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The saw is more or less already prepared for a particular task by now, the shape established at the dressing stage with, say, a more aggressive hook for rip sawing. The method is to work back to the handle for the first run, then swing the saw horse through 180° to work the fronts of the remaining teeth.
Although the jointing and topping procedures are needed to keep the saw in good nick, you should be able to file the saw for a number of times simply touching up the teeth as needed without the need for the first stages.
The set will need to be reintroduced, and you may find that you have overset the saw or it cuts a little rough. On crosscut sharpened saws, a good test for sharpness is to lightly drag your fingers over the teeth.
Of all the things you need for good filing of a saw, good light and good eyesight are essential. On a bigger saw it’s not such a problem if you are failing slightly in the optical department, but even good eyes can struggle on the finer saws.
I can still spot them pretty well, but I often touch the tips on finer backsaws in with a marker pen.
The other hand is used to control the action as you push, keeping it tracking straight and true through the stroke.
I’ve seen corks or blocks of wood used both to hold the file end for more comfort, or with a flat on them as a guide to indicate the file is still at the right angle.
The traditional method is to sharpen alternate teeth each side at a time, but I usually sharpen all from the same side. A college technician showed me how to file all from one face, working each tooth as you go, bringing each tooth up to its sharpened point and bevel, working both the forward facing and the away teeth.
Once you get into a routine, the control of the file becomes more natural, you maintain the file pitch, you do have to swing the file for the bevel angle when crosscut filing though. Tenon saws are arguably in equal supply, though for good quality there is limited availability. The thing is, whether you opt for an old or new saw, owning one is of little use if you can’t keep it sharp. In my experience, saw doc’s invariably put on a machine filing setup, which never produces as good results as a hand file touch-up.
A low tooth here or there won’t be overly problematic, but just one high one will cause the saw to jump and judder in the cut.
Categorising joinery and cabinetry saws calls for two distinct groups of handsaws and back saws, though there are variations within each group. As for handsaws, there are three distinct styles – rip, crosscut and panel, and if you think about table saws the same principle applies with either the machine itself or the blade used designed to similar ideals. There are a few considerations when determining how a saw performs, including pitch (or rake) of the tooth, the bevel and the set worked upon it. The pitch of the tooth is taken from the angle at which the front of the tooth addresses the work. A saw in good nick won’t require this first stage if you are simply touching up the teeth, so you can skip straight to the setting and sharpening stages. Holding the file on a block of wood held against the saw side will keep the file flat or you can splash out on a specialist file holding jig such as the Veritas one that ensures the topping is perfectly square to the blade every time. A topping cut is usually needed and a fair few touch-up filings will be done to bring it back into check. On a new saw, these tops or shiners should all be identical so you can practice simply filing them back out. Pliers work on a tapered anvil with a step graduation to not only alter the amount the tooth is bent or set, but also the height on the tooth. Hand setting with a punch and hammer on a block is a traditional method, but it’s an experienced hand that knows how to do this consistently without damaging the blades.
The plain circular board for the stool top requires three mortises in the underside to accept the tenoned legs. Even the cheapest of routers usually comes with a trammel point and possibly a dedicated bar as well. Question: Can I do most routing operations freehand, as it seems easier, or should I invest in a router table?Answer: Can I do most routing operations freehand, as it seems easier, or should I invest in a router table? Unless otherwise stated, all content is © Copyright 2011 GMC Publications LTD or licensed for use by GMC Publications. Forming color breaks- A color break is when two or more different colors of wood meet and are glued together as one piece. Bonding risers to project pieces- Risers are used to make a piece higher than surrounding pieces without using thicker wood. Intarsia is created by selecting different types of wood, using its natural grain patterns and colors to create the different colors in the pattern. Kathy first began designing Intarsia Patterns for her father-in-law (Phil MacDonald) over 13 years ago. Satellite City has been supplying instant glue, commonly known as CA glue, to professionals and hobbyists in a multitude of fields since 1970.
Add to EJ Playlist  Here are 8 handy hacks for woodworkers, handymen, and home owners. A simple, easy to build holder that converts a regular belt sander into a stationary sander. Add to EJ Playlist  If you hadn't guessed it from the title, this video brings you through the creative process of my crafting automata, specifically the three Cutie Mark Crusaders sold at the Cutie Mark Convention charity auction in Cincinnati.
Add to EJ Playlist  This is a homemade 2 flute ACME Tap I made for creating threaded holes. During the construction of my Split-Top Roubo Workbench (which is nearing completion), I was surprised to see Benchcrafted's plans calling for numerous tapped threads.
Add to EJ Playlist  How To Build A Lathe woodworking video educates you on the design process in building a foot powered treadle lathe using no power tools It is the sequel to the video "The Foot Powered (Treadle) Lathe".
Add to EJ Playlist  How to know what pallets are safe to use for your diy projects and which ones are not safe. Add to EJ Playlist  I needed a small Saw Router Bit to cut grooves in some toy wheels I'm making. Add to EJ Playlist  Build a simple cross-cut sled for making square accurate cuts at the tablesaw. Learn how to create a pair of earrings, a pin, a barrette, and a necklace with agate and beads, and various ways to embellish these projects. You must have JavaScript enabled in your browser to utilize the functionality of this website. This exciting new book from Angie Scarr presents a voyage of discovery and inspiration for all miniaturists to delve into. About the Author Angie Scarr is a highly regarded miniaturist, well-known in the UK, Europe, and US for her intricate polymer clay work.

If you are not completely satisfied you can cancel your subscription or return your book, magazine or DVD at any time for a complete refund. However, there are still various sharpening options available to adapt the saw even further. You can then simply count the strokes on each tooth, as it’ll usually only be two or three passes to get the bevel.
A crosscut saw is done in an identical manner, but you have to swing the file across at an angle to introduce the point of the tooth. The burrs from the file can cause roughness, although they should snap away as the saw is used.
The V profile formed by the set and the bevel filing will cradle it, and as you tilt the saw, it should slide from one end to the other running along the gullet line if your filing is uniform. Natural daylight is best if possible, but if you use a light, try and get it above or in front of you. If you can get hold of a magnifying lens on an extendable or flexi arm, these help massively to see what you are up to allowing you to pick out any remaining shiners you may have missed. By resting the index finger of the hand holding the file handle along the top of the file, you can control the file angle for the rake, the index finger supporting and holding the angle.
The index finger and thumb hold the file at the end and this can, after a while, start to become uncomfortable.
For me, the tactile feel of the file is where the control is, so I never bother with additional bits on the file ends. The file handle is lowered so you’re filing uphill as it were, along with a bevel as well.
It does mean the file will work against the set as you file the teeth towards you and on a bigger toothed saw, it can jar as you do so. The use of marks on the saw chops certainly help here, you can see exactly where you are going. Makers like Gramercy, Wenzloff and Lie Nielsen, Adria and Roberts and Lee have brought traditional saws back into vogue, having seemingly been ousted for good by hardpoint saws. A blunt saw will never cut properly and tends to track away from a line, while an ill set saw can either wander or jam in the kerf. Of course, sharpening my own saws does mean I have to splash out on a decent file, but if you get into a set routine and simply touch up the saw once in a while rather than let it get so bad that it needs a major overhaul, life is easier.
It can also cause it to stick enough that you follow through on a stroke and bend, buckle or kink the blade. Dovetail saws fall in around 8 to 10in long with teeth per inch (TPI) of about 15 or more, while tenon saws have a bigger range of sizes, between 12 and 18in and a TPI of between 12 and 14 and occasionally less. Panel saws average around 20 to 22in long with the TPI usually between 10 and 12, while crosscuts are around 22 to 26in with teeth from 6 to 9TPI, while the rip is usually 24in and longer with teeth from 3 to 5 TPI.
A rip filed saw is now the norm for most of the high-end dovetail saws on the market as dovetail work is predominantly ripping work. This introduces a forward facing point on each tooth, scoring the cut much the same as a marking knife so that the edge of the cut on cross-grain work is cleaner, minimising breakout on the grain.
The blunter the angle of the bevel, the better it is for durability as the point of the tooth is better supported, but the cutting action isn’t as quick.
For those in need, however, a flat file needs to be run across the tops of the teeth to get each one level with one another. Softwoods are often resinous so can bind, whereas on hardwoods a saw set to match its points per inch size can be a tad sloppy. If you get a lot of cracking noises, chances are the saw has become brittle and will cause problems. You set the tooth about halfway down, as setting too far down to the gullet can crack and split the blade. Most do between 4 to 12 points per inch, which is fine for handsaws, but too coarse for tenon and dovetail saws, setting too far down the tooth.
This stool is functional, kids will love sitting on it, and it involves some interesting techniques to achieve a good result.
Choose a 6.4mm straight cutter and a guide bush that is close to that diameter in order to keep the mortise socket as square as possible without too much corner rounding. As with all guidebush work, subtract the cutter diameter from the guide bush diameter and divide the difference. Mark out the stool top into three equal pie slices, this can be done by stepping with dividers or a pencil trammel until they are equally spaced, or by using a protractor and with lines 120 degrees apart. In order to produce a circular top for the stool, we need to use a trammel like you would a compass but with a straight cutter to machine a perfect circle from a timber blank. It comes in a smaller size as well, but this one has mass and four cutting edges for smooth clean tenon cutting. Clamp the jig on the underneath face of the stool top, making sure it is aligned correctly and the cut-out is pressed against it. Roundover all the edges of the stool top and legs on the router table including the bottom ends.
I was actually invited to do a live panel at first but I'm terribly shy to a fault so I cooked this up instead.
Instead of attaching the various components of the leg vise using screws or bolts with nuts, they actually recommend cutting threads into the wood! I used Sapele wood for this project because it's very dense and a great alternative to mahogany. Here, Angie shares the secrets of her amazingly intricate work in polymer clay and invites us to join in with her passion for miniature ingredients. I still prefer to work to a shiner though as you can see exactly where a tooth may need a little more or less and in doing so you should eliminate the need for full re-jointing too often. And, as mentioned earlier, altering the amount you angle the file, the more pointed it becomes but the fragility of it also increases.
By placing the saw on a flat surface, you can run an oil stone along the flat of the blade on the set teeth, spinning the saw over and repeating. If it shines over your shoulder it casts shadows making it harder to see what you are doing. If my fingers do become sore, a couple of plasters usually takes the tenderness out while still allowing me to feel the file as I use it. You can’t sharpen from one side only using this method, you have to sharpen in the traditional manner with alternate teeth worked, then swinging the saw round and repeating.
Each of these brands of saw differs in style and comfort, though all have a rip filed tooth pattern as they predominantly cut end-grain. This instilled in me the will to learn the process, not only for self-satisfaction but also to save costs!
The back saws are less prone to blade kinks as you tend to not only have a more genteel approach on finer cuts, but the stiff back supports the blade well, even though it is finer gauge steel than a handsaw.

This is meant to mimic the swing of the arm as you saw, so that the teeth get better contact throughout the cut. The more the rake is dropped back the less aggressive the action, so while the cut may be a little smoother for the sawyer, it’s a longer operation. The fine tooth structure on a dovetail saw is good enough to leave a clean cut on the small amount of crosscutting involved as well, especially if you knife the shoulder lines. Setting the saw slightly over or under the PPI size can tweak the saw enough to make a difference, depending on the work it’s doing. Squeezing the handles advances the clamp to the saw blade with the small pin addressing the tooth and forcing it over against the anvil taper. A nice present for someone perhaps, or, an attractive object in your living room, this design is a modern interpretation of the classic three-legged stool, which manages to avoid any woodturning, while still looking aesthetically pleasing. In this case, register the jig against the edge of the stool top correctly so the mortise is cut in the same position each time. If you only possess a standard size guidebush it is well worth investing in a set of plastic guide bushes from Trend. This amount should be drawn around the mortise shape on the MDF and machined out to this new line very carefully with the router, a 6.4mm straight cutter and straight fence. Lay the MDF strip along one line with the guidebush opening over the mortise and gently press the piece up underneath until it touches the stool rim, and screw through the MDF into it to fix it.
Fix the point to the bar and install a standard 6.4mm straight cutter in the router, then set the radius measuring from the point to the edge of the cutter and tighten up the rod. The clamp will be at the far side away from the router, so it does not interfere with the router base. Plunge the cutter with the motor off so it sits on the stool top, then adjust the depth rod to set your depth of cut, about two thirds the thickness of the seat. Take care not to let the cutter sink in on the top surfaces leaving a step that would be hard to remove. Glue and tap the legs in place, these should go in without needing clamping but stand it on a flat surface and check the square is level. Freehand working is alright if you have good control, but working on small items such as the legs on our stool is very difficult and liable to go wrong. Sometimes, additional pieces of plywood are used to raise areas of the pattern to create more depth. I built this cross bow to test a modification I made to the whit worth quick return mechanism, and to have a a little fun. I certainly understood the concept of tapping threads, but I never really considered applying it to woodworking. 170 color photographs and step-by-step instructions teach the process, and a photo gallery of other projects will inspire you. The projects are more adventurous than ever before with raw eggs, gravy, iced cakes, and even sushi created with extraordinary attention to detail.
She now runs the successful Angie Scarr Miniatures, contributes to miniaturist magazines, makes step-by-step DVDs and runs many demonstration workshops. Items not eligible include print subscriptions, online memberships, clearance items, product bundles, events, or 2014 Archive DVDs.
Items not eligible include print subscriptions, online memberships, clearance items, product bundles, events, online workshops or 2014 Archive DVDs. This not only knocks the set back, it also hits any slightly overset teeth back in line, and touches up the points even more. The better quality handsaws are often taper ground, where the back of the blade is marginally thinner than the toothed edge, allowing you to apply less set so the cut is cleaner without the binding on the back. It’s something you can try yourself by applying extra pressure at the toe and heel of the blade as you top it until a light arcing is formed.
There’s also the carcase saw, touted by the Americans, but for me this is just a small open-handled tenon saw. But an overset saw can be difficult to track in a cut, so you don’t want to overset a saw that will work seasoned timber. Because strength is an issue, using hardwood is a must, it also makes for a cleaner finish and neater joints. Note the use of masking tape when using dividers or a trammel, so your marking does not affect the timber. The same operation in a table gives you a good view and you arena€™t balancing a big machine precariously as you would freehand.
Kathy accepts special commissions for her intarsia work, including murals and large wall pieces. It cost me a section of the rod I was already using and saved me over $40 since I didn't have to buy the tool. Get information on the formation of agates, including tips for using the shape of an agate to best fit the project. Packed full of ideas and extensive information on techniques, tools, and materials, this book is illustrated with easy-to-follow, step-by-step pictures throughout. Scarr’s previous book for GMC Publications is the best-selling Making Miniature Food and Market Stalls. Now, machine in complete circles, unplunging and drawing the router backwards before the next cut. So be aware of your own skill level and in general, work freehand when working on decent size components with some form of control, whether a straight fence, guide bush and template, or a special jig.
In Fall of 2004, Scroll Saw Workshop (Fox Chapel Publishing) published the first article by Kathy featuring her Boston Terrier intarsia design and step by step instructions. You can apply the same trick to making thread taps of any size with some minor changes to the flute. You can use agate from 1 to 6 inches long and use the same techniques to manipulate the wire around the agate. Find out how to create liquid and translucent effects, glazes, molding, and veining – all to mouth-watering effect. Clear the chippings after each passing using a vacuum or the corners will pack and the guide bush wont go right into them.
If you use very big or specialised cutters for making up door frames, for example, you have no choice but to do it on the table as the cutter size generates a lot of kinetic energy, making the router very difficult to control.
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Continue this procedure until you have reached full depth and the top separates from the blank.

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