We’ll travel thru the magnificent Toros mountains, just like the Crusaders did several times in 12 and 13th centuries.
Day 15: END OF OUR JOURNEY:We will depart our hotel after a nice farewell breakfast and catch our planes to back home ! TRANSPORTATION COMPANIES CLAUSE: The passage contract in use by airlines and other transportation companies whose services are used to arrive and depart from Turkey before and after the tour shall constitute the sole contract between the companies and the purchaser of a tour. FREE AIRPORT TRANSFERS: Tour participants are entitled to airport tranesfers on scheduled tour arrival and departure days in Turkey between 7AM and 11PM. Thank you very much again for your interest in traveling to Turkey with us in those dates.
After the passport and visa work at the airport, we’ll meet you in the airport and board our luxury bus to go to our charming hotel in Aya Sophia district for our FIRST night in Istanbul. This morning we’ll begin our journey by traveling to Safranbolu, a 13th Century Turkish-Greek town. After spending our morning visiting local craftsmen and beautiful old houses in Safranbolu, we’ll travel to the Turkish capitol city of Ankara which is the home of the great Anatolian Civilizations Museum. After a 4-5 hour drive through the scenic Anatolian plateau to arrive at the one of the natural wonders of the world: Cappadocia. We’ll travel thru the magnificent Toros mountains, just like the Crusaders did several times in 12 and 13th centuries. From Konya, our journey will take us thru the mountains and valleys and we’ll arrive at a small lakeside town of Egirdir. Thru the Pamukkale (Cottoncastle) region, we drive to the magnificent Ephesus and its colossal Greek theater.
We will depart our hotel after a nice farewell breakfast and catch our planes to back home ! The passage contract in use by airlines and other transportation companies whose services are used to arrive and depart from Turkey before and after the tour shall constitute the sole contract between the companies and the purchaser of a tour. Please realize that Turkey is not like the US in terms of smoking and other allergy related issues. Transportation will be by private air-conditioned new Mercedes, Volkswagen or Isuzu deluxe buses. FREE AIRPORT TRANSFERS: Tour participants are entitled to airport tranesfers on scheduled tour arrival and departure days in Turkey between 7AM and 11PM.
LAT TOURS reserves the right to cancel any tours prior to departure for any reasons, including insufficient number of participants and safety issues.
Go ahead and book your session with one of our a€?Quit Cigarettes In 60 Minutesa€? specialists.
In the unlikely event that you find you have not become a happy non-smoker after your 60 minute sessiona€¦we will conduct AS MANY SESSIONS WITH YOU AS IT TAKES. The new sense of focus in your healthy life and becoming the person you always knew you could be. No matter how hard you thought quitting cigarettes was, armed with the Quit60 program you have the single, most powerful tool in existence to quit in just 60 minutes. Did you know that ongoing studies over more than 50 years have shown that smokers who try to quit without some form of help fail more than 95% of the time!
Maybe your smoking habit is triggered by something else: the drive home from work, a coffee break, the start of a new stressful project or even socialising with certain friends. It is true that smoking does provide a temporary hit from nicotine, just as, say, a couple of red wines.
Also, non-smokers who have absolutely no dependence on cigarettes can (and do) just as easily suffer the negative physical effects of smoking without any addiction at all. Quit60 uses a highly developed combination of NLP techniques and advanced hypnotherapy that allows clients to successful quit cigarettes in just one 60 minute session, guaranteed. For many years hypnosis has proven very helpful in modifyingA even the most deeply ingrainedA habits.
Yet the Quit60 Method can offer such a guarantee because of our 95%+ success rate in just a single session. The hypnosis component of the Quit60 Method allows you to access the deepest levels of your unconscious mind where your most ingrained habits are stored and actioned from. The NLP component of the Quit60 Method reframes the patterns in both your conscious and unconscious mind that lead to your using cigarettes. Youa€™re probably thinking, a€?Is there any real difference between the Quit60 Method and other methods of hypnotherapy to quit smoking?a€? Well, leta€™s look at the statistics and you can see for yourself.
The following graph clearly illustrates the difference between various therapies used to help you quit cigarettes.
A The Quit60 Method has been proven to be close to 20 times more effective than going alone, 6 times better than standard NRTa€™s, and over four and a half times more effective than other methods of single session hypnotherapy. And despite the obvious difference in success rates, many medical professionals are quite impressed with the results of even single-session hypnosis (perhaps because the main comparison is with the NRT treatments most commonly prescribed amongst the medical profession).
Studies show that of those who try to quit smoking alone without any additional help or support (hypnosis or otherwise), the success rate is very low. Those who use behaviour modification, NRT Therapy, or medication (specifically Zyban) approach an average about a 25% success rate. A more recent study (October 22, 2007, presented at the annual meeting of the American College of Chest Physicians) found hypnosis to be more than twice as effective as going a€?cold turkey,a€? and more than three times as effective as NRT. Singh, S (2011) a€?Popular antismoking drug raises chances of serious cardiac eventa€? Reported by S.
Such research is difficult to be comprehensive as it is not practical in all cases to follow up with test patients over a lifetime. Call and ask for our FREE information package.A Alternatively, if you call and make a booking straight away, we will give you a $50 discount! For hypnotherapy treatments, finding a qualified local therapist is extremely difficult, and if you do find one, you should expect to pay at least $200 a session (usually more for someone who is at the upper end of the success spectrum).
If you are really serious about quitting, call us now.a€?Together we can ensure your success. 7The new sense of focus in your healthy life and becoming the person you always knew you could be. 1Studies show that of those who try to quit smoking alone without any additional help or support (hypnosis or otherwise), the success rate is very low.
2Those who use behaviour modification, NRT Therapy, or medication (specifically Zyban) approach an average about a 25% success rate. 4A more recent study (October 22, 2007, presented at the annual meeting of the American College of Chest Physicians) found hypnosis to be more than twice as effective as going a€?cold turkey,a€? and more than three times as effective as NRT.
8.Singh, S (2011) a€?Popular antismoking drug raises chances of serious cardiac eventa€? Reported by S. So you will spend at least $800 to $1,000 for 4 to 5 sessions and still only expect a 66% success rate.
Realistically, if you do decide on using hypnotherapy to help you quit smoking and you shouldna€™t settle for anything less than Quit60 and our 95%= success rate and lifetime guarantee.
When it comes to medical care, often people dona€™t comparison shop when it comes to their medications or treatments.A  They seem to believe that just because a doctor says, a€?You need to take this pill, or you need this surgery,a€? there is no question that the pill or procedure will be of benefit.
Ia€™m going to discuss the use of preventative headache medications in two types of headache.
There are preventative medications used for unusual headaches like cluster headaches but that will not be covered in this article. The outcome that is most often used in scientific studies is the ability of a medication to decrease your number of headaches per month by 50%. On average, these studies show 2-4 headaches fewer per month with the prescription medication than with placebo.A  Perhaps someone would go from 20 headaches a month to 16 headaches a month. For instance, take this trial with Topiramate in patients with more than 15 days of headache per month at a target dose of 100 mg per day. Procedures such as Botulinum Toxin injections, salt water injections, and real and fake acupuncture seem to have similar results in episodic headache. Why does it seem that Botulinum Toxin and salt water injections result in people experiencing more days per month reduction in headaches than Topiramate? Or maybe there is something beneficial in having needles put into the forehead muscles that helps to cut down on the number of headaches. A good study would be to look at the effect of Topiramate versus injections with salt water or just using acupuncture needles at trigger points on the head. There are preventative medications used for unusual headaches like cluster headaches but that will not be covered in this article.A  The focus here will be on prevention of migraine and tension type headaches. GOFAR Services, LLC - Appliance Repair Houston, TX - Chapter 4COMPRESSOR IS RUNNINGBUT REFRIGERATOR IS NOT COLDCOMPRESSOR IS RUNNING BUT REFRIGERATOR IS NOT COLDBefore you perform any of the other tests in this chapter, make sure that the compressor is running. Here we’ll visit Mersin, Latif’s hometown and have lunch with his family so you can experience a real traditional Turkish urban family. HEALTH RESTRICTIONS: Please realize that Turkey is not like the US in terms of smoking and other allergy related issues. This will be the ALL INCLUSIVE, LAND ONLY fee (Istanbul-to-Istanbul tour in Turkey between these dates). We’ll relax and rest before we embark for a lovely dinner at an authentic Istanbul restaurant. This is declared a World Heritage Site by UNICEF since it is a unique urban settlement with very democratic architecture ideals.
This museum contains artifacts from the earliest communities in Catal Hoyuk to the Roman period.
On the way, we’ll stop in the village of Hacibektash, the village where the founder of the Bektashi order of dervishes; Hadji Bektas-i Veli lived during the time of Rumi and developed a heterodox lineage of Sufism which is known as one of the most tolerant and egalitarian sects in the Sufi world. Here we’ll visit Mersin, Latif’s hometown and have lunch with his family so you can experience a real traditional Turkish urban family. Ephesus has many great sites to see, such as the Marble Road, the Celsius Library and the Temple of Diana. OurTours do NOT sell such insurance Please note: Lat Tours is not liable for loss, damage or theft of luggage or personal belongings, for personal injury, accident or illness.
Even though we try to provide the best alternatives for non-smoking hotels, restaurants and other public places, you might still encounter some smoking. These buses are for either 15 or 30 passenger capacity depending on the number of the participants. Any deposit that is sent towards booking a tour constitutes full knowledge, acceptance and agreement of the cancellation policy.
After all, you want to be a non-smoker and youa€™ll easily save many times the cost of your investment. Whatever the trigger, the fact is that smoking is a habit and so is as much a part of your life as any other habit really.
Habits make life easier.A Imagine having to relearn how to drive or eat or clean your teeth every day. NOT SO!A If you want to see the effects of REAL physical addiction look up what happens to someone on crystal meth. But does drinking a couple of wines regularly and enjoying them make you addicted to alcohol? In fact over 30% of our successful clients report feeling as though they have never had a cigarette in their whole life!
Our treatment process has been developed over more than ten years to correctly provide exactly what is needed to let youA change the way you think about and deal with your smoking habit.
And whilstA multiple-session hypnosis has a reasonably high 66% success rate at helping people quit cigarettes, it is not complete enough in itself to guarantee you will become a lifelong non-smoker.
The result is that nothing is left to guesswork or hope and every area that needs to be addresses to ensure success is dealt with as it should. Even multi-session standard hypnotherapy, the best of the alternative methods, is less than 60% as effective as Quit60.
The study compared four separate quit smoking methods used by highly-motivated former hospital patients.A 50% of patients using hypnosis quit successfullyA after onlyA one hypnosis session with recorded sessions for follow-up. Yet the Quit60 Method, with more than ten years of 95%+ success with clients worldwide becoming lifetime non-smokers after a single session by far and away the most successful modality to quit cigarettes available today.
When people have attempted various methods to quit smoking and are not successful, they tend to talk about it more often. Sadly, many people, too wrapped up in their own lives, don't realise the realities of poverty in The UK, assuming it is their own fault. A The goal of the study is to figure out what percentage of people taking the medication are actually helped---meaning how many people met the goal. A combination of riboflavin, magnesium, and feverfew for migraine prophylaxis: a randomized trial. Botulinum toxin type A for the prophylactic treatment of chronic daily headache: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Acupuncture in migraine prevention: a randomized sham controlled study with 6-months post-treatment follow-up. This type of headache pattern is called either chronic daily headache or chronic daily migraine.A  As you might expect, the episodic pattern responds better to the medications than does the more chronic daily form. A He has about a 50% chance that Drug A will give him some benefit after taking it for one to three months.
If it is not running, see Chapter 5.Some refrigerators are very quiet and smooth when they operate. We’ll relax and rest before we embark for a lovely dinner at an authentic Istanbul restaurant. From there we’ll go to Kizkalesi and enjoy the sun, history and beaches and we’ll stay at a beachside resort. Even though we try to provide the best alternatives for non-smoking hotels, restaurants and other public places, you might still encounter some smoking. REFUND POLICY : The below policy will be strictly adhered to regardless of the reason for cancellation.
There will also be plenty of time to stroll around Aya Sophia and the Sultanahmet district both in the afternoon and after dinner.
Here we’ll stroll thru the cobblestone streets during the sunset and enjoy the Turkish Bath “Hamam” experience in a 13th century bathhouse.
It is also known as the Hittite Museum and reflects the culture these people of “one thousand Gods”. We’ll spend 3 full days in Cappadocia exploring the mysterious and mystical lunar landscape and rock hewn early Christian churches dating back to the 7th-13th Century AD all around the Valley.
From there we’ll go to Kizkalesi and enjoy the sun, history and beaches and we’ll stay at a beachside resort. Strolling along the shores of the lake and imagining the old life style existed here many hundreds years ago will be a memorable experience.
During our stay in Selcuk, we’ll also visit the incredible Ephesus Archaeological Museum where you can see many precious artifacts such as the one and only statue of Goddess Artemis. The sooner you sign up for a tour, the better the chances are that we will be able to find a roommate for you.
If you need any medical service during the tour, we will happily help you get a doctor or take you to a clinic.


So you can book your session with a a€?Quit Smoking In 60 Minutes Specialista€? with complete confidence. That is based on the thousands of successful clients worldwide over ten years who became non-smokers for life. Nevertheless in some cases the above drug with clearly documented dangers is sometimes prescribed before hypnotism.
Just like when passengers on an airline are not happy, or customers at a shop feel ripped off. So realistically, if you do decide on using hypnotherapy to help you quit smoking and you settle for anything less than Quit60, you really are just wasting your money.
There will also be plenty of time to stroll around Aya Sophia and the Sultanahmet district both in the afternoon and after dinner. This is the perfect time to go into the Mediterranean Sea and swim to the mid-sea castle from the time of the Templars.
CANCELLATIONS: LAT TOURS reserves the right to cancel any tours prior to departure for any reasons, including insufficient number of participants and safety issues.
We’ll be staying at an old Prince’s house and have a lovely dinner in the beautiful courtyard. We’ll tour the amazing underground cities and churches, and experience the life of these unique people from 1500 years ago. This is the perfect time to go into the Mediterranean Sea and swim to the mid-sea castle from the time of the Templars.
We’ll be watching the sunset in Pamukkale, literally means “cotton castle” where ancients Romans and Greeks enjoyed hot springs for centuries. We will also visit the house and little chapel where the Virgin Mary lived during her final days. After checking in our comfortable hotel in the Old City, we’ll explore this ancient and exciting city from Museums to the streets to the bazaars and restaurants. If you wish to share your room and we cannot find a roommate, the single supplement fee will be waived. However the passenger will need to pay the expenses to the doctor or clinic after or before the medical service provided. Also, even though there is no heavy hiking involved in this tour, certain level of walking on uneven terrain will be required since most of the historical sites are scattered in wide areas. The closest alternative therapy to Quit60 is standard, multi-session hypnotherapy which, although showing better results than other therapies, is still far less effective than the proven Quit60 Method. Success rates off 66% still mean one in three people investing in themselves to quit smoking is using a method that is letting them down. At the end of the day if the client is serious about quitting there is no realistic alternative to Quit60. London (2003) stated, a€?Smoking cessation is an area in which hypnosis has been particularly effective. F Hasan, one of the studya€™s authors, said,a€?Our results showed that hypnotherapy resulted in higher quit rates compared with NRT alone. Also, even though there is no heavy hiking involved in this tour, certain level of walking on uneven terrain will be required since most of the historical sites are scattered in wide areas.
We’ll visit the 2000 year old city of Hierapolis and admire the tombs of many traditions concentrated in this “healing city”.
We will return to our hotel in Kusadasi, 20 minutes away and enjoy a very relaxing evening on the Aegean Coast. Established on two continents, Istanbul has been a fascinating city for centuries for people from every walk of life.
Once the tour commences, if you degide you no longer want to share a room, you will have to pay double the original singgle supplement fee in order to compensate for your roommate's single room as well.
Since this tour covers half of Turkey, there will be some bus traveling involved every day. The majority of our clients are referred to us by people who we have helped to quit smoking and we want to help as many people as possible give up this destructive habit.
Because of our 95%+ success rate we are the only quit cigarettes program that offers a LIFETIME guarantee.
Life would be impossible without habits.A The good news is that habits CAN be changed, with just a little awareness and application.
The whole problem is that the greedy few take far more than they need, leaving the rest of us struggling.We ask you, - who really needs more money than they can possibly spend? This is declared a World Heritage Site by UNICEF since it is a unique urban settlement with very democratic architecture ideals. Since this tour covers half of Turkey, there will be some bus traveling involved every day. PAYMENT SCHEDULE: * A deposit of 500 Usd - 350 Euro per person is required upon registration.
We’ll spend our evenings at luxury accommodations and experience the local cuisine and local culture in the evenings. Once it was called Constantinople, it was conquered by the Turkish Sultan Fatih in 1453 AD. Joseph Barber of the University of Washington, Seattle, for example, found that hypnotic intervention can be integrated into a treatment protocol for smoking cessation.
This will be the ALL INCLUSIVE, LAND ONLY fee (Istanbul-to-Istanbul tour in Turkey between these dates).
Here we’ll stroll thru the cobblestone streets during the sunset and enjoy the Turkish Bath “Hamam” experience in a 13th century bathhouse. In this museum, there are exhibits of Dervish costumes, instruments, illuminated manuscripts, and various ethnographic artifacts. Any deposit that is sent towards booking a tour constitutes full knowledge, acceptance and agreement of the cancellation policy.
While in Cappadocia we will visit some carpet weavers and listen to their stories about carpet weaving.
The evening will proceed with a dinner of local cuisine accompanied with local folk music and dances at a very friendly restaurant. Cadmium Yellow, for instance, is made from the compound of cadmium zinc sulfide, and calcined iron oxide is the chemical name for Burnt Sienna.
We’ll be staying at an old Prince’s house and have a lovely dinner in the beautiful courtyard. We’ll make a campfire in an open field among the “fairy chimneys” and listen to the music of the Bektashis and the other Sufis performed by Latif and his musician friends from Turkey.
In this museum, there are exhibits of Dervish costumes, instruments, illuminated manuscripts, and various ethnographic artifacts. A way to determine whether a tube of paint contains a genuine color is to look for the ASTM designation (usually on the back of the tube, and occasionally on the face).
TOUR BUS INFORMATION: Transportation will be by private air-conditioned new Mercedes, Volkswagen or Isuzu deluxe buses. That’s why you will be amazed with the variety of people, artifacts, food, and scenery in this wonderfully exciting city. If there is a single ASTM number, the paint is made from a genuine pigment of a single substance. The Mark, the currency of Germany's value was not competitive in the international currency and the economic fabric became miserable with poverty, unemployment and other economic problemsIn 1931, Hitler came to power with his intrigues and Nazi propaganda. If you are still unsure and you own an ammeter, test the current draw of the compressor at the compressor leads.
This museum contains artifacts from the earliest communities in Catal Hoyuk to the Roman period. The dinner will take place at a fine restaurant overlooking the beautifully lighted tomb of Rumi. These buses are for either 15 or 30 passenger capacity depending on the number of the participants. During our stay here, we’ll visit Topkapi Palace, Blue Mosque, Suleymaniye and Rustem Pasha Mosques, Grand Bazaar, Spice Bazaar, Military Museum, Islamic Art Museum, Whirling Dervishes ceremony and many other wonderful places. If you find more than one ASTM number, it means several different pigments were combined to make the paint and it is not a genuine color.A An ASTM designation starts with the letter "P" for pigment, followed by a letter or set of letters for the color group, such as "Y" for yellow or "Br" meaning brown, and then a one to three digit number for the specific color.
He established a racial regime where top position was given to blue eyed Aryan race of Germans .Where as Jews and blacks were given low position. It is also known as the Hittite Museum and reflects the culture these people of “one thousand Gods”.
After the dinner, we’ll be treated with mystical music and whirling of the dervishes by our good friends from the Mevlevi order of Sufis in Konya.
The dinner will take place at a fine restaurant overlooking the beautifully lighted tomb of Rumi. Associating with Jews was not felt good and they were forced to surrender their property and send to areas where poverty and unemployment were the social outcomes. This will give you an idea how Rumi lived 800 years ago at the same spot, maybe 10 meters away! He encouraged to multiply the children of German race and given clear instructions to avoid the marriages with the Jews. MOVE FORWARD TO 2014: Disillusioned with Capitalism and Socialism,A Nigel Farage joined a small party called UKIP.
After a 4-5 hour drive through the scenic Anatolian plateau to arrive at the one of the natural wonders of the world: Cappadocia. This will give you an idea how Rumi lived 800 years ago at the same spot, maybe 10 meters away! Through his attractive speeches, he got a wide following all over The UK.The economy is struggling, and through the ConDem's policies, there is widespread poverty, unemployment and economic problems. On the way, we’ll stop in the village of Hacibektash, the village where the founder of the Bektashi order of dervishes; Hadji Bektas-i Veli lived during the time of Rumi and developed a heterodox lineage of Sufism which is known as one of the most tolerant and egalitarian sects in the Sufi world. Strolling along the shores of the lake and imagining the old life style existed here many hundreds years ago will be a memorable experience.
Kings Blue, for instance, is just Zinc White (PW1) or Titanium White (PW6) plus Cobalt (PB36) or French Ultramarine Blue (PB29), yet it saves the landscape painter much time by not having to mix it on the palette each time she needs a sky color.A Some convenience colors are intended to replace an obsolete but useful pigment.
A A Despite what he says, Nigel Farage and his cohorts are racist, indeed, the name United Kingdom Independence Party says it all - The British for the British! We’ll spend 3 full days in Cappadocia exploring the mysterious and mystical lunar landscape and rock hewn early Christian churches dating back to the 7th-13th Century AD all around the Valley.
We’ll be watching the sunset in Pamukkale, literally means “cotton castle” where ancients Romans and Greeks enjoyed hot springs for centuries.
For instance, the production of genuine Indian Yellow is now barred by law, so today producers create alternatives from mixtures of other colors.A imitationLike a convenience color, an a€?imitationa€? is a mixture, one that allows the manufacturer to offer an inexpensive alternative to a costly color.
We’ll tour the amazing underground cities and churches, and experience the life of these unique people from 1500 years ago.
We’ll visit the 2000 year old city of Hierapolis and admire the tombs of many traditions concentrated in this “healing city”. Also like a convenience color, properly labeled imitations are identified with two or more ASTM numbers.
If the knob has an "off" setting which stops the compressor from running, it is thecold control.In the absence of an "off" setting, the easiest way to tell them apart is to pull the plastic knob off the control. We’ll spend our evenings at luxury accommodations and experience the local cuisine and local culture in the evenings.
Maybe the best kept secret of the entire Turkish sites, we’ll be transported to the days of Mother Goddess. While in Cappadocia we will visit some carpet weavers and listen to their stories about carpet weaving. We’ll make a campfire in an open field among the “fairy chimneys” and listen to the music of the Bektashis and the other Sufis performed by Latif and his musician friends from Turkey. Ephesus has many great sites to see, such as the Marble Road, the Celsius Library and the Temple of Diana.
During our stay in Selcuk, we’ll also visit the incredible Ephesus Archaeological Museum where you can see many precious artifacts such as the one and only statue of Goddess Artemis.
It was a political earthquake!A Less than 12 weeks earlier, Winston Churchill (pictured right) had announced the unconditional surrender of Nazi Germany. We will also visit the house and little chapel where the Virgin Mary lived during her final days. Churchill wanted his wartime coalition to continue until Japan too had been defeated, but was not unduly dismayed when his Labour ministers insisted that the country be offered a choice. We will return to our hotel in Kusadasi, 20 minutes away and enjoy a very relaxing evening on the Aegean Coast. The Prime Minister called the election for early July, confident that the British people would back the greatest hero of the hour. The idea is to keep the compartment at a different temperature from the rest of the food compartment; a more optimum temperature for the particular food that you're keeping in these compartments. Of all Churchill's colossal misjudgments, that was probably the most egregious!A The voters wanted an end to wartime austerity, and no return to prewar economic depression.
The evening will proceed with a dinner of local cuisine accompanied with local folk music and dances at a very friendly restaurant. This is known as "sweating." So-called "Energy Saver" switches control small, low-wattage "mullion" heaters in the side and door panels that prevent the outside of the refrigerator from getting cool enough for sweating to occur.
Three years earlier, in the darkest days of the war, they had been offered a tantalising glimpse of how things could be in the bright dawn of victory.
It offered nothing less than a cradle-to-grave welfare state.That was the great promise dangled before the British electorate in 1945. After checking in our comfortable hotel in the Old City, we’ll explore this ancient and exciting city from Museums to the streets to the bazaars and restaurants. Though Churchill had presided over the planning for radical social reform, though he was a genuine hero of the masses,A the people of The UKA did not trust him to deliver the brave new world of Beveridge.There were other factors too. Air flows over it by convection; the warm air rises and is replaced by cooler air from below. Established on two continents, Istanbul has been a fascinating city for centuries for people from every walk of life.
Once it was called Constantinople, it was conquered by the Turkish Sultan Fatih in 1453 AD. Sadly, many people, too wrapped up in their own lives, don't realise the realities of poverty in The UK, assuming it is their own fault.
That’s why you will be amazed with the variety of people, artifacts, food, and scenery in this wonderfully exciting city. During our stay here, we’ll visit Topkapi Palace, Blue Mosque, Suleymaniye and Rustem Pasha Mosques, Grand Bazaar, Spice Bazaar, Military Museum, Islamic Art Museum, Whirling Dervishes ceremony and many other wonderful places. Feel for a steady flow of warm air from the drain pan side; it should be obvious (see Figure 11). The Mark, the currency of Germany's value was not competitive in the international currency and the economic fabric became miserable with poverty, unemployment and other economic problemsIn 1931, Hitler came to power with his intrigues and Nazi propaganda. It has the veryimportantjob of directing airflow beneath the fridge, assuring that the condenser fan is drawing air over the condenser and not just sucking air in through the back of the fridge.


They are sealed units and cannot be rebuilt.Replacing the condenser fan motor can be dirty and difficult. When installing a new motor with bracket mounts, it may be easier to install the brackets loosely on the motor until you can locate the mounting screws in their holes.
Thus, when trouble-shooting the evaporator fan, you must depress the door switch(es).Open your freezer door, depress all door switches and listen for the evaporator fan. Look first for a separate access panel or a tower within the freezer that houses the fan (Figure 14). Check for anything that may be blocking the fan, including ice from a backed-up defrost drain or a frost problem. If nothing is blocking the fan and it still does not run, check for voltage across the fan motor leads (with the door switch depressed, of course.)If you have voltage across the fan motor leads, the fan motor is bad. Itcancause ice to build up in the internal ductwork.If you hear a "whistling" or "warbling" noise emanating from the fan motor itself or from the inside of the food or freezer compartment, it is probably coming from the evaporator fan motor. They don't cost much.REPLACING THE EVAPORATOR FAN MOTORIn replacing the fan motor, you must make sure that the rotation of the new fan motor is the same as the old one.
The easiest way to do this is to look for the shading poles on the old fan motor (Figure 16).If they are on opposite corners from the ones on the new fan motor core, it is a simple enough task to reverse the new rotor in its core. Do not remove the icemaker (if installed.)Look at and feel the panel covering the bottom or back of the freezer compartment. You will see a removable panel covering the entire back or bottom of your freezer compartment. Make sure the power is off the refrigerator before disassembling any lighting circuit.On some bottom-evap models, you may have to remove some of the plastic moulding around the door frame to access some of the evaporator panel screws.
This can usually be accomplished by placing a pan of very hot water in various places on the panel, or by blowing warm air on it with a blow-dryer. Therefore, when you are diagnosing a defrost problem, it's a good idea to try to avoid melting the ice encasing the terminating thermostat until you've made your diagnosis. If the thermostat opens before you've had a chance to see if the heater works, you'll have to by-pass it. There are many styles, but most are variations of the three types pictured in Figure 20.Aback-evaporatormodel is one with the evaporator mounted vertically against theinside back wallof the freezer compartment. These may be bottom freezer models, side-by-sides (Figure 17) or top freezer models (Figure 18.)Abottom-evaporatormodel is one with the evaporator mounted horizontally (flat) beneath a panel on thebottomof the freezer compartment (Figure 19). Does it have a fluffy (snowy) white consistency, or is it solid and clear-ish or slightly milky white-ish?Check the frostpattern.
Or is it not frosted at all?On back-evap models, examine the drain pan directly beneath the evaporator.
Is it clear, or is it filled with solid ice?Each of these symptoms indicates a different problem. If you have lots of white, snowy ice, keep reading.4-5 DEFROST SYSTEMIf the frost is snowy and white in appearance, you have a defrost problem. The three main components of the defrost system are the defrost timer, the defrost heater and the terminating thermostat.4-5(a) DEFROST TIMERS AND ADAPTIVE DEFROST CONTROLIn most older refrigerators and some newer ones, a motor-driven timer (Figure 21) is used to stop the compressor and initiate a defrost cycle. If you have a Whirlpool or Kenmore refrigerator with a flex-tray icemaker, the defrost timer is integrated into the icemaker.
This is true whether you are using the icemaker to make ice or not; it is running constantly to time your defrost cycles.
If you have a defrost problem and you have one of these machines, follow the instructions in section 4-6.Nowadays, refrigerators are being made as efficient as possible, due in no small part to government energy efficiency requirements. Defrost heaters use a lot of energy, so designers are mimimizing the total amount of time that the heater is energized.
Such factors include ambient humidity and temperature, the water content and temperature of the food you put into the fridge, icemaking within the freezer, and how often the door is opened and closed.For example, if you go away on vacation for a week, the refrigerator door will obviously not be opened for a long time. Less humid air will enter the fridge than if someone was at home, and opening and closing the door. Frost buildup will be much slower than usual, so the refrigerator will not need to be defrosted as often as normal. It also will not need to be chilled as often, so compressor run times will be shorter and less frequent.Designers are using microprocessors (on solid state circuit boards) to adapt defrost intervals and durations to compensate for differences and changes in operating conditions. Such techniques are calledAdaptive Defrost Control, commonly abbreviated as ADC.To make decisions about the correct defrost duration and interval, the control board must have input about the conditions that the fridge is operating under.
Each manufacturer uses a different logic scheme and different inputs, such as door open time, compressor run time, duration of the previous defrost cycle, and duration and intervals of door openings.Door open info is provided to the logic board by the door switch - the same one that controls the refrigerator's internal lights.
For example, the ADC is programmed with a maximum amount of time that the heater can stay on; say, for 16 minutes. Often they are mounted under a cover plate or in a bracket that hides all but the advancement pinion. The easiest way to recognize them is that the harness connection is always labelled with the compressor, defrost heater, L1 and L2. The easiest way to see the heater is to look for the heavy, rubber-coated wires leading to it; one on each end.
The element has no protective tubing and generally wraps around beneath the evaporator in a large "U" shape.You must exercise caution when handling these heaters to prevent burning yourself.
If that happens, you want to turn the heater off soon after the ice melts, to prevent the evaporator compartment from heating up too much. If theterminating thermostatsenses too high a temperature in the compartment, it opens, and cuts power to the heater. The thermostat will then stay open until the compartment again reaches a very low temperature.
In other words, it waits to reset itself until the cooling cycle starts again.If the evaporator is more heavily frosted, the ice may not all melt within the time allotted by the timer.
The heater will stay on until thetimerstops the defrost cycle, and restarts the cooling cycle.If you initiate defrost (turn the timer on) and the heaterdoes notheat up, then usually the heater or terminating thermostat is bad. If you initiate defrost and the heaterdoesturn on, then usually the timer or ADC board is bad, and you must replace it.To diagnose which component is bad, you must initiate the defrost mode, or test continuity through the defrost heater and terminating thermostat.
Within ten minutes (usually much less) you should be able to see a red glow from the defrost heater(s), which is (are) mounted beneath the evaporator.If you have an aluminum-tube heater as described in section 4-5(b), it will not glow red, but youwillsee ice melting away from its coils. Timers can get old, worn and coked up with dust, and may develop hard spots in the bearings. If youdo nothear or see indications that the defrost heater is working, then it is necessary to investigate a little further. If you cannot tell for sure, get the information for your model fridge from your parts man. DIAGNOSIS: DEFROST HEATER AND TERMINATING THERMOSTATIf you do not hear or see indications that the defrost heater is working, you could be looking at one of several different problems.
The heatermaybe so icebound that it would takehoursfor the heater to melt enough ice for you to see the heater begin to work.
If they are not connected to a terminal block, you will need to cut the leads to test for continuity.
Make sure you're not testing continuity across the terminating thermostat too; it may be wide open above 40 or 50 degrees.
With glass-tube heaters, be careful that the glass is not cracked or broken and that you do not cut yourself. It's cheap.If you have an ammeter, try to determine if the heater is drawing any power before you melt any ice. In trying to find the heater leads, be careful that you do not melt so much ice that the terminating thermostat opens. If you suspect that the terminating thermostat might be open, temporarily bypass the terminating thermostat with an alligator jumper as described below.If you cannot find the heater leads, an alternativeis to check the current in one lead of the main power cord.
Double-check this diagnosis by jumping across (shorting) the terminating thermostat with your alligator jumpers. If the two thermostat leads are not on a terminal block, you will have to cut the leads to jump the thermostat. Remember that it's a wet environment.LIFTING THE EVAPORATORIf you have a bottom-evap model fridge, replacing the heater will involve the delicate task of lifting the evaporator up to get to the heater. If you break or puncture one of those tubes, you're looking at a potentially expensive sealed system repair.Thaw out the evaporator as thoroughly as is humanly possible. Remove the evaporator mounting screws (if there are any) and gently lift up the end of the evaporator opposite the tubes. Prop up the evaporator with a blunt instrument (I use my electrical pliers or a flashlight) and change the heater.
Do what you went in there to do, but as much as possible, avoid moving the evaporator around too much.When you finish, gently lower the evaporator back into place. The hard tray is finished in a dark gray or black color and has rotating fingers that eject the cubes from the unit; the flex-tray has a white plastic, flexible tray that inverts and twists to eject, much the same as a manual ice cube tray would work. The hard-tray and separate defrost timer is by far the more common arrangement.This defrost system has the same components described in the defrost system in section 4-5, except that the defrost timer is integrated into the icemaker. However, the actual switch that controls the heater is accessible.Remove the icemaker and the evaporator panel as described in section 4-4.
Take the plastic cover off the face of the icemaker and remove the three screws holding the metal faceplate to the icemaker head. Plug the icemaker back into its electrical socket and observe the drive motor in the upper lefthand corner of the icemaker head. The defrost switch is the small, rectangular switch in the upper righthand corner of the icemaker head. Using electrical tape, tape it out of the way so it does not touch any other metal object in the icemaker head. Using your resistance meter, you should see continuity (and no resistance) between the empty terminal (where the BLACK lead was) and the PINK terminal.You should see NO continuity between the empty (BLACK) and ORANGE terminal. When the switch toggle is depressed, continuity will be just the opposite: BLACK-ORANGE-CONTINUITY, BLACK-PINK-NO CONTINUITY. If the switch is okay, the problem is probably your defrost heater or terminating thermostat. Alignment of the gears is critical; follow the instructions that come with the gear sets carefully. If you replace the motor, you will have to re-align the defrost timing gear mechanism.RE-ASSEMBLYIf you have not removed the defrost timing gear housing from the back of the icemaker head or the motor from the front of the head, you will not need to re-align thedefrost timinggear mechanism. However, youwillneed to realign thedrivegear mechanism.Align the hole in the small drive gear with the alignment hole in the icemaker head and install the gear. If they do not line up perfectly, momentarily plug the icemaker in or apply 110 volt power to the two center leads of the plug This will turn the drive motor slightly.
Lift the spring-loaded shut-off arm (ice level sensor) as you install the cam and let it rest in the cam hollow. Carefully install the metal cover plate, making sure the end of the wire shut-off arm (ice level sensor) is in its pivot hole in the metal cover plate.
The coldest blue is French Ultramarine, followed by Cobalt, Cerulean, Manganese, and the warmest, Prussian and Phthalocyanine. Make sure the icemaker is turned on (ice level sensor arm is down) or it won't make ice.4-7 HOT GAS DEFROST PROBLEMSIf you have a refrigerator with a hot gas defrost system, the defrost mechanism is somewhat different from those described in previous sections of this book.
If you suspect that you might have a hot-gas defroster but you are not sure, ask your appliance parts dealer. Phthalocyanine may be labeled Phthalo, Thalo, Monstral, or Winsor)i»?The darkest blues are Prussian, then Phthalocyanine. Most of these refrigerators were built before 1970, but not all.The main difference in a hot gas system is that there is no electrical heater or separate terminating thermostat. The defrost cycle is controlled by a defrost timer similar to the one you'll find in electric defrost systems, but the timer controls asolenoid valveinstead of aheater.
Both colors are so potent that even a tiny amount has a powerful impact upon other colors in mixtures. Even though they are transparent, due to their intensity they effectively hide what they are painted over unless worked out into an extremely thin veneer. Rich, vibrant blacks can be made with them when combined with a strong red like Alizarin Crimson, Cadmium Red Deep, or Indian Red. By adding white to these blackish mixtures, the blacks become handsome violet, pinkish, or greenish grays.
These units have a temperature sensing bulb, similar to that found on the cold control (see section 4-9 and Figures 21 and 33) as a part of the timer.
Its function is to sense the temperature of the evaporator so the defrost mechanism knows when to shut off.Troubleshooting a defrost problem in this system involves two steps. Wait and watch your evaporator for 10-15 minutes.If the frost starts to melt, then your defrost timer has gone bad.
Thoroughly melt the rest of the frost from your evaporator and replace the defrost timer.If the frost doesnotstart to melt, then your defrost solenoid is probably bad.
Fortunately, the defrost solenoid is usually designed so the electrical coil can be replaced without cutting into the sealed system. Trace the Freon tubing until you find electrical wires joining the tubing at a certain point.
UNEVEN FROST PATTERNS, OR NO FROST AT ALLThe evaporator should be bitterly cold to the touch.
If the evaporator is either slightly cool or not cold at all, and your compressor is runningconstantly(not short-cycling; see section 4-9) you have a more serious problem.
The same diagnosis applies if just the first coil or two in the evaporator is (are) frosted and the rest are relatively free of ice or perhaps even lukewarm.What's happening is that the Freon is not getting compressed enough in the compressor.
This could be due to two causes: either the amount of Freon in the system is low, or the compressor is worn out. Itmayonly require recharging the Freon system, which, depending on the refrigerant used, may cost you a little, or a LOT. I have only seen one exception to this diagnosis, and this is described in section 7-2.Don't let the age of the refrigerator affect your diagnosis. Not too long ago, one of the largest appliance companies put out a series of refrigerators with compressors that were either poorly designed or poorly constructed; I never did find out which. These were their giant, 20 to 25 cubic-foot flagship models, with techno-marvelous gadgets like digital self-diagnosis and ice and water in the door, and they were built with compressors that wore out within 2 years.Fortunately, the biggest and best companies warrant their refrigerators for five years or more, so these refrigerators were still covered under warranty. COLD CONTROLIf your refrigerator is cold but not as cold as usual, and you cannot trace it to any of the other problems in this chapter, your cold control may be defective. To test its cut-in and cut-out temperatures, you can try putting the capillary bulb in ice water and measuring the temperature with a thermometer, but it's a wet, messy, job and it's difficult to control the temperatures. The capillary tube is the liquid-filled temperature-sensing element of the cold control, and operates in the same manner as a thermometerbulb; in fact, the end of the capillary tube may have a bulb.
The tube and bulbmaybe coiled right next to the cold control, or they may be led away to another part of the compartment.If you are justtesting(electrically) the cold control, you can jumper directly from one wire lead to the other.
By doing this, you are closing the switch manually, and assuming the machine is not in the defrost mode, the compressor should start.If you arereplacingthe cold control, it will be necessary to trace where the capillary tube goes, and remove the whole tubewiththe cold control.




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