How to find and choose a roofing contractor, How to inspect roofs, Roofing product failures, class actions, warranty claims, Roofing repair methods, Roofing product sources for Residential and light commercial roofs, Slate roof inspection and repair methods.
Asphalt shingle roofs - have an installed cost (including labor) of $100 - $350 per square. Asphalt shingles have a typical life expectancy of 15-25 years, with some warranties extending up to 45 years, and asphalt roof shingles typically weigh 225-385 pounds per square.
Built up roofing - BUR -- multi-ply membrane roofing, including tar and gravel roofs, have a life expectancy of about 5 years per ply. Clay tile roofing material and installation labor are more expensive than alternate materials, but the material has a life expectancy of up to 350 years where high quality vitreous tiles are used.
Concrete roofing - systems include poured concrete flat roofs and low slope roofs, and concrete roofing tiles, slates, or shingles. See COPPER ROOFING - metal roofing systems involving soldered or mechanically crimped seams, used on steep, standard, low-slope, and some flat building roofs.
See LEAKY ROOF DIAGNOSIS & REPAIR - This article describes procedures for finding and fixing all types of leaks in roofs, figuring out the actual spot where a roof leak is occurring, and methods for tracking down the source of water or wet spots on ceilings or in attics. The second part of this article discusses how we track an actual roof leak backwards to its probable source or entry point on the roof.
We distinguish among actual roof leaks during rainfall, unusual leaks during hurricanes and high winds, wind-blown rain leaks, ice dam leaks in northern climates, and attic condensation or HVAC ductwork condensation and icing that may be mistaken for a roof leak in any climate. PLASTIC ROOFING TYPES - plastic roof shingles, some sold with a 50-year or lifetime warranty, produced by a variety of manufacturers.
Membrane roofing such as modified bitumen, rubber, or built up roofing using tar and gravel have a life expectancy of 20 - 40 years, varying significantly depending on materials and workmanship, and may cost $750 to $1000 per square. Modified bitumen roofing - MODIFIED BITUMEN ROOFING - a torch-applied single-ply membrane roof covering used on low slope and flat roofs.
SOD ROOFING - traditional in rural areas of North America and for hundreds of years in Europe. Sprayed polyurethane foam is a contemporary system that is sometimes appropriate for use on historic structures.
The cost of roofing installations varies considerably by geographic area as well as material selected, pitch and height of roof, and roof shape or design complexity. All of these roofing materials have a fire rating of A except wood shingles which, if treated with a fire retardant, are fire rated B. The life expectancy of any roof depends significantly on other factors besides its composition, including the installation workmanship, the condition of the roof decking, and proper roof ventilation.
Details about how roof slope is measured or calculated along with examples of converting between angle, slope and grade are at ROOF SLOPE DEFINITIONS.
Details about roof fire resistance effectiveness and roof fire ratings are at FIRE RATINGS for ROOF SURFACES. Continue reading at ALGAE, FUNGUS, LICHENS, MOSS on SHINGLES or select a topic from the More Reading links or topic ARTICLE INDEX shown below.
Also, upon further investigation, my husband found extra shingles stored under the eaves of our attic.
When I contacted Eternit in England via e-mail, they said that they never manufactured a roof tile made from "recycled" tires.
I'd like to see sharp photos of your roof shingles in place, both the field of the roof and closeups of the shingles, and I'd certainly want to see photos of the surfaces and markings of the extra shingles you found in your attic so that we can more accurately identify and contact the manufacturer with follow-up questions. I'm not sure that all of the black stains in your photos are due to the composition of your roof shingles, and it's common to see some black stains on the outer edges of white K-profile aluminum gutters even on asphalt shingle roofs.
But if your roof shingles are bleeding out significant levels of black debris, in addition to needing to clean the building exterior, you ought to be able to avoid stains on other building surfaces by properly routing roof runoff into gutters and downspouts.
A second question that might arise is whether or not black runout stains from a roofing product are a sign of deterioration or reduced roof life. The roof LOOKS good, flashing and parapets are tight, caps on parapets are repaired and in good shape, roof surface (modified bitumen) has been sealed this summer and looks to be in good shape. Our home page for roof leak detection, diagnosis, and repair (where to patch) is at LEAKY ROOF DIAGNOSIS & REPAIR. If your roof is low slope or flat water travels and it can be tricky tracking down a leak - an inspector using infra red and moisture meters should be able to help sort out the question of whether there is an active leak and if so where it originates.
It's common on large commercial buildings and apartments to simply add another layer of roofing over leaky flat or low-slope roofs.
If the roofer roofed over wet conditions they could take a long time to dry out, particularly if the roof was installed atop multiple layers of old material.
An experienced roofer or roof inspector will look closely at the modified bitumen seams and flashing details to be more confident that at least from above the roof doesn't show obvious leak points.
Our recommended books about building & mechanical systems design, inspection, problem diagnosis, and repair, and about indoor environment and IAQ testing, diagnosis, and cleanup are at the InspectAPedia Bookstore. This clay roof tile guide considers the various types of tiles, slates, and roofing materials on the marketA as well asA their uses, how to estimate the required quantities, and where to buy them. The author, Kevin Taylor, works for the National Federation of Roofing Contractors as a technical manager presenting technical advice and providing education and training for young roofers. 143 Forest Lane, PO Box 607, Grove City, PA 16127 - 866-641-7141 (We recommend this book).
Solar heating, radiative cooling and thermal movement: Their effects on built-up roofing (United States. The Illustrated Home illustrates construction details and building components, a reference for owners & inspectors. Converting from R12 to R134 freon seems to be a subject that is in debate throughout the country as to what is necessary to complete the conversion. The reason that headliners sag on the car is because the foam between the headliner material and the glued portion of the material erodes with time causing the main portion of the headliner to sag. This can be caused because the pads are a little loose on their mounts, which itself is not a problem.
Brake Master cylinder failures can often be diagnosed by noting that when sitting at a stop sign or stop light with your foot on the brake pedal that the pedal seems to continue to move toward the floor very slowly.
Most car manufacturers do not recommend turning rotors because the majority of time after turning them they are below the recommended minimum thickness.
In most cases when you apply the brakes and the car pulls to the left or right this can be attributed to a sticking brake caliper. If your brakes are dragging the most common cause is the caliper(s) are sticking and usually just need replacing. Almost every vehicle has headlight adjusters on top and bottom of the back of each light assembly. In some cases electrical contacts on the removable bulb holders get dirty or partially corroded, and then don't carry current well. Contributed by Zexrovnwaac:A loud clanking noise from the engine belt area can often be attributed to a faulty crank shaft pulley (harmonic Balancer). A compression check is a test that is done on a car by removing each spark plug one at a time and putting in a pressure gauge in its place.

The most common cause for engine surging is a vacuum leak in one of the hoses, other causes could be intake air leak, fuel pump or carburetor faulty, loose fuel injector harness connections, defective ECU.
Our roofing inspection, diagnosis, repair and installation articles listed at left and below provide roof inspection, roof leak or problem diagnosis, roof installation, and roof repair information as well as details about the factors that affect the life of any roof.
The first part of this article describes different types and causes of roof leaks - clues about how and where to look for the causes of a roof leak. This article series helps with diagnosis and repair of roof leaks found in different types of roof coverings and different types of roof designs. Sprayed polyurethane foam (SPF) accepts a variety of substrates and is readily adapted to recovering existing flat or low sloped roofs. Wood shingle roofs have a typical life expectancy of 10-40 years, and weigh 300-400 pounds per square. Roofing cost estimates do not necessarily include the cost of any necessary structural or roof decking repairs that may be needed when re-roofing, nor do they include the cost of removing and disposing of old roofing materials. Un-treated wood roof shingles have no fire rating and are not permitted by code in some areas. For best life expectancy, fiberglass based asphalt shingles should meet standard ASTM D-3462 and organic mat based asphalt roof shingles should meet standard ASTM D-225. Certainly the manufacturers of plastic and composite roof shingles we list below all promise rather long-life warranties.
But first let's correctly identify your shingles and then ask the manufacturer for an opinion and advice. In any case, Eternit, a company about which you asked us previously, produced fiber cement shingles and is separate from Royal Group Technologies who produce Dura slate roof shingles (see our company list below). Royal Building Products is a division of the Ontario, Canada based Royal Group Technologies Ltd.. As you report that the top floor occupant has found wet areas, it seems likely that other than concrete and structural members, other wet materials such as insulation will need to be removed - a step that will help trace the size and pattern of wet areas back to inspection points on the roof above. You didn't say how long ago the new roof was installed nor whether or not there was a tear-off of old layers. Park, AIA, Preservation Brief 16, Technical Preservation Services, National Park Service, U.S.
All rights and contents are ©Journal of Light Construction and may not be reproduced in any form. The text is intended as a reference guide to help building owners operate and maintain their home effectively. Nothing can be reposted on this site (excluding the button features) without written permission from the author. Many mechanics say that in-order to convert from R12 to R134 you should replace the compressor, receiver drier and expansion valve. The only repair is to replace the headliner material by removing the headliner, pulling the old material off, cleaning the fiberglass headliner and gluing new material on. The ABS System automatically controls braking at the front wheels individually and the rear wheels as a unit (in most cases) preventing the wheels from locking during a hard braking situation.
The rubber seals in the master cylinder tend to wear around the edges causing leaking past the seals. When the pump fails the pedal gets hard because the pump is no longer assisting during the braking process. Depending on the application some calipers can be rebuild and in other cases the faulty caliper must be replaced. Other things that could cause this problem is having restricted brake lines and its not allowing the pressure to come off the caliper.
Most dealerships and independent repair shops use headlight aimers to adjust the headlights. This can cause the Brake Lights or other Rear lights to fail completely or to fail intermittently.
There are occasions where Alternator bearings will also create a roaring noise during belt rotation. The crankshaft pulley is often designed in 2 parts & pressed together from the factory. The first thing one must do is to attempt to identify the fluid color in order to locate the leakage area. What generally happens is that the gasket heats up and cools down so many times that the gasket eventually hardens up to a point where it no longer seals. What usually happens is the rubber portion of the engine mounts deteriorate causing the vibration from engine rotation to travel through the vehicle. If the seals in the turbocharger go bad, the turbo may cause puffs of white smoke from the exhaust when coming to an idle or begin to smoke terribly when idling for long periods of time. Once the engine is warm this smoke will disappear because it is actually burning the coolant from within the combustion chamber. This usually indicates a problem with either the work guides or valve stem seals which allows oil to leak past them once the engine is turned off. In most cases the vibrations come from engine mounts but they can also come from transmissions, wheel bearings, out of round tires or out of balance, worn out U-joint, or damaged axelshafts.
The life of a wood shingle roof can vary widely depending on the wood species of shingles used and the treatment of wood roof shingles with preservative.
A class A fire rated wood shingle roof can be installed using special procedures and materials that include plywood and gypsum board. Architectural asphalt roof shingles can be expected to last longer than less-costly three-tab asphalt roof shingles. As long as the roof can be mechanically secured soundly to the structure, that practice is acceptable in many communities. Also see MODIFIED BITUMEN ROOFING for details about the type of roofing installed on this building. It has been our experience with car AC systems that the original systems will convert to R134 without major complications. Idler pulley failures can be identified by removing the belt and turning the idler by hand to see if the bearing has failed! This enables the driver to maintain STEERING control and also shortens the distance to a complete stop.
If the fluid level is ok, there could be a problem with a sticking relay contact and in hot weather, the higher humidity would make it worse. They could be dragging slightly on the rotors if there is any buildup on the caliper pistons or if the sliders are a little rusty. In most cases the pumps are included in the ABS hydraulic units and cannot be replaced seperately. If your vehicle is equipped with ABS brakes you may find that the valve body in the ABS system is malfunctioning.NOTE: ABS brakes are under VERY HIGH PRESSURE and should only be worked on by those who are properly trained! It can be done without aimers by adjusting the beam of light to be directly in front of the assembly and about 24 inches off the ground.

Clean the contacts in the bulb holders and also clean the contact areas on all the bulbs involved. In-order to diagnose either of these problems simply remove the belt and rotate each of the pulleys by hand.
Red fluid is transmission fluid, Dark Brown or Black fluid is most likely engine oil, Light brown fluid is Power steering and pink or green fluid is antifreeze. Fuel must be kept cool to flow properly through the fuel lines and into the combustion chamber.
If your Volvo is equipped with emissions equipment such as a charcoal evaporative canister, the end of the hoses sometimes crack over time creating a vacuum leak.
You may be able to find the faulty mount by shifting from drive to reverse with the engine running and your foot on the brake. I've read that Royala€™s Dura Slate roof shingles include a 50-year limited transferable warranty, as well as hail protection and a Class A Fire Rating. The text covers moisture needs, heat tolerance, hardiness, bloom color, foliage characteristics, and height of 350 species and cultivars.
Special Offer: For a 10% discount on any number of copies of the Home Reference Book purchased as a single order.
We do however suggest replacing the receiver dryer, all O-rings (included in the conversion kit along with the 134 fittings), the refrigerant oil and rid the system of all of the old oil by flushing the system.
In cars without ABS, the brake master cylinder actually applied steady pressure to each wheel when the brakes were applied causing the wheels to look under heavy breaking. They can be turned one time but will generally warp within one year because of how thin they become.
If there are no leaks the problem is either the clutch slave cylinder or the master cylinder is failing. The pulley failure will make itself apparent by noting that the noise begins when rotating the faulty pulley. These materials will deteriorate over time causing the pulley to separate leading to one of the following symptoms: A loud clanking noise as previously described or a loud squeak upon initial start up. The guage should stay in the same area without going down and as long as the compression readings are consistent accross all cylinders then the head gasket or rings should be fine. If the fuel system is exposed to the engine heat, the fuel will vaporize and interrupt the flow of fuel to the motor.
Minor seepage occurs during the rest period allowing oil to leak into the combustion chambers leading to morning smoke!
This cause the engine mounts to come under load and you may see the telltale signs of movement that indicate a bad mount. You can often determine if this is the problem by removing the spark plugs to see if any of the piston tops are silver which is an indication that the coolant being burned is cleaning the carbon from the piston top. Thanks to Alan Carson and Bob Dunlop, for permission for InspectAPedia to use text excerpts from The Home Reference Book & illustrations from The Illustrated Home. You will find that one of the adjusters will adjust the light beam vertical and the other adjuster will adjust the light beam horizontally. You can also identify this problem when you find that your engine continually throws the drive belts off the pulley for no apparent reason. Carson Dunlop Associates' provides extensive home inspection education and report writing material. Always clean the tires and wheels before washing the body, and don't use the same mitt for both. ABS systems use a hydraulic pump that applies modulating pump pressure during heavy braking.
The leaks can often be found at the junctions where the two meet.If you have fluid on the master cylinder dust cover and pedal the rear seal in the master cylinder has probably failed.
Your local Volvo dealership can look up your radio code to enter in at no charge.Sometimes the radio in your Volvo may not be the original. A fuel pump has a check valve to prevent the fuel from flowing back toward the fuel tank and to keep some pressure to allow the motor to start easily without having to re-pump the fuel all the way to the motor. This is especially important on Turbo vehicles because of the added air that is forced into the combustion chamber. Special Offer: For a 5% discount on any number of copies of the Home Reference eBook purchased as a single order. If you have it on the slave cylinder then in most cases the plunger seal has went bad or you have loose lines or a bleeder valve. Sometimes you can use needle nose pliers to gently tighten them.Another component that fails consistently is the bulb failure relay. This pulsing is considerably faster than even the most experienced driver could accomplish if he were to attempt to this manually! Other reasons for this would be ignition timing incorrect, carburetor in need of adjustment or fuel injection system malfunctioning, improper or damaged spark plugs or wires, worn or damaged distributor components, faulty emission system, or a vacuum leak.
Next, clean the wheels with a wheel cleaner that removes the brake dust, which often blackens the front wheels. The dealerships should not charge for this service!On rare occasion the car will have to be taken to them to inspect it to make sure you get the right code. REASON WHY IS BECAUSE IF THE BATTERY GOES DEAD OR A TERMINAL IS DISCONNECTED YOU WILL NEED THE RADIO CODE FOR THE VEHICLE. Clean the rear last since it usually has the largest accumulation of dirt and grime, which can contaminate the wash mitt.
Now is an excellent time for waxing, which not only protects the finish but also makes subsequent washing easier. Use a car cleaner, available at auto supply stores, to remove contaminants imbedded in the paint. Once the surface is clean, apply the wax, following the manufacturer's instructions for application of the product. Often they recommend not using the product in direct sunlightProper Washing And Waxing Add Value To VehicleMore than one-third of car owners use damaging non-automotive products when washing their cars-products that could contain harmful detergents, abrasives and additives. For best results, a formulated automotive wash is recommended, one that gently lifts the dirt and grime while protecting the finish.
Do use a formulated car wash STEP 3 Do fill your bucket with warm water STEP 4 Do use a soft terrycloth towel or washing mitt.
Do complete one section at a time, rinsing repeatedly to prevent the soap from drying on the paint.

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