It seems as if landline phones, yes, remember those things, may be going the way of  the dinosaurs similar to pay phones. Marty Cooper, who built the first handheld cell phone, says his invention has a glaring flaw: You have to keep charging its battery. An IMSI-catcher is a surveillance solution used by law enforcement, military and intelligence agencies for telephony eavesdropping, it is the technology used for intercepting mobile phone traffic and tracking movements of mobile phone users.
An IMSI catcher runs a Man in the Middle (MITM) attack acting as a bogus mobile cell tower that sits between the target mobile phone and the service provider’s real towers. The only way to prevent being tracked by an IMSI catcher is using specific products that secure communication on mobile devices. The use of the IMSI-catcher is condemned by privacy advocates, the StingRay and other IMSI surveillance systems are invasive and the principal problem related to their usage is that they operate a dragnet surveillance spying not only the targeted mobile, but concurrently also all nearby cellular devices. Stingray equipment could operate in both active and passive modes, in the first case the device simulates the behavior of a wireless carrier cell tower, in the second case it actively interferes with cellular devices performing operations like data exfiltration. The Stingray system is typically installed in a vehicle in a way that agents can move it into any neighborhood, it tricks all nearby cellular devices into connecting to it and allowing data access by law enforcement. A StingRay that is operating in passive mode is able to receive and analyze signals being transmitted by mobile devices and wireless carrier cell stations. By adopting a passive mode technique, the attacker can extract information related to the cell phone, including identification numbers, signal strength, and signal coverage areas.
Denial of Service, preventing the cellular device user to place a call or access data services.
A growing number of actors are interested in the StingRay technology, not only law enforcement, but also foreign intelligence agencies use these devices to spy on their targets. In this paragraph we will analyze in detail the solutions available on the market, at least the most popular ones.
Recently the news agency The Intercept has leaked online a secret catalog of cellphone spying devices used by the US intelligence, and not only. The person who passed the document to The Intercept declared to be concerned about the growing militarization of domestic law enforcement.
There are some devices small enough to fit in a backpack such as the Blackfin that allows agents to eavesdrop nearby communications.
The document also includes many other cellphone spying devices that are less popular of the Stingray that could be used by law enforcement and intelligence agencies in various scenarios, including the deployment on drones and aircraft.
One of the spying devices is sold by the NSA, while another was designed for use by the CIA.
These systems are a long debated because they allow authorities to conduct dragnet surveillance, the cellphone spying devices have been used by local law enforcement agencies across the United States for a long time.
The Intercept also reported the case of Marc Raimondi who was employed by the Harris company and that now is a Department of Justice spokesman who claims the agency’s use of Stingray cellphone spying devices is legal. Jennifer Lynch, a senior staff attorney at the Electronic Frontier Foundation has repeatedly expressed its disappointment in the use of these devices in a domestic context. The Blackfin is a device produced by the Harris Corporation, the same that designed the StingRay. This surveillance device allows agents to monitor up to 10,000 mobile devices, making it ideal for monitoring during public events and political protests. These devices could be also mounted in an aircraft or a drone flying over the targeted people. It is sold by Digital Receiver Technologies, a subsidiary of Boeing Integrated Defense Systems and costs $78,850.00. The DRT 1301C and the DRT 4411B provide features similar to other tools of the family but they are characterized by a limited overall dimensions.
Typhon is a surveillance product designed by the experts of the TAO unit at the National Security Agency, it is able to capture data only from GSM mobile devices. The Triggerfish is an eavesdropping equipment that allows law enforcement to intercept cellular conversations in real time. According a post published by the journalist Ryan Gallagher on Ars, its cost ranges between $90,000 and $102,000.
Cyberhawk is able to exfiltrate data off over 79 mobile devices, including SMS messages, phonebook, dialed numbers, and any other file stored in the phone. The Kingfish is a surveillance transceiver produced by the Harris Corporation that is used by law enforcement and intelligence agencies to track cellular devices and exfiltrate information from mobile devices over a targeted area. The device is able to locate a phone only when the phone is turned on and the owner isn’t involved in a conversation, it works with both GSM and CDMA phones.
Stargrazer is a military device used to degrade or disrupt a targeted adversary’s command and control (C2) system on the satellite Thuraya Handsets (HS).
The Radiance is a fixed Wing Geo-Location system is able to capture, query and locate CDMA-2000 and IS-95 mobile devices. Windjammer is a hand-held satellite simulator that can be used to geo-locate a handset or launch a denial of service attack on a given target. The Amberjack is an important accessory for the surveillance systems like Stingray, Gossamer, and Kingfish. Hailstorm is a surveillance device that could be purchased as a standalone unit or as an upgrade to the Stingray or Kingfish. The system allows the tracking of cellular devices even if they are based on modern technology. The cost of Hailstorm is $169,602 if it is sold as a standalone unit, and it could be cheaper if acquired as an upgrade of other surveillance devices.
Raven is one of the most powerful tools for surveillance of WCDMA, it is able to interrogate and geolocate target devices.
The Gossamer is a portable unit that is used to access data on cellular devices operating in a target area. The G-Box a GSM airborne geo-location system that emulates a GSM network Base Station to trick victims’ devices to connect it. The same Key W company also produces the Carman II, aka C-Box II, which is a GSM BTS that operates in like the Garuda. Artemis is a family of GSM Geo-location systems produced by the Martone Radio Technology (MRT) company that operate like the Carman and G-box devices. Maximus is a Ground GSM stimulation & geo-location device that simulates a BTS to STIM handset into RF TCH allowing for DF. It can operate from a ground distance ~1-4 Km, also in this case in order to capture the target the handset must be on and not engaged in a call. The DeepPark is a fixed Wing Geo Location manufactured by the Rincon IAW NRO and offered for sale at $250,000. Nebula is able to lock and hold traffic from a distance of 12 miles and is able to GeoLocate a device within 200m. The technique was adopted by US law enforcement, the Justice Department used this method to collect huge amount of data to use in its investigations.
The technique allows law enforcement to spy on tens of thousands of cellphones in a single flight, collecting their identifying information, metadata and many other information. The catalogue disclosed by the Intercept provided more information on the equipment that could be mounted on Aircraft and drones to spy on mobile.
The information disclosed by the Intercept and contained in the catalogue provided by an anonymous source in the US intelligence are very precious to understand the methods of investigation of the US intelligence and law enforcement.
Anyway, the massive surveillance is prohibited in the US by the Fourth Amendment, and organizations for the defense of Civil Liberties request government to provide warrants to use surveillance technologies like the StingRay. Organizations such as the American Civil Liberties Union and Electronic Privacy Information Center (EPIC) highlighted in many cases the risks related to the use of such method of investigation. Despite the heated debate on the surveillance technology, such kind of devices still represents a privileged solution for the secret surveillance operations conducted by governments worldwide. Pierluigi Paganini is Chief Information Security Officer at Bit4Id, firm leader in identity management, member of the ENISA (European Union Agency for Network and Information Security)Treat Landscape Stakeholder Group, he is also a Security Evangelist, Security Analyst and Freelance Writer.


Editor-in-Chief at Cyber Defense magazine, Pierluigi is a cyber security expert with over 20 years experience in the field, he is Certified Ethical Hacker at EC Council in London. Pierluigi is a member of the The Hacker News team and he is a writer for some major publications in the field such as Cyber War Zone, ICTTF, Infosec Island, Infosec Institute, The Hacker News magazine and for many other security magazines. InfoSec institute respects your privacy and will never use your personal information for anything other than to notify you of your requested course pricing. Practice for certification success with the Skillset library of over 100,000 practice test questions. A Connecticut Appellate Court has overturned the conviction of a man who was allegedly caught by police using his cellphone while driving, the Connecticut Law Tribune reports. That’s the question after a state Appellate Court overturned the conviction of a man who was allegedly caught by police using his cellphone while driving, the Connecticut Law Tribune reports. The appellate judges decided that there was no proof he was talking on the phone and directed a verdict of acquittal, which will vacate the $250 fine plus court fees and costs.
According to court documents, Connecticut Law Tribune reports, State Police Trooper Josh McElroy was monitoring Route 66 in Columbia for traffic violations on April 19, 2014, while sitting in his parked cruiser.
McElroy then pulled out from the parking lot, activated the lights of his cruiser, and pulled Dunbar over.
A study found nearly 10 percent of Connecticut drivers are either talking or texting on a cellphone, accounting for 11.1 million separate instances of distracted driving every day, a 2015 study determined.
If that number seems high, it does not even include drivers on the interstates, said Neil Chaudhary, vice president of Preusser Research Group, which conducted the research for the state Department of Transportation. For the sake of the argument, substitute rural wireless mesh networks with bringing the Internet to rural areas, although there are benefits other than simply Internet access, just Internet access itself will build a strong enough case.
One can almost hear the echo of the elite literate class in the middle ages asking why rural peasants would possibly ever want to read books or be allowed to vote on the countries future. Well, if every child in the developing world now had a laptop would that be good enough, do we still need to connect them to the Internet? Progress and innovation in any civilization has always hinged on the free flow of information between people and true freedom is achieved when no voices are silenced by governments or powerful individuals. It is clear that users living in the developed world have penetration rates which are far in excess of those in developing nations especially when it comes to Internet and broadband access.
From another angle, when one thinks about inventiveness and progress that result from free information exchange, Lawrence Lessig has this to say about the importance of free resources for innovation in his book, Future of ideas. With this as a backdrop, it is clear that people living in rural areas are being left behind. A quick search on an agricultural web site mentions that the soil conditions and rainfall patterns in that area would be ideal for sunflower growing (true story here), a nurse at a local clinic emails a digital image of the skin ailment to a specialist at a city hospital receiving instructions on what topical treatment to administer (true story here) , a mathematics teacher at a city school offers to web cast her lesson to the rural school everyday and can interact with students in the school via video conferencing facilities (true story here). From a political point of view, mesh networks create a system which links people together using a decentralized structure which is hard to control. I have seen it working in a number of projects I have been involved in - The Peebles valley mesh in Mpumalanga, Scarborough mesh in Cape Town and Linknet in Zambia. From a political point of view it puts control of the network back in the hands of the people, the community owns the network which makes it hard to shut down and prevents exploitation by government or dominant individuals or institutions. It is very robust to failure because it automatically repairs itself when a router in the network goes down. It is very cheap and getting cheaper - it runs on wireless routers which you can get for about $40 you can even boost the signal with cheap antennas made from tin cans. Router software and server software to manage the mesh is all available as open source software, so start up costs for someone who wants to run this as a business are very small. I have done a large amount of work trying to understand the key differences between various open-source mesh routing protocols available (See masters thesis and paper on AODV vs DYMO vs OLSR and paper on Batman vs OLSR). When mesh routers are running on renewable energy sources, routing paths need to be chosen to minimize the use of routers which are energy constrained. Once TDMA-like MAC protocols are being utilized in a mesh network, it becomes possible to choose routes which are not only based on least congested paths but also those which have more slots available for real-time media flows.
Traditionally telecommunication networks are highly engineered with careful planning to choose sites where radio towers are installed, what antennas to use, what angle to orientate and tilt the antennas, what power levels to use and how to engineer the IP addresses in the network. Gateway discovery mechanisms which optimally balance traffic in the mesh between multiple gateways being supplied by a single operator.
Optimal power level allocation to radios in the mesh is dependent on minimizing the amount of interference but at the same time maintaining a good level of redundancy in the mesh (some existing solutions). Once the cost of using smart antennas is low enough, these can be employed to improve the spectral efficiency in a mesh and avoid unwanted interference. Sure, your smartphone will rummage around in your contacts list and attach names to any incoming phone numbers it can find there, but what we think of as true Caller ID -- the service that displays an incoming caller's name, city and state -- hasn't been available, thanks to a bunch of complicated technical issues. Market indices are shown in real time, except for the DJIA, which is delayed by two minutes. Remember those?  According to the latest cell phone data compiled by the Centers for Disease Control, (yes, that’s correct the CDC which surprisingly tracks cell phones) it seems as if a majority of American households either do not have landlines or do not use them regularly, if at all. Today, they're communication and entertainment devices we hold in our hands to text, email, take and send pictures or videos, search the Internet, listen to music, play games, and more.
Then test your wireless knowledge by putting the five facts below into their right place in history. Modern Sting Ray implements a large number of functionalities, they allow attackers to intercept calls and Internet traffic, send fake texts, locate the devices and also inject malware, typically spyware and mobile RAT, that allows to gain full control over the victim’s device an exfiltrate the data. Recently law enforcement and intelligence agencies installed Geo-Locating systems also on aircraft and drones. The Stingray operates as a mobile phone and collect signals sent by cell stations near the equipment.
StingRay broadcasts a pilot signal that is stronger than the signals sent by legitimate cell sites operating in the same area, forcing connections from the cellular device in the area covered by the equipment.
The document is a precious source of information that has been given to the online publication by someone inside the intelligence community. It has limited dimension that allow agents to worn it on the body, its main features are the eavesdropping capability (both voice and text) and possibility to use it to shut down nearby devices in a selective mode. Its use extends the basic capabilities of StingRay, which are more oriented to device location monitoring and gathering metadata.
It is a privileged instrument for espionage and investigation, it can be used to track network of individuals analyzing the information on their mobile devices. It could be concealed in a briefcase and allow to gather unique identity codes and show connections between phones and numbers being dialed. It tricks satellite terminals into thinking they are communicating with the legitimate network.
Has, in at least one case, recommended that authorities use the Hailstorm in conjunction with software made by the Nebraska-based surveillance company Pen-Link. Gossamer provides similar functionality of Stingray with the advantage of being a hand-held model. The device is able to spy only on those handsets whom IMSI (International Mobile Subscriber Identity) or IMEI (International Mobile Station Equipment Identity) is included in a target watch list. Nebula is a geo-location system designed to monitor GSM (Multi-Band), CDMA, UMTS, and HSDPA. Marshals used different aircrafts equipped with the spying technology, also referred as dirtboxes, to spy data from individuals on the entire US soil. Marshals Service program, which became fully functional around 2007, operates Cessna aircraft from at least five metropolitan-area airports, with a flying range covering most of the U.S. The Stingray technology raises serious privacy concerns because it is used in dragnet surveillance activities.
The passion for writing and a strong belief that security is founded on sharing and awareness led Pierluigi to create the blog "Security Affairs," recently named a Top National Security Resource for US.


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McElroy was 20 to 30 feet away from the road in a parking lot that was elevated above the road, which allowed him to look down into passing traffic. The study used trained observers in seven towns, and applied average daily traffic data to the sample to determine that 9.6 percent of drivers at any one time are either texting or talking on a cellphone.
I'm a firm believer in PhD's that are strongly grounded in real-life problems that are facing the human race. There is a lot to reflect on when thinking about why bringing Internet connectivity to deep rural areas in places like Africa is a good idea.
There are many parallels between societies in developing countries moving from an Agrarian to a knowledge based economy using Information Technology and the development of widespread literacy and the enormous social and intellectual changes of the Enlightenment period due to the invention of the printing press. Perhaps we need to step back a little to reflect on what has happened in the past to help understand the future.
Consider countries such as Burma, North Korea, China and recent events in Zimbabwe, the first target of any dictator is preventing the free flow of information and silencing the media. It is possible to modernize without having to urbanize to improve peoples quality of life and access to knowledge. It could enable people in countries where the telecommunications is being controlled to build under-ground networks where authorities have no control over content that is communicated over the network. But what I have realized is that protocols which become dominant depend little on rigorous scientific comparisons. For example if one router is running on solar energy and another on wind energy then at night routes should be chosen which use wind powered nodes and in the day routes which use solar powered nodes. There is increasing interest in building village-telcos which make use of mesh to handle VoIP calls within a village and from a village to the rest of the world and supporting more VoIP calls will become increasingly important. In a mesh network there is very little control over where nodes are placed and the network needs to autoconfigure itself as close to the optimal as possible. Or gateway discovery which allows users to quickly discover and choose from multiple gateway providers selling services into a mesh (Not enough done in this area yet). Algorithms to control elements of the smart antennas will need to be developed as part of the mesh routing protocols for direction of arrival and direction of departure of packets in the mesh (Very new area). The Triggerfish allows authorities to monitor up to 60,000 different phones at one time over the targeted area. Among its limitations, it requires a separate network survey device and can cause Denial of Service (DOS) during operation of the UMTS network.
The Gossamer lets also law enforcement to run a DoS attack on a target blocking it from making or receiving calls, as explained in the marketing materials (PDF) published by a Brazilian reseller of the Harris equipment.
Differently from other similar devices, it cannot be used to launch a DOS attack on the system.
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McElroy observed that "he had some type of microphone" attached to his head and that it almost looked like a Walkman. So before leaping into the actual wireless mesh networking research that I am focusing on, I am going to go on a philosophical journey and try and build a motivation for my specific focus on rural wireless mesh networks.
There are many people who would argue that there is no point giving people Internet connectivity when people are dying of malnutrition, TB and Aids. This is the digital chasm that could prevent Africa and other developing nations from being part of the global knowledge economy unless drastic measures are taken. Thus and especially in the digital age, the central question becomes not whether government or the market should control a resource, but whether a resource should be controlled at all.
Shouldn't people who are quite content living off the land on a farm just simply be left to enjoy their simple life on their farm.
Knowledge brings opportunities, which means that instead of someone being trapped in a cycle of poverty, they will have the resources and skills to transform their own life and the community around them. It isn't owned by one single entity and the entire community owns the infrastructure which makes it hard to shut down. This is mostly based on strong representation at IETF meetings as well as association with dominant academic or cooperate institutions.
The routing decisions also need to be made aware of battery levels at nodes which are powered by batteries in order to choose routes which maximize the life span of the network.
The system is powered by Cequint, which specializes in caller ID technology and partnered with T-Mobile for its offering. The device has an operative range of 30 kilometers in rural areas and 5 kilometers in urban ones.
Surely running water, health care, shelter and food security should be the key focus before something as advanced as broadband access is even considered. As the age of the printed book and the free flow of knowledge between all people, not just a few elite, began with the Gutenberg movable type system in the 1400's, so the age of the Internet in the 1990's has unleashed a new era of information exchange between mankind like nothing seen before.
Well, what happens when a farmer has repeated crop failure of his maize crops with the current soil and rain conditions, or they need to go to a specialist hospital in a far away town to diagnose a strange skin rash or there are no mathematics or science teachers available at the small rural school. If some nodes are shut down, the network will automatically repair itself and find other routes between a source and sink.
It is becoming possible for all people on the globe to have equal access to the same knowledge resources as more books are digitized and more knowledge is captured. It is clear that the debate is far from over even though 802.11s has standardized on derivatives of OLSR and AODV. That is, when Verizon customers calls a phone with Caller ID, their names are not displayed. I will invite authors of the code to provide me with the most up to date source code as well as configurations they believe will be most optimal for the setup.
The $3.99 per month cost will be included on customers' T-Mobile bills, and Cequint shares in the revenue from the service. Hennessey wouldn't comment further on the financial details.Cequint accesses name and location information through a database managed by Transaction Network Services (TNS), which bought Cequint last year for $112 million. Chicago Mercantile Association: Certain market data is the property of Chicago Mercantile Exchange Inc. Energous (WATT) expects that it will soon receive FCC approval for its miniature transmitter, which can power specially equipped gadgets. The Miniature WattUp transmitter can power hearing aids, medical devices and other tiny wireless devices. The FCC will want to ensure that the technology doesn't interfere with other wireless gadgets, but its rules were written before the advent of wireless charging. Cooper said the company is tasked with convincing the FCC to interpret the rules in a way that will allow Energous to operate. Getting manufacturers to adopt and include the technology in their products is another big one.
Energous has had some early success, but it's a long way from being able to charge every mobile device you own. Energous has been at it the longest, it has commitments from strategic partners, and it uses a technology that can charge at longer distances than its competitors.



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