Wood joints screw quotes,woodworking shop london,diy timber homes south africa verboten - For Begninners

18.09.2014
A, B, C, and D indicate the four panel replicates of each material type or thickness.For all tests, the thickness of panels as manufactured was used to represent the actual in-service conditions of upholstered furniture frames. Figure 3.1 shows typical images of horizontal density distribution of OSB, MDF and PB panels. Results of screw lateral resistance tests in Table 3.3 showed that the 18-mm OSB and MDF panels both had high resistances. Staple head pull-through tests showed similar trends with those observed for screw (Table 3.4).
The comparisons were performed within each test; values with the same capital letter are not statistically different at 5% significant level. The comparisons were performed between staic and cyclic tests; values with the same capital letter are not statistically different at 5% significant level.
Table 3.8 presents the results of cyclic staple withdrawal tests including classified average values according to the Duncana€™s multiple test.
Test results in Table 3.7 indicate that the 18-mm OSB and MDF panels demonstrated the highest resistances among the tested panels.
In the furniture industry, the question of non-uniform density distribution through the thickness and in the plane of the panel is of high concern, because fasteners are often driven near or in the edges. In accordance with ASTM D1037 guidelines for screw face withdrawal, screws were driven into the 18-mm OSB specimens approximately 17 mm deep, whereas in all other panels, the screws were driven through the full thickness of the panel. The face withdrawal resistance was significantly higher than the edge withdrawal for all types of panels. The screw lateral resistances of the 11-mm OSB and PB were about half of that of the other panels. The average resistance values of MDF and 15-mm OSB were the highest and those of PB and 11-mm OSB were the lowest. The average resistance of the MDF was the highest while that of the 11-mm OSB and PB panels were the lowest. The following holding capacities were analyzed: screw withdrawal, staple withdrawal, screw lateral, screw head pull-through and staple head pull-through. Classified averages of screw withdrawal for each type of panels conducted with the Duncana€™s multiple tests are also given in Table 3.7. The average resistance value of MDF panels was the highest and that of the 11-mm OSB was the lowest. The average resistance of the 15-mm OSB was the highest while that of the 11-mm OSB was the lowest. Some timbers had been saved and these were able to be used as patterns for the new body and to ensure that, as far as possible, dimensions were correct and allowed the whole body to be assembled and allow the existing doorsA  that had survived intact, to fit the new frame. Wang and Knudson (2002) examined holding capacities of nails, screws and staples by testing OSB from various mills and revealed significant variation between the panels, which was mainly due to density variation among the mills and within the panels.
In staple face withdrawal specimens, staples were driven through the full thickness, so that the staple crown was projected 13 mm above the face.
Except for the 15-mm and 18-mm OSB, there were no significant differences between screw lateral resistances parallel and perpendicular to the long axis of the panels. The 18-mm OSB had slightly low head pull-through resistance compared to the 15-mm OSB panels, likely due to lower density. In edge withdrawal, the 11-mm OSB and 16-mm PB panels showed the lowest resistances, which can be explained by the low core density of PB and the smaller thickness and therefore, the high probability of splitting of the 11-mm OSB.
Face withdrawal resistance was significantly higher than the edge withdrawal for all types of panels. Except for the 11-mm OSB, there were no significant differences between screw lateral resistances in the direction parallel and perpendicular to the long axis of the panels.
The 18-mm OSB showed a lower resistance than the 15-mm OSB panels, likely due to lower density. As well as the doors, various metal panels remained to be used and allowed measurements to be confirmed during the construction. Fakopp Enterprise (2005) advertised a portable screw withdrawal force meter with a correlation coefficient of 0.79 between the screw withdrawal force and density of solid wood.
For edge withdrawal, screws and staples penetrated 17 and 25 mm into the specimen, respectively.
This result was expected, as the edge withdrawal strength is controlled by panel core density, which is significantly lower than the face density (Figure 3.2).
For all tested panels, theedge withdrawal resistances of 11-mm OSB panels were approximately half as strong as the other panels because of splitting. Significant linear relationships between localized density and the lateral resistance of screws were found for all OSB panels in both loading directions, while the relationships were insignificant or poor for MDF and PB (see Table 3.3). For MDF panels, the correlation was not found to be statistically significant due to the low variation of the horizontal density.
In order to classify the averages of fasteners holding capacity of the panels, the Duncana€™s multiple tests were performed on the averages. The face withdrawal strength was significantly higher than the edge withdrawal strength with the exception of the 11-mm and 18-mm OSB panels, where the values were not significantly different (Figure 3.8).
For both face and edge withdrawal, MDF specimens showed the highest resistance, while 11-mm OSB demonstrated the lowest for all panel types. One possible explanation is that this cyclic load used in the tests which had not produced fatigue damage.
The average resistance of MDF panels was in the same order as that of 15-mm OSB panels, likely due to the high face and core density of the panels. When undertaking work of this nature on an amateur basis, tools required include band saw, jig saw, work bench with circular saw and a router.
For screw withdrawal tests, lead holes were pre-drilled using a drilling bit of 3.2 mm in diameter.
Indeed, this is one of the major concerns that have been identified by the furniture manufacturers using panel products. There were no significant differences between edge parallel and edge perpendicular withdrawal resistances for all tested panels. The relationship between the screw lateral resistance and localized density for all OSB panels combined which was found significant with r = 0.54. In Figure 3.4, the relationship between the screw head pull-through resistance and localized density is shown for all OSB panels combined. The differences could be attributed to the orientation of the strands and the way the testing is done for face withdrawal as strands get usually peeled off with the repeated cycles of loading and unloading.
There were no significant differences between the edge withdrawal of 15-mm and 18-mm OSB and the 16-mm MDF. The edge withdrawal resistance of 11-mm OSB was less than half that of the other panels which can be explained by the splitting associated with stapling due to the small thickness. Significant linear relationships between localized density and the lateral resistance of screws were found for OSB panels in both loading directions, except for the 18-mm OSB panels with screws loaded perpendicular to the long axis of the panel. Another explanation could be the repeated cycles of loading and unloading lead to a densification of the wood fiber underneath the screw head, which does not occur in static test.
It should be noted that in some tests, at load levels near failure, the gripping device was not able to sustain the locking mechanism of the staplea€™s legs, and one leg slipped off, while the other remained locked. The latter is not always as useful as it appears since its use requires templates and guides to be made to enable the router to be operated on the many-angled pieces of timber and hand work is often easier and quicker.
For head pull-through resistance tests, the fasteners were driven through the specimen with the head or crown flush with the panel surface (the staplesa€™ crowns were 45o to the panel edge).
There were no significant differences between edge parallel and perpendicular withdrawal resistances for all panels tested. The average staple face withdrawal resistance of OSB corresponded well with the findings of Chow et al. Also, it should be noted that in some tests, at load levels near failure, the gripping device was not able to sustain the locking mechanism of the staplea€™s legs, and one leg slipped off, while another remained locked. An example of typical load-displacement curves of the cyclic and corresponding static tests of screw head pull-through on 15-mm OSB panels is shown in Figure 3.7. There were no significant differences between the edge strength in withdrawal parallel and perpendicular to the panel long axis for all panels tested. As can be seen in Table 3.9, generally, no significant differences were found between static and cyclic screw face withdrawal resistances for all the panels.
In practice, such densification is only possible if the head pull-through resistance of screws does not exceed the withdrawal resistance of the screw shank from the main member.
Consequently, the staple was pulled out of the panel by one leg, and the overall failure load was lower than in those cases where the slippage did not occur.
The degree of finish depends always upon one's own skills, whether using machinery or hand tools.
For lateral resistance tests, the screws were centered on the width or length of the specimens and located 6.4 mm from the edge.
The 11-mm panels had the lowest face density, while the 18-mm panels had the lowest core density.
For the OSB, it was found that the average face withdrawal resistance of the 18-mm OSB was nearly 11% lower than that of the 15-mm OSB panels, suggesting that the withdrawal resistance is not linearly proportional to the penetration depth, as observed by other researchers for dowel joints (Eckelman 1969, Zhang et al.
Aside from isolated data points, the trend is clearly indicative of a good linear relationship. Consequently, the staple was pulled out of the panel by one leg, and the overall failure load was lower than in those cases where slippage did not occur. The average face withdrawal resistance of the 15-mm OSB was the highest and that of the 11-mm OSB was the lowest among the tested panels. There were no significant differences between the edge withdrawal resistances parallel and perpendicular to the long side of the panel for all tested materials except MDF. The relationship between the screw lateral resistance and localized density of OSB panels combined was found to be significant (r = 0.51). Otherwise, the screws will withdrawcompletely from the other component before the full head pull-through resistance is developed. Similarly, the work bench with circular saw is useful for ripping sheets up or cutting straight sections of timber. However, the correlation with density was weak due to low density variation in the panel.In order to provide new markets or expand the existing market for OSB, MDF and particleboard in upholstered furniture industry, comprehensive tests were conducted on fasteners holding capacity of the wood-based panels. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) general linear model procedure was performed for individual fastener holding capacities and individual types of panels on the correlation of localized density and the ultimate holding capacity. Increasing the OSB density would certainly improve the head pull-through resistance of screws, but that would also mean increasing the cost of the panels.
In fact, for screw edge withdrawal resistance in both parallel and perpendicular to the strong axis of the panel, the cyclic edge withdrawal was higher than that of the static edge withdrawal for all OSB panels. From Table 3.9, generally, lower withdrawal resistances were observed following cyclic loading in comparison to static loading for OSB panels. This phenomenon might have caused the poor correlation of the test data with the localized density of the panel.Examining the cyclic staple head pull-through resistance of the 15-mm OSB and PB specimens, it was evident that the resistance under cyclic loading was higher than that of the static one. The curves in the "A" and "B" posts prevent the bench being of much use with the shaping of these pieces.Whilst these notes detail the full body reconstruction, normally only selected areas require repair.
The highest density and the least variation in density between the face and the core were observed in MDF.


The correlations for staple edge withdrawal resistance of 18-mm OSB were also significant, while the other panels showed no or very weak relationships (see Table 3.4).
Figure 3.4 Screw head pull-through resistance of OSB panels in relation to average localized density. This could be related to the densification of the wood strands due to the repeated cycles of loading and unloading.
For MDF panels, the correlation could not be proven statistically significant due to the low variation of the horizontal density. Since the core density of these panels was similar to the other panels, the low edge withdrawal resistance can be explained by the smaller thickness and high probability of splitting. The correlation was relatively weak between staple face withdrawal resistance and localized panel density of all OSB specimens (r = 0.38).
The relationship between the screw head pull-through resistance and localized density for OSB panels combined was relatively weak (r = 0.48). One could assume that the potential increase in the staple head pull-through could be attributed to the localized densification of the wood fibers underneath the staple crown that occurred due to repetitive loading and unloading. Parts for small repairs can be measured against a similar section on the opposite side of the car whilst a full rebuild will require dimensions to be taken from a similalrly bodied car if possible. Each of the four replications was obtained from a different panel manufacturer.At first, mapping of the horizontal (in-plane) density of panels was carried out to determine in-plane density variation and to identify where fasteners should be located within the plane of the panel. A data base of the fastenersa€™ face and edge withdrawal, head pull-through, and lateral resistance under static load was developed, and correlations between fasteners holding capacity and the localized panel density were examined. More research is needed in this area with an increased number of cycles to determine if the effect persists. We could not find any explanation as to why such phenomenon was associated with the 15-mm thick OSB and PB but not other OSB or MDF panels. Be aware, however, that coachbuilding techniques did not usually allow for interchangeable parts and whilst each side of the car is similar, there may be small differences in measurements from one side to the other. Smaller differences were found between face and edge withdrawal resistances of MDF due to a more uniform vertical density profile. For staple edge withdrawal resistance parallel to the long panel axis, the relationships were significant for OSB panels but not for MDF and PB. The relationship between staple head pull-through resistance and localized density was statistically significant except for the MDF (see Table 3.8). Coachbuilding techniques usually called for two men to build a body each dealing with one side of the car and assisting each other where that was necessary. The panels were scanned with a 5-mm resolution, the data were further processed to produce a coloured contour image of the density distribution with a final resolution of 12.5 mm, and the final images were printed out with a 25-mm square mesh. For PB, the face withdrawal strength was approximately 14%, 17%, and 8% less than that of MDF, 15-mm and 18-mm OSB panels, respectively. The density of MDF panels varied the least, which generally led to a more uniform fastener holding capacity.Generally, fasteners driven in low density zones fail at lower load levels than those driven in high density zones.
However, other parameters associated with the load-displacement relationship could be established to identify the difference between the static and cyclic behavior of fasteners, for example, the initial stiffness, the slip or fastener movement in the panel specimen at a certain load level or at ultimate load. However, for perpendicular direction, the correlation was only significant for the 15-mm and 18-mm OSB and MDF panels. Both had to work from drawings and it was expected that dimensions would never be more than one quarter of an inch different between sides.
Oriented strand board (OSB) of three different thicknesses, medium density fiber board (MDF), and particleboard (PB) were tested for screws and staples withdrawal from face and edge, head pull-through, and for screw lateral resistance. To determine the vertical density profiles across panel thickness, twenty-four 50-mm square specimens were cut from each panel. The average face withdrawal capacities of tested panels corresponded well with the previously published data (Table 3.1). Therefore, the panels with higher density and less density variation are beneficial for fastener performance.
ANOVA was carried out to verify if a relationship exists between the screw face and edge withdrawal resistances and the localized density of the panel.
Generally, this meant that, for example, if the distance from the A-post to the C-post was 60 inches, it would be this, within the quarter of an inch plus or minus but the doors might be found, within this dimension, to be slightly different in lengths between sides and this has to be taken into account when doing repairs, of course.
These specimens were selected to cover the entire range of horizontal density distribution within the panel. Another aspect of making repairs, rather than building a complete body or part of one is that a new section has to be fitted within the already established metal skin - where the skin is panel-pinned to the timber, these pins have to be pulled out and the metal pulled away from the wood enough for the new repair timber to be fitted when the metal is tapped back into position and pinned into place.
Test results indicated that in the OSB panels, density variation had a significant effect on the screw withdrawal, head pull-through, and lateral resistances, but the effects were less evident for the staple withdrawal and head pull-through. Increasing the OSB density would certainly improve the staple head pull-through resistance, but that would probably mean increasing the cost of the panels.
Splicing in repairs such as this can seem far more difficult than building the complete body from scratch, except that it is much quicker - and in the long run easier - to repair than rebuild.It is recommended that a full-size drawing be made of the parts or, in the case of a full rebuild, the actual body itself.
For PB, density variation had a significant effect on the screw withdrawal and head pull-through resistances, but the effects were less pronounced for screw lateral resistance, staple withdrawal and head pull-through. All panels were tested in bending as received, and the moisture content (MC) was measured following testing.
Note that Wang and Knudson (2002) glued two or three panels together for edge withdrawal, required by ASTMD1037 standard to reduce the chance of splitting, while our tests were performed using a single panel thickness causing high possibility of splitting.ANOVA statistical analysis was carried out to examine the relationship between the screw withdrawal resistance and the localized density of the panel. This could be attributed to the uniformity in the MDF localized density as less variation is usually found in the horizontal density distribution of MDF in comparison to OSB or PB panels.
This latter will require a sheet of drawing paper to be cut measuring ten feet six inches by four feet six inches and pinned to a suitable flat area. For MDF, no significant correlations were found; this could be attributed to the low density variation in these panels.
Sixteen 50 x 76 mm samples were randomly cut from each panel to determine MC according to ASTM standard D4442 (ASTM 2003c) Method B.
For edge withdrawal of screws under cyclic load, the relationship was found to be significant for all OSB panel specimens perpendicular to the long axis of the panel, while for the parallel direction, the relationship was only significant for 11-mm and 18-mm OSB (Table 3.7). For the cyclic loading regimes used in this study (90 cycles at different load levels), no significant differences were observed between static and cyclic behavior in terms of ultimate fasteners holding capacity with few exceptions.
The data will be used for the optimization of furniture frames, and to provide recommendations to the panel industry on the use of the fasteners with their products. For each type of fastener holding capacity test, ten samples of 76 x 151 mm were cut from each panel in such a way to cover the full range of density zones identified by colors. There was a good correlation between screw face withdrawal resistance and localized panel density of all OSB specimens with r = 0.54. Localized densification of wood fibers could be attributed to increasing fasteners capacities for certain panels and fasteners combinations following repeated events of loading and unloading. There was a relatively good correlation between screw face withdrawal resistance and localized panel density of all OSB specimens (r = 0.59). Lower values of cyclic capacity for other combinations could be associated with the fatigue effect. Individual timbers can also be reproduced from these sheets to the actual shape that will fit correctly with all the appropriate angles and shapes.
With the development of CNC technology, wood-based composite panels are becoming a good alternative for solid wood.
In order to better understand the fatigue response, different loading regimes with increased number of loading cycles are needed. Where existing parts such as doors are available for fitting, the drawing should include the actual measurements of the doors so that they will fit the body on completion.Joints are generally of the halving joint type that gives a solid joint but allows some flexibility in the structure, this being a design requirement. CNC technology also allows for efficient and versatile designs of frames with fewer parts replacing redundant and bulky hardwood components (APA 1997).
The tests were conducted in accordance with ASTM standards D1037 (ASTM 2003a) and D1761 (ASTM 2003b). Further analysis of the load-deformation relationships including initial stiffness and deformation at a certain load level can be used to better characterize the cyclic behavior of the fasteners.Increasing panel density would improve the fastener holding capacity. The difficulty in making some of the joints is primarily due to the different planes in which the timbers come together, making measurements difficult to work out.
Power-driven screws and staples are two of the most frequently used types of fasteners for joining framing members in upholstered furniture due to their quick and easy installation. Table 3.2 Sampling plan to evaluate the static performance of fasteners in wood based panels.
However, reducing the variation in localized density by producing panels with more consistent and uniform density distribution for use in the upholstered furniture industry could be more effective and possibly more economical for improving the fastener holding design values of the panels. A comprehensive knowledge on the performance of these fasteners in panel products is necessary for the best use in these applications.
The joint then becomes stronger but flexing of the chassis and body will transfer movement from the glued joint to another and may well cause problems in due course. Performance standards for structural-use panels (OSB and plywood) provide requirements for lateral and withdrawal capacities for nails but not for screws or staples. Screw withdrawal capacities from face and edge of MDF and PB have been published by Composite Panel Association (CPA 1999 and 2002). Time cost money and time to paint the internal wooden parts was an unaceptable delay in time and added cost.
Technical Note E830A published by APA a€“ The Engineered Wood Association (APA 1982) provided ultimate lateral and withdrawal loads for plywood-to-metal and plywood-to-plywood edge connections for screws in structural applications. This article presents results of cyclic tests, and comparisons are made with the static test results reported in Part 1. Repairs to a body should well include painint exposed timber sections to reduce the influx of water where appropriate.
Based on limited number of tests, APA (1993) issued interim recommendations for adjustment of these values for APA-trademarked OSB.Fastener holding capacities of different wood-based panels have been measured by several researchers in the past (Chow et al. Similar to static tests, cyclictest data indicated that density variation in OSB panels had a significant effect on the screw withdrawal, head pull-through, and lateral resistances, but the effects were less evident with the staple withdrawal and head pull-through.
For PB, density variation had a significant effect on the screw and staple face withdrawal and head pull-through resistances, but the effects were less pronounced for screw and staple edge withdrawal, and screw lateral resistances. Table 3.1 shows screw and staple holding capacities for some panel products found in the literature.
For MDF, no significant correlations were found, likely due to the low density variation in these panels.
The data will be used to provide recommendations to the panel industry on the use of fasteners with their products and to optimize furniture frames.
With the development of CNC technology, composite panels have a good potential to replace solid wood in upholstered furniture frames. The old glues failed over time and also attracted woodworm!The A-post is generally at a 15 degree angle - this is, therefore, the angle for the windscreen and the front door timbers but should be checked since coachbuilding techniques allowed this angle to vary slightly from car to car.This view shows the car, chassis number 100389 at the stage reached in Feburary 2002. However, the suitability and performance of traditional fasteners used in panel products for such applications is not well studied yet. One of the concerns is the variation and non-uniformity in the density distribution across the thickness and in the plane of the panel, and how it could affect the holding capacity of fasteners. The vertical member of the sill is bolted withcoachbolts to the three brackets which are located close to the A and B-post brackets and just forward of the base of the rear wheelarch timber.


Available reference values are based on static tests, while limited information is found about the density effects on fastener holding capacities in wood-based panels under cyclic loading conditions.Few studies were conducted on the performance of wood or wood-based material assemblies under cyclic or fatigue tests using different test protocols.
This latter mounting corresponds to the C-post pillar that is attached to the wheelarch itself near the top of the arch.The A and B-posts themselves are reinforced with solid, half round metal brackets bolted to the top of the chassis outrigger brackets and screwed to the inner faces of the A-posts.
The B-posts are attached to the chassis brackets just aft of the bend in the chassis so that the front door rear face, being the hinge pilar for the door, is angled to accept this position. 1980) were used to evaluate the fatigue properties of wood butt joints with metal-plate connectors (MPC) in timber.
The front and rear doors' outer skinsA describe a slight curve in the horizontal plane between the A-post to the C-post , the line starting at the radiator shroud and continuing along the bonnet, through the scuttle area and doors to the rear of the boot surround. This is also the line of the swage that is picked out by aluminium beading from front to rear. A curvature is also apparent in the vertical plane most noticably on the B-post where the doors curve inwards at their bottom edges and again at the top to the top rails of the body.
Typically, in the furniture industry, long-term fatigue loading is carried out using a large number of non-reversed loading cycles (25,000 cycles on each load level depending on the performance acceptance level) with an average rate of twenty cycles per minute (GSA 1998).
This performance test regime is based on a zero-to-maximum (one sided or non-reversed) cyclic stepped fatigue load method rather than a static or constant amplitude cycling load method (Eckelman 1988b).
The original Crossley parts were made from solid ash and steam bent to shape before trimming to the curve of the rear side of the car. However, it is likely that only a part of the arch may need repair and this can be done using three millimetre bending plywood (or one eigth of an inch), fitted together in layers using a modern epoxy two-pack adhesive. This study is part of a broader research program to examine the localized density effects on fastener holding capacities in wood-based panels. Making the whole arch is as easy as making a section since the metal edge of the body can be used to provide the curve needed to construct a pattern in plywood. This paper presents cyclic test data and it complements the static test results reported by Wang et al. If only a short section of repair is needed, then only that area needs to be reproduced in the jig. The wheelarch shape should be marked on a sheet of plywood and two pieces cut to this shape.
The key objective of this study is to evaluate the holding capacity of screws and staples in commercial wood-based panels under cyclic loading in comparison with the static loading.
The paper also discusses the correlation between the fastener holding capacity and the density distribution in panels. These pieces are then joined together with blocks of timber about one inch square and three inches wide. On the inner rim of the connecting block, on one of the plywood sheets, an aperture of about one inch square (or larger, depending on the clamps being used) should be cut to allow the top end of the clamp to grip the block. The clamps will hold the bending plywood in place against the shape of the wheelarch whilst the adhesive is curing. About twelve clamps will be required, at least three being of a suitable size to cover the widest part of the arch - sash clamps being the type- the remaining nine can be "G" clamps. However, for cyclic loading, the jigs were modified to allow for loading and unloading cycles without slack and a constant rate of loading was applied (load-controlled test).
This allows the clamping force to cover the whole length of the arch for a solid unit.The bending plywood sheet needs to be cut into three inch wide lengths from a sheet of about eight feet by four feet, each piece being eight feet long.
Set-ups used for the static and cyclic screw lateral resistance tests are shown in Figure 3.5. Fasteners were driven in panel specimens following the same techniques as described in Wang et al.
Each strip is coated with adhesive and placed against the template and held loosely in the clamps until all eight strips are in place when the clamps are tightened. Each strip should be level at the front end of the wheelarch template so that the uneven ends will be at the ear where they will be cut to size on completion.These views show the pattern in the shapes of the wheelarch curve withstrips of bending ply for the wheelarch alongside. Prior to cyclic testing, specimens were subjected to static monotonic loading, and results were reported in paper Wang et al. In front is the first wheelarch removed from the pattern after the adhesive is fully cured.The lower picture shows the bending ply strips on the pattern and clamped with six"G" clamps and three sash clamps.
The sash clamps go across the whole pattern structure and provide a solid base for the new arch.
The ultimate reference load (Pref) for each specific test (see Table 3.6) determined from the static tests was used to calculate the load levels needed for the cyclic stepped loading. About 24 hours is usually sufficient to modern two-pack adhesives at reasonable temperatures. If the timbers at each end of the wheelarch are in good condition, then these will be a good guide for cutting to length. The load rate was adjusted to produce 15 cycles per minute, in order to finish 90 cycles in six minutes to meet average static tests.
Where there is little to provide this guidance, then the full size drawing will assist at this stage.The wheelarch is about three inches wide at its widest point but will need to be shaped to follow the body curvature in the vertical plane - after it has been cut to length as detailed below. The cyclic loading regime used in this study is referred to as a short-term fatigue to distinguish it from a typical fatigue type of loading which is usually carried out with a large number of loading and unloading cycles until failure occurs. Fixing will depend on the joints on the remaining existing timbers but there may well be metal brackets to reinforce the joints.
Due to the long time needed to perform a single test following the General Service Administration (GSA 1998) procedure, it was decided to carry out the short-term cyclic test that lasts approximately six minutes. On the Crossley Motors body, a block of timber joins the rear of the wheelarch to the boot side frame whilst other builders use a metal bracket in a "horseshoe" shape to join these sections. The front joint, where the wheelarch meets the rear of the sill is usually a butt joint with screws andA metal brackets to secure the joint. With the drawing on a level surface, place the rear door on the drawing in line with the sill and B-post and place the new, un-cut wheelarch in place until it follows the line of the rear metal body behind the C-post and then check that the wheelarch follows the curved line of the rear door. When the wheelarch is in line with these points, both the sill and rear ends of the arch can be marked for cutting.
Here, a section can be spliced into place to cpver the bottom twelve inches - or whatever is required - of the post to the sill.
The A-post has the most complicated shape due to the angle of the sills and the curvature of the body.
On the B-post, the angles on the front and rear faces are similar, being wider on the interior side to accommodate the door tapers. When setting out the complete rebuild of the body, without other references, care must be taken to ensure that the A-posts are at the correct angle for the door front adges - usually 15 degrees - and the line of the lower windscreen base allows space for the steering wheel to be turned without the drivers' knuckles being too close to the windscreen or sill. The side panels are of metal with folded edges that bolt or screw to the top of the main sills and then screw to the scuttle side frames for added support and strength. The angled base of the tool box section against the front panel of the scuttle should be cut accurately to ensure a strong unit. Internally, the tool boxes are divided by a vertical panel on top of which is a thin panel fitted between the two lids.
The bottom of the tool boxes is a sloping panel, the angle being shown by the line of screws on the side panel - this allows the front passengers' feet to reach the toe board.
Sliding locks will be fitted to the tool box lids once the car is finished and the panels painted matt black. No lights were left with the car when purchased so these are being sought during the rebuilding period.The lower view shows the lock, door window winder and door handle used by Ruskin Motor Bodies for the Regis. It shows the difference in locking systems, the Crossley body having locks fully recessed into the door frame as opposed to being added to the interior face. Similarly, the Crossley body windows operate on the "balanced" principle that requires no winding handle, the Ruskin type being the normal one requiring a handle.
The doors and rear metal panels covering the sides of the boot and wheelarches were available so that the timber frame could be made to enable these items to fit into it. This is the reverse of normal bodywork procedures where the frame is first made and the door frames made to fit then all the body is "skinned" - that is, the metal cladding is fitted to the frames of body and doors. During the construction of the body, therefore, it was necessary to consider the position of the rear panels so that the distance from the scuttle to rear was maintained with doors fitting the new frame with appropriate clearance around the door frame and main framework. The rear window frame was made early in the rebuild but was fitted only at a later stage since it was found that the roof panel that covered the rear of the roof (turret) and the side to the windscreen top rail did not reach as far as the windscreen top rail.
It was realised that the rear window frame was supposed to lean forward at a ten degree angle - it had been fitted vertically - and the C-posts were supposed to lean forward at a four degree angle, not vertically.
These small changes made a great difference to the body as did the height of the rear window frame.
Modern straps may be of different thickness from the original part and the slots must be adjusted to accommodate them. On the front doors, the check strap is anchored on the B-post and slides through the slot in the rear vertical frame of the door with a "stop" on the end of the strap within the door to prevent it from coming free. This strap is secured underneath the reinforcing bracket that holds the B-post in place on the chassis outrigger bracket.On the rear doors, the strap is not anchored at either end.
Within the door, the strap has a "stop" or rod through the end to prevent it coming free and slides in the rear frame slop of the door but also slides in the slot of the C-post, again with a "stop" on the end.
Inside the area behind the C-post is a metal plate between the strap and the outer panel to stop the metal "stop" fro damaging the outer skin should it twist at any stage of its operation.On all the doors, the hinges also provide a backup system since the hinges have a "return" on them that prevents the hinge from opening more than the ninety degree position.
This arrangement on the hinges will not, of course, hold the doors that open if the vehicles is in motion since the speed of opening would pull the hinge flap out of its screw fastenings. Ensure that the doors are positively closed when driving!The boot lid is also held in the open position by long leather straps fastened to the boot lid edges and the top frame of the boot aperture.
Wiring connection details are basically the same as the later CJR3 unit as shown in the wiring list on this site. The CVC unit is mounted o a wooden frame on the tool box front and not directly to the tool box. Areas of aluminium that are missing will have to be replaced with new aluminium and joined to the older panels.A All the wings will be fitted and the bonnet and running boards made by a professional company beforeA the wings and running boards and bonnet are removed for painting. Gallery 1 Gallery 2 Gallery 3 Gallery 4 Gallery 5 Chassis List Handbook Instruction Manual Specification.
The degree of finish depends always upon one's own skills, whether using machinery or hand tools. The front and rear doors' outer skinsA describe a slight curve in the horizontal plane between the A-post to the C-post , the line starting at the radiator shroud and continuing along the bonnet, through the scuttle area and doors to the rear of the boot surround. When setting out the complete rebuild of the body, without other references, care must be taken to ensure that the A-posts are at the correct angle for the door front adges - usually 15 degrees - and the line of the lower windscreen base allows space for the steering wheel to be turned without the drivers' knuckles being too close to the windscreen or sill.
The bottom of the tool boxes is a sloping panel, the angle being shown by the line of screws on the side panel - this allows the front passengers' feet to reach the toe board. Once the paintwork is complete, everything will have to be re-assembled.A At least, the end is in sight!Copyright 2009 Crossley Regis.




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