fuchs' wood-cut may have been used to some extent. Many of his figures would require little modification to form the basis of a tapestry pattern.
In fact it is often difficult to decide to which author any given figure originally belonged.
A few wood-cuts however, which appeared as an appendix to Simler's Life of Gesner, are undoubtedly Gesner's own work. This was the ` Hortus Floridus' of Crispian de Passe, a member of a famous family of engravers. It had been thoroughly cleaned of any residuals of course beforehand and it took an hour or better to get the water up to the right temp. Uncouth as they are, we may regard them with some respect, both as being the images of flowers that bloomed many centuries ago, and also as the last ripple of the receding tide of Classical Art. For instance, a plant such as the Houseleek may be represented growing on the roof of a house—the plant being about three times the size of the building. However, the primary object of the herbal illustrations was, after all, a scientific and not a decorative one, and, from this point of view, the gain in realism more than compensates for the loss in the harmonious balance of black and white.
In the octavo edition of Fuchs' herbal published in 1545, small versions of the large wood-cuts appeared. The writer has been told by an artist accustomed, in former years, to draw upon the wood for the engraver, that to avoid a rectangular effect required a distinct effort of will.
The artist employed by Bock, as he himself tells us, was David Kandel, a young lad, the son of a burgher of Strasburg. This difficulty is enhanced by the fact that some were actually made for one and then used for another, before the work for which they had been originally destined was published.
100) in which the seedling of the Rose of Jericho is drawn side by side with the mature plant, and another (Text-fig. Like Parkinson's 'Paradisus Terrestris,' into which some of the figures are copied, it is more of the nature of a garden book than a herbal.
In the octavo edition of Fuchs’ herbal published in 1545, small versions of the large wood-cuts appeared. While waiting, the theater for the event was prepared; a shallow hole, maybe twelve inches deep was dug with one side sloped up. No one would imagine that the artist was under the delusion that these proportions held good in nature.
I t is perhaps invidious to draw distinctions between the work of Fuchs and that of Brunfels, since they are both of such exquisite quality.
At the present day, when photographic methods of reproduction are almost exclusively used, the artist is no longer oppressively conscious of the exact outline of the space which his figure will occupy. The little house was merely introduced in order to convey graphic information as to the habitat of the plant concerned, and the scale on which it was depicted was simply a matter of convenience. However, merely as an expression of personal opinion, the present writer must confess to feeling that there is a finer sense of power and freedom of handling about the illustrations in Fuchs' herbal than those of Brunfels.
For instance, the picture of an Oak tree includes, appropriately enough, a swine-herd with his swine, the Chestnut tree gives occasion for a hedgehog (Text-fig. However, merely as an expression of personal opinion, the present writer must confess to feeling that there is a finer sense of power and freedom of handling about the illustrations in Fuchs’ herbal than those of Brunfels. He further told them that Massasoit, the Great Sachem of the Wampanoags, was at Nemasket (a distance of about 15 miles) with many of his Counselors. 92) and, in another case, a monkey and several rabbits are introduced, one of the latter holding a shield bearing the artist's initials. THE LOS ANGELES DAILY TIMES, May 20, 1898THE RAND MOUNTAINThe ore from the Rand, which is milled at Garlock by the Henry, Garlock, and Visalia mills, averages considerably over $30 to the ton. Right in front of the open end of this barrel a very low sort of table-platform was put in place.
It would be as absurd to quarrel with the illustrations we have just described, on account of their lack of proportion, as to condemn grand opera because, in real life, men and women do not converse in song.
Adjacent to this area there had to be some sort of a gantry, stout and stable enough to hoist and hold a two-hundred-fifty pound plus or minus carcass.
The idea of naturalistic drawings, in which the size of the parts should be shown in their true relations, was of comparatively late growth. 29), is a highly imaginative production which clearly shows that neither the artist nor the author had ever seen the plant in question. Garlock has resided in Kern County for the past twenty years and was prominent a farmer at Tehachapi and as a miner on the desert.a€?The fact is that he was taken seriously ill with sore eyes at Garlock some six weeks ago and when the Masonic Club at this place discovered his condition the editor of the Miner drove down to Garlock with a team furnished by Mr. Burcham and brought him here to the Yellow Aster Hospital where he was cared for and treated by Dr. This was the part that Dad couldn't handle, he was always otherwise engaged at this particular instant, but he reappeared quickly and the fascinating (to me at least) event was underway. Have a Chili mill also at the same place (Garlock), with a capacity of two tons per day.KOEHN MILLTHE CALIFORNIA (BAKERSFIELD) 10-16-96Eleven tons of ore from the Butte mine, milled at Koehna€™s last week netted the neat little sum of $1700.
Two mills of ten stamps each have been running on the Wedge ore this week, one at Garlock, and the other at Koehn Springs, and with clean up tomorrow. The product of this clean will not be less than $15,000, which, with that on hand, willmake this shipment aggragate $20,000.A BENSON BROS.
Elmo and on top of that fabulously rich mine a Los Angeles company calling itself the Stein Mining and Milling Company, of which J. Although the ground is scarcely dry enough yet for good work.A  Soon the big dry washers of the Stine Mining and Milling Company at St. They are beautiful in workmanship, and at first sight would seem to be too delicate for ordinary use, but they are so nicely adjusted and so carefully fitted for the work that there is neither jar nor friction noticable as they perform their work.
The concentrators are closely boxed in all the bearings and jornals, being dust-proof, and every part when in motion, running at such slow speed that there is very little wear in any portion.
The end and top being covered in glass instead of wood, a full view can be had of the inside at anytime.
The building and room which contain the concentrators is a frame structure 18x36 feet in size and immediately adjoining on the east is the small enging room, 11x11 in which is located the two-horse power Foos gasoline engine, which furnished the power to run the concentrators, each concentrator requiring about one-eight of a horsepower to run it. Wood the inventor is here on the fround, and has had charge of overything connnected with it from the beginning.A  He is a New Haven Ct. Wood has borne all expenses and experimented entirely on his own capital.A  Believing it now to be a success he organized the Wood Automatic Dry Concentrator Company, with a capital of $100,000, and J.
2.A  Fine specimens of this ore now on view at General Manager Singletona€™s office are litterally plastered all over with free gold, and in one day recently a few men took out above $3000. They have put in a new twenty-ton wagon scale, and everything is weighed as it is shipped, and weighed again when it reaches Barstow.A  A watchman accompanies each car of ore from the time it leaves here until it is placed in charge of Mr. 30 STAMP MILL (Randsburg)THE LOS ANGELES DAILY TIMES, May 20, 1898THE RAND MOUNTAINThe ore from the Rand, which is milled at Garlock by the Henry, Garlock, and Visalia mills, averages considerably over $30 to the ton. YELLOW ASTER MINING AND MILLING COMPANYA ( Randsburg)THE DAILY CALIFORNIAN 4-16-98The Yellow Aster Mining Company has purchased the Skillinga€™s wells and pipe line , and will soon begin the erection of a mill of suitable size to do their own milling.A  The mill will not be less than thirty stamps and may be larger. Mooers, all of the Yellow Aster Mining Company, are in Randsburg for the first time in some weeks.A  Mr. Van Meter for a long time in the employee of the Union Iron Works at San Francisco.A  His first assistant is W. Van Meter has been in the employee of the company for more than two years and has planned and installed all the machinery at the different works.



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