DESCRIPTION: A Benedictine monk named Andrew Walsperger from Salzburg created this world map in 1448 at Constance. The orientation of the mappamundi towards the South is perhaps the first aspect that surprises and intrigues the modern spectator who is used to North-oriented maps, and who is therefore disoriented by the effort required to identify landmasses which not only have 500-year-old outlines, but which are also turned a€?upside down,a€? thus losing their familiar shapes. The earth is surrounded by an ocean except at the far South, at the top of the map, where Africa stretches to the edge of the circle.
The map mentions curiosities allegedly only occurring in Africa: Amazons, Pygmies, one-footed beings, long-eared beings and humans with tails. Descriptions of the representational method, indications in the measurement banner beneath the chart picture and the signatures prove that his map was one of the last products of European monkish cartography.
A refinement of the Walsperger map is the convention of placing a red dot by each city controlled by Christians; pagan-ruled sites received a black dot. To understand the Ptolemaic influence, it is necessary first to be aware of a school of science under the leadership of the mathematician and astronomer Johannes de Gmunden at the University of Vienna and the prelate Georg Mustinger at the Augustinian monastery of Klosterneuburg, now in suburban Vienna. Although only coordinate tables survive for the earliest versions of these circular world maps of the Vienna-Klosterneuburg school, Durand reconstructed maps from the tables, most of which are to be found in a 522-page codex in the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek. This evidence suggests that 15th century cartographers were clearly impressed with the Ptolemaic model and took pains to demonstrate that, although they did not agree with all of Ptolemya€™s information or method of using coordinates, the tradition was to be revered.
In 1490 Henricus Martellus Germanus (#256) developed the second Ptolemaic projection for his world maps and fitted the new discoveries into it, as did the globe of Martin Behaim (#258). It has become clear to some cartographic scholars that South America was represented as a huge peninsula of southeastern Asia on many world maps of the 16th century, from the Zorzi sketches of 1506 to the Livio Sanuto map of 1574. It is not so well known that this very same peninsula existed already under the name of India Meridionalis on earlier maps, drawn before the arrival in the western hemisphere of Christopher Columbus.
However, the Martellus maps show a very good representation of the South American hydrographic system, including all the great rivers in the sub-continent.
A deeper study of the same maps has made possible the identification of several capes on the Atlantic coast, the swamps of the Rio Negro in Brazil, and Lake Titicaca. There was thus no known pre-Columbian historical exploration of South America by the European nations. The earlier maps extant include the so-called mappaemundi drawn by medieval churchmen in Western Christendom. In order to detect this peninsula on pre-Martellus maps, we needed an identifying criterion. The above mentioned sequence identifies the Dragona€™s Tail on the Walsperger Map, made in Constance in 1448. The Walsperger map has been reproduced and commented on by several historians of cartography, particularly Roberto Almagia and Dana Benet Durand. The following is a theory expressed by Paul Gallez regarding the depiction of South America prior to Columbusa€™ voyages. In the southernmost part of South America (?), there are the words, next to a strait: Hic sunt gigantes pugnantes cum draconious [Here live some giants who fight against the dragons].
Traditionally, the so-called Legend of the Patagonian Giants is attributed to Antonio Pigafetta, the chronicler of Magellana€™s voyage.
The map called Nova Cosmographia per totum arculum dated 1440, (#247) by Durand, and the anonymous Zeitz map dated 1470 by the same author (#251), belong to the same family as the Walsperger map. In the later Middle Ages, explanations of the map paintera€™s intentions are sometimes found on the map itself, as in the case of this map. Ptolemy was an important name to the German school, but it seems as though his work was not very well understood. AlmagiA , Roberto, Monumenta cartografica Vaticana (CittA  del Vaticano: Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, 1944), Plate XII. Vatikanischen Bibliothek, Zeitschrift der Gesellschaft fA?r Erdkunde zu Berlin, XXVI (1891), pp. AlmagiA , Roberto, Monumenta cartografica Vaticana (CittA  del Vaticano: Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, 1944) Volume I, pp. Durand, Dana Benett, The Vienna-Klosterneuburg map corpus of the fifteenth century (Leiden: E.
Gallez, Paul, a€?Walsperger and His Knowledge of the Patagonian Giants, 1448,a€? Imago Mundi 33 (1981), pp.
Wittkower, Rudolf, a€?Marvels of the East: A Study in the History of Monsters,a€? Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 5 (1942), note 6 on p. DESCRIPTION: Henricus Martellus was the one mapmaker who linked the late medieval cartography, just emerging from social, religious, academic and technological constraints, to mapping that reflected the Renaissance and the new discoveries. No one at that time had any knowledge of the true position and outlines of East Asia, yet the representation of East Asia is identical on both the Martellus maps and the Behaim globe. Who had most to gain from such a reckless exaggeration of the extent of Eurasia and who was the first to do so? The Arctic coasts on the Martellus map and those of north and northwest Europe resemble those of the Fra Mauro planisphere of 1459 (#249) rather than those of the Ulm Ptolemy of 1482. In the volume of Imago Mundi, found amongst the possessions of Christopher Columbus after his death, there are numerous notes or postils written in the margins or below the printed matter.
Note that in the year a€?88 in the month of December arrived in Lisbon Bartholomew Diaz, Captain of three caravels which the Most Serene King of Portugal had sent to try out the land in Guinea. Another peculiar feature of the Martellus map is the enormous peninsula commencing due south of Aureus Chersonesus [the Malay peninsula] at 28A° south, thereafter widening to reach China. The east-west extent from the Canaries to the coast of China is about 235A°, which agrees with the Toscanelli-Columbus concept and with the 1489 Martellus map now in the British Library. The sheets of paper on which the Yale map is drawn are of different sizes, which excluded the possibility that they were printed map sheets, for they would then have had to be the same size to fit within the map portfolio. Roberto Almagia (1940) stated that he had identified no less than three manuscript maps of the world signed by Martellus, all virtually identical with that in the codex in the British Library.
When Columbus left Lisbon in 1485 for Spain, Bartholomew, with his highly trained skills as a cartographer in the Genoese style, stayed on in the map workshop of King John II. These two world maps by Martellus represent, along with Martin Behaima€™s famous globe of 1492, the last view of the old pre-Columbian world as perceived by Western Europe before the great expansion of the world picture during the subsequent twenty years. The Yale example shows more of the Ocean Sea in the Far East than does the British Library manuscript.
Very little is known about Henricus Martellus Germanus, a mapmaker working in Florence from 1480 to 1496. The Indian Ocean is open to the south, but Martellus retains its eastern coast, which Ptolemy had called Sinae, home of the fish-eating Ethiopians. Martellus retains other Ptolemaic features, such as the appearance of the northern coast of the Indian Ocean with a flattened India and a huge Taprobana. Although Martellusa€™s world maps in the Ptolemy manuscripts show an extension of the inhabited world as 180A°, those in the Insularium make it 220A° or more, an attractive feature to those who dreamed of reaching Asia by sailing west. Most of the text still isna€™t legible, but some of the parts that are appear to be drawn from the travels of Marco Polo through east Asia.
The work of Henricus Martellus Germanus epitomizes the best of European cartography at the end of the 15th century.
Wolff, Hans, a€?The Conception of the World on the Eve of the Discovery of America - Introduction,a€? in Wolff, Hans (ed.), America. AlmagiA , Roberto, a€?I mappamondi di Enrico Martello e alcuni concetti geografici di Cristoforo Colombo,a€? La Bibliofolia, Firenze, XLII (1940), pp. AlmagiA , Roberto, a€?On the cartographic work of Francesco Roselli,a€? Imago Mundi, VIII (1951), pp. Caraci, Ilaria L., a€?La€™opera cartografica di Enrico Martello e la a€?prescopertoa€™ della€™America,a€? Rivista Geografica Italiana 83 (1976), Florence, pp. Caraci, Ilaria L., a€?Il planisfero di Enrico Martello della Yale University Library e i fratelli Colombo,a€? Rivista Geografica Italiana 85 (1978), Florence, pp.
Crino, Sebastiano, a€?I Planisferi di Francesco Roselli,a€? LaBibliofilia, Firenze, XLI (1939), pp. Francesco Rosselli was one of the earliest known map stockists and map sellers; in addition he was an important map-maker whose cartographic output spans the decades of the great discoveries.
The mapa€™s most prominent feature is, like the Martellus model, the new outline of Africa, now quite separate from Asia, and reflecting the rounding of the Cape by Bartolomeu Diaz in 1487. First, by 1486 the mathe-matical junta had solved the problem of establishing latitude by measuring the height of the mid-day sun. DESCRIPTION: This is the largest map of its kind to have survived in tact and in good condition from such an early period of cartography.
These place names are in Lincolnshire (Holdingham and Sleaford are the modern forms), and this Richard has been identified as one Richard de Bello, prebend of Lafford in Lincoln Cathedral about the year 1283, who later became an official of the Bishop of Hereford, and in 1305 was appointed prebend of Norton in Hereford Cathedral. While the map was compiled in England, names and descriptions were written in Latin, with the Norman dialect of old French used for special entries.
Here, my dear Son, my bosom is whence you took flesh Here are my breasts from which you sought a Virgina€™s milk.
The other three figures consist of a woman placing a crown on the Virgin Mary and two angels on their knees in supplication.
Still within this decorative border, in the left-hand bottom corner, the Roman Emperor Caesar Augustus is enthroned and crowned with a papal triple tiara and delivers a mandate with his seal attached, to three named commissioners.
In the right-hand bottom corner an unidentified rider parades with a following forester holding a pair of greyhounds on a leash. The geographical form and content of the Hereford map is derived from the writings of Pliny, Solinus, Augustine, Strabo, Jerome, the Antonine Itinerary, St.
As is traditional with the T-O design, there is the tripartite division of the known world into three continents: Europe, Asia, and Africa. EUROPE: When we turn to this area of the Hereford map we would expect to find some evidence of more contemporary 13th century knowledge and geographic accuracy than was seen in Africa or Asia, and, to some limited extent, this theory is true.
France, with the bordering regions of Holland and Belgium is called Gallia, and includes all of the land between the Rhine and the Pyrenees.
Norway and Sweden are shown as a peninsula, divided by an arm of the sea, though their size and position are misrepresented.
On the other side of Europe, Iceland, the Faeroes, and Ultima Tile are shown grouped together north of Norway, perhaps because the restricting circular limits of the map did not permit them to be shown at a more correct distance. The British Isles are drawn on a larger scale than the neighboring parts of the continent, and this representation is of special interest on account of its early date.
On the Hereford map, the areas retain their Latin names, Britannia insula and Hibernia, Scotia, Wallia, and Cornubia, and are neatly divided, usually by rivers, into compartments, North and South Ireland, Wales, Cornwall, England, and Scotland. THE MEDITERRANEAN: The Mediterranean, conveniently separating the three continents of Asia, Africa and Europe, teems with islands associated with legends of Greece and Rome.
Mythical fire-breathing creature with wings, scales and claws; malevolent in west, benevolent in east. 4.A A  For bibliographical information on these and other (including lost) cartographical exemplars, see Westrem, The Hereford Map, p. 10.A A  For bibliographical information for editions and translations of the source texts, see Westrem, The Hereford Map, p.
11.A A  More detailed analysis of these data can be found in my a€?Lessons from Legends on the Hereford Mappa Mundi,a€? Hereford Mappa Mundi Conference proceedings volume being edited by Barber and Harvey (see n.
16.A A  Danubius oritur ab orientali parte Reni fluminis sub quadam ecclesia, et progressus ad orientem, .
23.A A  The a€?standarda€? Latin forms of these place-names and the modern English equivalents are those recorded in the Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World, ed. From the time when it was first mentioned as being in Hereford Cathedral in 1682, until a relatively short time ago, the Hereford Mappamundi was almost entirely the preserve of antiquaries, clergymen with an interest in the middle ages and some historians of cartography. FROM THE TIME when it was first mentioned as being in Hereford Cathedral in 1682, until a relatively short time ago, the Hereford Mappamundi was almost entirely the preserve of antiquaries, clergymen with an interest in the middle ages and some historians of cartography.
Details from the Hereford map of the Blemyae and the Psilli.a€? Typical of the strange creatures or 'Wonders of the East' derived by Richard of Haldingham from classical sources and placed in Ethiopia.
Equally important work was also being done on medieval and Renaissance world maps as a genre, particularly by medievalists such as Anna-Dorothee von den Brincken and Jorg-Geerd Arentzen in Germany and by Juergen Schulz, primarily an art historian, and David Woodward, a leading historian of cartography, in the United States. The Hereford World Map is the only complete surviving English example of a type of map which was primarily a visualization of all branches of knowledge in a Christian framework and only secondly a geographical object.
After the fall of the Roman empire in the 5th century, monks and scholars struggled desperately to preserve from destruction by pagan barbarians the flotsam and jetsam of classical history and learning; to consolidate them and to reconcile them with Christian teaching and biblical history. There would have been several models to choose from, corresponding to the widely differing cartographic traditions inside the Roman Empire, but it seems that the commonest image descended from a large map of the known world that was created for a portico lining the Via Flaminia near the Capitol in Rome during Christ's lifetime. Recent writers such as Arentzen have suggested that, simply because of their sheer availability, from an early date different versions of this map may have been used to illustrate texts by scholars such as St. Eventually some of the information from the texts became incorporated into the maps themselves, though only sparingly at first.
A broad similarity in coastlines with the Hereford map is clear in the Anglo-Saxon [Cottonian] World Map, c.1000 (#210), but there are no illustrations of animals other than the lion (top left). The resulting maps ranged widely in shape and appearance, some being circular, others square.
A few maps of the inhabited world were much more detailed, though keeping to the same broad structure and symbolism. Most of these earlier maps were book illustrations, none were particularly big and the maps were always considered to need textual amplification.
From about 1100, however, we know from contemporary descriptions in chronicles and from the few surviving inventories that larger world maps were produced on parchment, cloth and as wall paintings for the adornment of audience chambers in palaces and castles as well as, probably, of altars in the side chapels of religious buildings.
A separate written text of an encyclopedic nature, probably written by the map's intellectual creator, however, was still intended to accompany many if not all these large maps and one may originally have accompanied the Hereford world map. These maps seem largely to have been inspired by English scholars working at home or in Europe. The most striking novelty, however, was the vastly increased number of depictions of peoples, animals, and plants of the world copied from illustrations in contemporary handbooks on wildlife, commonly called bestiaries and herbals.
Mentions in contemporary records and chronicles, such as those of Matthew Paris, make it plain that these large world maps were once relatively common. At about the same time that this map was being created, Henry III, perhaps after consultation with Gervase, who had visited him in 1229, commissioned wall maps to hang in the audience chambers of his palaces in Winchester and Westminster. The Hereford Mappamundi is the only full size survivor of these magnificent, encyclopedic English-inspired maps. An inscription in Norman-French at the bottom left attributes the map to Richard of Haldingham and Sleaford. DESCRIPTION: The Stiftsbibliothek at Zeitz in Germany possesses a large folio manuscript atlas of Ptolemaic maps, with accompanying commentary, dated 1470.
The orientation of the mappa mundi towards the South is perhaps the first aspect that surprises and intrigues the modern spectator who is used to North-oriented maps, and who is therefore disoriented by the effort required to identify landmasses which not only have 500-year-old outlines, but which are also turned a€?upside down,a€? thus losing their familiar shapes. At the first glance, the map reminds us of Andreas Walspergera€™s circular map of 1448 (#245), which also has the sea in green and lacks the compass lines. The complete divergence from the portolan charts is noteworthy in other respects also, as is the renunciation of their geographical advances, i.e. In the light of this increase of topographical data it is surprising to note the negligent treatment of the North, especially in the Zeitz map, considering that the atlas also contains the much more detailed map of the North by Nicolaus Germanus. While the anonymous author of the Zeitz map drew the geographical outlines exactly as Walsperger did, he follows his own path as regards the number and wording of the legends. The Zeitz map has a much smaller number of cities in Europe than Walsperger, only about 70, and moreover, its selection is different. Moreover, names have been added which are not found even in the most detailed portolan maps such as Dalorto, Dulcert, Pizigani; thus kempem (Kampen on the Zuidersee), and kamen (Caumont near the mouth of the Rhone?).
There are far fewer city pictures and other illustrations in the Zeitz map than in Walsperger. One cannot consider so late a Ptolemaic document without remembering the substantial inroads made by the a€?modernizationa€? of Ptolemy, which originally consisted in the adding of newer maps (for the first time in 1427, the map of the North by Claudius Clavus in the Nancy Codex) and which left traces in almost all later editions. The Zeitz manuscript still retains the old rectangular form for the land maps, including the map of the North. The map of the North shows Greenland erroneously as belonging to Europe or Asia, but otherwise it is placed correctly long beyond and to the southwest of Iceland. Quite unusual is the Ptolemaic world map which is pasted in two parts on the inner sides of the covers where there is scarcely sufficient space for it, suggesting that it had originally been larger.
As shown by the reproduction, the Ptolemaic world map in Zeitz is drawn on the conical projection which Ptolemy described as the easier one and had primarily discussed. Another innovation which appears together with the trapezoidal form as used by Nicholas Germanus is the shape of the Jutland peninsula.
The written text includes, in addition to the explanations pertaining to each map and discussed above, the a€?Ptouincie seu Satrapiea€?, always placed after the last map (Taprobana). The words octauus et ultimus liber suggest the question whether the whole is only a fragment and whether the eighth Book, short in itself, or even the complete work had existed.
18.A  Here is said to be close to the sea a statue of Pallax, which has nine heads, three human heads and six heads of serpents.
22.A  The Gulf of Arabia in which many islands and innumerable red cliffs for which reason it is called the Red Sea. 28.A  Island on which lived the Brahmans?, naked, black and devout people [from the Alexander legend]. 43.A  The wicked people of the Scythians who are always on the move because of the severe cold.
There are far fewer city pictures and other illustrations in the Zeitz map than in Walsperger.A  We see only the crescent on the Mountains of the Moon in South Africa, the monastery of St. Quite unusual is the Ptolemaic world map which is pasted in two parts on the inner sides of the covers where there is scarcely sufficient space for it, suggesting that it had originally been larger.A  It does not comprise, as usual, the 180 degrees of the Ptolemaic Orbis terrarum, but only 90 degrees up to the middle of the Caspian Sea and the Gulf of Persia. This website was created for the benefits of diligent researchers who are finding knowledge about the music of the Cordillerans. To fully understand Cordilleran music, we need to know first who they are and what is their culture. Each of the seven major ethno-linguistic groups has its own family of languages and cultures.
Indigenous peopleA big bulk of the Cordillera population is composed of closely-related indigenous people. It conforms to the traditional type of world representation during the European Middle Ages and this representation of the known world accords with the contemporary monkish cartographic world view. Most of the diagrammatic manuscript mappaemundi of the period 1150-1500 are oriented to the East. This late medieval mappamundi, represents a transitional type of cartography that was beginning to unfold in Western Europe before the Renaissance.
Eastern Asia contains, interestingly enough, all red dots except for Zandala, the fake paradise. There are, however, two surviving original maps that Durand believes are based on this genre: this one and the Zeitz map of about 1470 (#251). Fra Mauro felt it necessary to apologize for not following the parallels, meridians, and degrees of the Geography on his world map of 1459 (#249), because he found them too confining to show discoveries (presumably in Asia) unknown to Ptolemy. This is the India which Columbus was looking for, because it was marked in the right place on his maps. In the post-Columbian series, the isthmus of Panama is represented with its true width, because it had been heard of by Columbus and other explorers from the aborigines; in the pre-Columbian series, the union of the peninsula with Asia is much broader, because nobody had exact information about it.
The pre-Magellanic maps have South America extending only to some degrees South; on post-Magellanic maps the land extends to 53 degrees South. On these pre-Columbian maps, the drainage net is much better drawn than on any other representation made before 1850. So Gallez believes that the deep and sound European knowledge of South America before its exploration by Columbus and his Spanish and Portuguese challengers has been firmly established.
But the detail of its hydrographic features mapped by Martellus in 1489 (#256) is a fact, even if this fact remains historically unexplained. In this way we have identified the Dragona€™s Tail on three maps drawn between 1440 and 1470. As cultured persons, both Pigafetta and Magellan would have seen such maps as Walspergera€™s or others of the same family, and they would surely have taken aboard some copies of them. They mention respectively: dy Risen vechten und streiten wider dy lint wurm and Homines gigantes pugrant cum draconibus.
An inscription on all the maps reads, a€?Ptolemy placed the inhabited world as 180A? from north to south.a€? Of course, Ptolemy did no such thing. Heinrich, a€?Eine neue mittelalterische Weltkarte der vatikanischen Bibliotheka€?, Zeitschrift der Gesellschaft fur Wrdkunde 26 (1891), pp. Heinrich, Die Entdeckung Amerikas in ihrer Bedeutung fA?r die Geschichte des Weltbildes (Berlin: W. Heinrich, a€?Eine neue mittelalterische Weltkarte der Vatikanischen Bibliothek,a€? Zeitschrift der Gesellschaft fA?r Erdkunde zu Berlin, XXVI (1891), 371-406.
The cartography of such maps is very poor: for instance, on the maps of Hieronymo Girava 1556, Johann Honter 1561, Giacomo Gastaldi 1562 and Francesco Basso 1571, the Rio Amazonas has its source in Patagonia and flows from south to north.
Gallez believes that the non-recognition of the sphericity of the earth on these mappaemundi was a definitive hindrance, because in such a flat and circular world, there seems to be no place for a large and protruding peninsula like the Dragona€™s Tail.
Little is known of this important German cartographer, probably from Nuremberg, who worked in Italy from 1480 to 1496 and produced a number of important manuscript maps.
No meridians, parallels or scales of longitude are given, but estimates based on measurements of the map indicate about 230A° from Lisbon to the coast of China, or 240A° from the Canaries.
The actual latitude of the Cape of Good Hope is 34A° 22a€™ south based on land measurements by Diaz, who landed three times on the south coast. He reported to the same Most Serene King that he had sailed beyond Yan 600 leagues, namely 450 to the south and 250 to the north, up to a promontory which he called Cabo de Boa Esperanza [Cape of Good Hope] which we believe to be in Abyssinia.
It indicates that he was high in the confidence of the King as an expert cartographer, otherwise he would not have been present at such a secret occasion.
It was done probably in Seville after he joined his brother, entering the postil in Imago Mundi and altering his prototype map at the same time.
It seems that the prototype originally showed the Cape at 35A° south, well clear of the frame at about 41A° south, as one would expect of a competent cartographer. It is a relic of the continuous coastline that linked Southeast Asia to South Africa in Ptolemaic world maps that displayed a land-locked Indian Ocean, and it needs a name to identify it in argument.
This is the India that Columbus was looking for, because it was marked in the right place on his maps.
But the detail of its hydrographic features mapped by Martellus in 1489 is a fact, even if this fact remains historically unexplained. Long in the possession of a family from Lucca, it went to Austria in the 19th century and was bought for Yale in 1961.
Vietor, then Map Curator of Yale University, reported a gift by an anonymous donor a€?in the form of a magnificent painted world map signed by Henricus Martellus, approximately six feet by four feet (180 x 120 cm). In a private communication of June 1972, Vietor stated that X-ray examination had revealed no evidence of printing on the paper sheets and that it was hand-drawn, lettered and colored. It was not foretold on Folio 1 and is clearly an unexpected addition to the codex of picture-islands. He was engaged in building up a large map of the world based on Donus Nicolaus and on Portuguese charts. On his globe, South Africa, between 23A° and 28A° south, extends a horn of land for hundreds of miles due eastward into the Indian Ocean. Among the thousands of islands Marco Polo reported off the coast of Asia, an enormous Sumatra and Java are found in the south, while to the northeast is the huge island of Cipangu [Japan]. The map is remarkable for its exciting new information, although being imperfect because of its acceptance of classical and medieval antecedents. On the world map in his Insularium at the British Library, he shows the results of Bartholomew Diasa€™ rounding of the Cape of Good Hope in 1488, listing the names of the various ports and landmarks along the way. This was the edge of Ptolemya€™s map - he did not show the full extent of Asia, noting that a€?unknown landsa€? lay beyond. In the north, Greenland is a long, skinny peninsula attached to Europe and north of Scandinavia, a concept derived from the Claudius Clavus map of 1427. One of the Insularium manuscripts at the Laurentian Library in Florence seems to be a working copy, as it has many cross-outs and corrections on the maps and in the texts.
His intelligent effort to reconcile modern discoveries with traditional knowledge, especially Ptolemy, provides a workable model for the world map in a time of rapid change. He worked in Florence prior to 1480, then was away from Italy for about two years before returning to his home town where he was active until his death some time after 1513.
The circle of the world is set in a somewhat rectangular frame background with a pointed top, and an ornamented border of a zig-zag pattern often found in psalter-maps of the period (#223).
Show pity, as you said you would, on all Who their devotion paid to me for you made me Savioress. Olympus and such cities as Athens and Corinth; the Delphic oracle, misnamed Delos, is represented by a hideous head. James (Roxburghe Club) 1929, with representations from manuscripts in the British Library and the Bodleian Library, and a€?Marvels of the Easta€?, by R.


The upper-left corner of the Hereford Map, showing north and east Asia (compare to the contents on Chart 3). 1), however, call attention to a remarkable degree of accuracy in the relationship of toponymsa€”for cities, rivers, and mountainsa€”both in EMM and in Hereford Map legends.A  On the Asia Minor littoral, for example, one passage in EMM links 39 place-names in a running series, 23 of which are found in Chart 4 (and visible, in almost exactly parallel order, on Fig.
5, above).A  Treating islands separately from the eartha€™s three a€?partsa€? follows the organizational style adopted by Isidore of Seville, Honorius Augustodunensis, and other medieval geographical authorities. Note Lincoln on its hill and Snowdon ('Snawdon'), Caernarvon and Conway in Wales, referring to the castles Edward I was building there when the map was being created.
In England, a detailed study of its less obvious features, such as the sequences of its place names and some of its coastal outlines by G. The Psilli reputedly tested the virtue of their wives by exposing their children to serpents. The cumulative effect has been to enable us at last to evaluate the map in terms of its actual (largely non-geographical and not exclusively religious) purpose, the age in which it was created and in the context of the general development of European cartography. The Old and New Testaments contained few doctrinal implications for geography, other than a bias in favor of an inhabited world consisting of three interlinked continents containing descendants of Noah's three sons. This now-lost map was referred to in some detail by a number of classical writers and it seems to have been created under the direction of Emperor Augustus's son-in-law, Vipsanius Agrippa (63-12 BC) for official purposes.
As the centuries went by, more and more was included with references to places associated with events in classical history and legend (particularly fictionalized tales about Alexander the Great) and from biblical history with brief notes on and the very occasional illustration of natural history. Note also the Roman provincial boundaries, the relative accuracy of the British coastlines (lower left) and the attention paid to the Balkans and Denmark, with which Saxon England had close contacts.
Some, often oriented to the north, attempted to show the whole world in zones, with the inhabited earth occupying the zone between the equator and the frozen north. They were never intended to convey purely geographical information or to stand alone without explanatory text. Often a 'context' for them would have been provided by the other secular as well as religious surrounding decorations.
For many maps continued to be used primarily for educational, including theological, purposes. They reached their fullest development in the thirteenth century when Englishmen like Roger Bacon, John of Holywood (Sacrobosco), Robert Grosseteste and Matthew Paris were playing an inordinately large part in creative geographical thinking in Europe. In most, if not all of these maps, the strange peoples or 'Marvels of the East' are shown occupying Ethiopia on the right (southern) edge, as on the Hereford map.
Exposure to light, fire, water, and religious bigotry or indifference over the centuries has, however, led to the destruction of most of them.
Both are now lost but it seems quite likely that the so-called 'Psalter Map', produced in London in the early 1260s and now owned by the British Library, is a much reduced copy of the map that hung in Westminster Palace.
Despite some broad similarities in arrangement and content, however, there are very considerable differences from the Ebstorf and the 'Westminster Palace' maps in details - like the precise location of wildlife, the portrayal of some coastlines and islands, or in the recent information incorporated.
In addition to the Ptolemaic world map on the conical projection, there is as the fourth TabulA¦ modernA¦ a circular map in the manner of the portolan [nautical] charts, but without the network of rhumb lines typical of the latter.
Most of the diagrammatic manuscript mappae mundi of the period 1150-1500 are oriented to the East.
We must recall however that other atlases also often give different forms to a specific area. It is true that he takes over almost all the legends, about 30 in number, but he gives them in shorter or more detailed form and adds to them at least 18 new ones, and in some of the legends taken over from Walsperger he also shows that he is using his own knowledge.
There are in this desert innumerable lions, tigers, centaurs and various large unnamed animals. Island of Jupiter or Immortal Island where nobody dies but in old age is expelled and deprived of life.
Here are black naked forest people who live on the fruit of a (certain) tree and therefore worship that tree.
In the river Nile and its lakes there is plenty of purest gold, but there are many serpents and great crocodiles. Here the people are so obedient to their masters that they hang themselves quickly rather than provoke their mastera€™s wrath. On the coast of Scotland are trees on which grow geese suspended like pears, and as soon as they fall down they swim to the water and live. In England he stresses Winchelsea which at that time was in fact the most important of the Cinqueports, and Canterbury, giving a Germanized spelling to both, i.e. The atlas contains the usual 27 maps and, as Tabulae modernae, Spain, Italy, the Northern areas, and the circular world map.
Ptolemya€™s land maps were rectangular with equidistant meridians and parallels of latitudes, or as Fischer put it: a€?on a modified Marinus-projectiona€?. Italy, as in numerous manuscripts and the Ulm editions, still has the old Ptolemaic sloping position, while Berlinghieri gives the peninsula its correct southeastern direction as all portolan maps had done long before.
It thus represents the so-called Zamoiski-type, referred to by Fischer as the second version, while the Wolfegg MSS by Nicolaus Germanus and the Ulm editions which are close to it constitute the third version according to which Greenland is mistakenly placed north of Norway. It is true that the printed Ulm and Berlinghieri editions are the only ones known whose world maps logically show at the equator square meshes of the five-degree network, while others, as far as can be judged from the reproductions by Fisher, have transverse oblongs (approxi-mately 4:5). The more difficult one, which was nevertheless recommended by Ptolemy, described by Fischer as a a€?modifieda€? conical projection with circular meridians, latitude parallels and borders is known to us from some printed editions (Berlinghieri, Ulm, etc.). In Ptolemy it was an almost rectilinear lozenge, strongly bent eastwards, with a head placed on it. It is another enumeration of the most important provinces, 94 in number mostly identical with the chapter titles, and of their longitudes and latitudes. Fischer expresses the opinion that it comes from Italy since the former owner, the Naumburg Bishop Joh.
Catherine on Mount Sinai, the Iron Tower as the passage to India (Legend 37), Noaha€™s Ark on Mount Ararat. The atlas contains the usual 27 maps and, as Tabulae modernae, Spain, Italy, the Northern areas, and the circular world map.A  Here too the maps usually extend over two pages, but do not, as in later editions, consist of one piece, being drawn in two halves. It thus represents the so-called Zamoiski-type, referred to by Fischer as the second version, while the Wolfegg MSS by Nicolaus Germanus and the Ulm editions which are close to it constitute the third version according to which Greenland is mistakenly placed north of Norway.A  Fischer discussed the dating of the map of the North and held that it could not be dated before 1474 since Holstein became a duchy only in that year.
The 57th longitude degree is drawn in red like the climate lines and thus is especially marked in the series (every five degrees).
It is true that the printed Ulm and BerlinghieriA  editions are the only ones known whose world maps logically show at the equator square meshes of the five-degree network, while others, as far as can be judged from the reproductions by Fisher,A  have transverse oblongs (approxi-mately 4:5).A  In the Zeitz map the mesh, if the meridian is prolonged to reach the equator, has a height of five degrees of latitude equal to eight degrees of longitude! It has also occurred that the text and the maps were separated.A  In such a case it would seem in no wise impossible that these words were included without special thought, in other words that the Zeitz manuscript also originally contained only the maps. The chart with a diameter of 57.5 cm is surrounded by circles representing the heavenly spheres and the a€?heaven of crystala€?.
But among the maps contemporary with that of Andreas Walsperger is the 1459 world map of Fra Mauro (#249), the so-called Borgia world map (#237) of the first half of the 15th century, and the Zeitz mappamundi (#251) of the last quarter of that century are all oriented to the South. Its contributions to cartography were but a fraction of its legacy of scientific manuscripts, including astronomical treatises, star catalogs, and tables of planetary motions, eclipses, and conjunctions, as well as general works on mathematics, including trigonometry.
Andreas Walsperger, in this mappamundi of 1448, stated a€?In this figure is contained a mappa mundi or geometrical description of the world, made from the cosmography of Ptolemy proportionally according to longitude, latitude, and the divisions of climate, and with the true and complete chart for the navigation of the seasa€?. Examples of such maps are those made in Florence and Rome in 1489 by Henricus Martellus (#256). There is no record extant of anyone reporting that they had seen any land or island south of the equator, nor did anybody pretend to have explored the inner part of a trans-Atlantic continent and to have mapped its rivers.
We may thus believe that this knowledge already existed before Martellus, and we should look at older maps in search of the sources which he could have had at his disposal. Then there is a small, almost square peninsula which bears the name Aurea Kersonesis, leaving no doubt about its identification.
They thus knew that, following their maps, they would have to sail to the south along the coast of the Dragona€™s Tail until they reached the Land of Giants, and that at the end of that land, they would find a passage to the West, to the Sinus Magnus, and thus a way to the Moluccas. Both maps confirm the fact that Walspergera€™s mention of giants in Patagonia was not a fancy of the cartographer: it was part of the geographical lore of the time.
His maps showed the world only as far as 16A? south of the equator, and he opined that the rest was probably uninhabited or uninhabitable. Ptolemya€™s geographical writings, largely unknown to Western Europeans during the earlier Christian Middle Ages in Europe, became the basis for the Renaissance in geography. His entire hopes of gaining support from King John in 1485 for such an enterprise as sailing westward to Cathay rested on his argument that it lay only 130A° to 140A° to the west.
A manuscript copy of Polo and his travels was given by the Doge of Venice to Prince Pedro in 1427 and was thereafter in the Kinga€™s Treasury in Lisbon.
Measurements of altitudinal height of the sun by astrolabe or quadrant were accurate on land but could be 2A° or more out on the rolling deck of a ship. 23 is in the handwriting of Bartholomew, and was identified as his by Bishop Bartolomeo de Las Casas, who knew him well. He says that in this place he found by the astrolabe that he was 45A° below the equator and that this place is 3,100 leagues distant from Lisbon [19,850 km].
It was to influence the Catholic Sovereigns who were in the dark owing to the intense secrecy by Portugal regarding discovery. We may thus believe that this knowledge already existed before Martellus, and we should look at older maps in search of the sources that he could have had at his disposal.
It shows a great deal more ocean to the east of Asia with several large islands in it, including Japan in the far northeast. Signora Carla Marzoli of Milan, in a private communication, stated that this large map a€?had left Italy into the possession of family centuries ago and had been lodged in a Swiss bank for safety, for a long time.a€™ In 1959, through trade channels, she learned that this map was for sale.
It uses the homeopathic (heart-shaped) projection, as far as can be judged, for it lacks meridians and parallels and scales. They all omitted Cipangu but he found a separate map of Cipangu in a codex which had the same outlines as those in the Behaim globe of 1492. It was, like all important maps at that time, drawn on sheets of parchment which could be joined together almost invisibly, and mounted on linen. In the Indian Ocean, the islands of Madagascar and Zanzibar, rather poorly drawn, add an intriguing aspect. It was the most accurate delineation available to Martin Behaim when he constructed his globe exhibiting the pre-Columbian world. On the Martellus map there is a long peninsula to the east of the Golden Chersonese (Indochina), featuring the mysterious port of Cattigara. The Mediterranean and Black Seas and the Atlantic coasts are taken from sea charts, while the east coast of Africa, as yet unexplored, also follows Ptolemya€™s design. Here the habitable world is extended to 265A°, with northern Asia coming right up against the right-hand border. According to historian Chet Van Duzer who is participating in a new (2014) digital image scanning of the Yale Martellus, a€?In northern Asia, Martellus talks about this race of wild people who dona€™t have any wine or grain but live off the flesh of deer and ride deer-like horsesa€?. The role of experience was clearly important to Martellus, for in his copy of the Laurentian Insularium he includes a verse about his own travels, noting that he has been traveling around for many years, and adding that it is worthwhile but difficult to set a white sail upon the stormy sea. It is a cleanly-engraved copperplate, with finely-stippled sea and six characteristic loose-haired wind-heads grouped round the border of the map. A legend at the bottom referring to the date 1498 is clearly an error for 1489, and has been copied as such from the 1489 Martellus manuscript world map with obviously similar geographic content to that of Rosselli. These maps depicted graphically the theory that Cipangu [Japan] was but 3,500 miles (5,635 kilometers) westward, and only 1,500 miles (2,415 kilometers) further lay the shores of Cathay [China].
23 is in the handwriting of Bartholomew, and was identified as his by Bishop Bartolomeo de Las Casas, who knew him well.A  Arthur Davies has made a long study of the writing of the Columbus brothers and states, without a shadow of doubt that it is in the hand of Bartholomew. In Phrygia there is born an animal called bonnacon; it has a bulla€™s head, horsea€™s mane and curling horns, when chased it discharges dung over an extent of three acres which burns whatever it touches. India also has the largest elephants, whose teeth are supposed to be of ivory; the Indians use them in war with turrets (howdahs) set on them. The linx sees through walls and produces a black stonea€” a valuable carbuncle in its secret parts.
A tiger when it sees its cub has been stolen chases the thief at full speed; the thief in full flight on a fast horse drops a mirror in the track of the tiger and so escapes unharmed. Agriophani Ethiopes eat only the flesh of panthers and lions they have a king with only one eye in his forehead.
Men with doga€™s heads in Norway; perhaps heads protected with furs made them resemble dogs. Essendones live in Scythia it is their custom to carry out the funeral of their parents with singing and collecting a company of friends to devour the actual corpses with their teeth and make a banquet mingled with the flesh of animals counting it more glorious to be consumed by them than by worms. Solinus: they occupy the source of the Ganges and live only on the scent of apples of the forest if they should perceive any smell they die instantly.
Himantopodes; they creep with crawling legs rather than walk they try to proceed by sliding rather than by taking steps.
The Monocoli in India are one-legged and swift when they want to be protected from the heat of the sun they are shaded by the size of their foot. Flint, a€?The Hereford Map:A  Its Author(s), Two Scenes and a Border,a€? Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 6th ser.
Nevertheless, it placed a somewhat misleading emphasis on the map's geographical 'inaccuracies', its depiction of fabulous creatures and supposedly religious purpose, all clothed in what for the layman must have seemed an air of wildly esoteric learning and near-impenetrable medieval mystery.
Recent research suggests this is a reference to African traders in medicinal drugs who visited ancient Rome. Today, with the map in the headlines of the popular press, it may be time to give a brief resume of what is currently known about it and to attempt to explain some of its more important features in the light of recent research. In the eyes of some (but by no means all) theologians, a fourth inhabited continent, the Antipodes, would implicitly have denied the descent of mankind from Noah, and the depiction of such a continent was deemed to be heretical by them.
It was based on survey and on military itineraries and reflected the political and administrative realities of the time. Where space allowed, reference was also made to important contemporary towns, regions, and geographical features such as freshly-opened mountain passes.
Most of the maps, however, like the Hereford Mappamundi, depicted only that part of the world that was known in classical times to be inhabited and they were oriented with east at the top. Traces of the maps' classical origins could regularly be seen in, for instance, the continued depiction of the provincial boundaries of the Roman Empire (which are partly visible on the Hereford map) and for many centuries by the island of Delos which had been sacred to the early Greeks being the centre of the inhabited world.
They and the texts that they adorned continued to be copied by hand until late in the 15th century and are to be found in early printed books.
God dominates the world and the 'Marvels of the East' occupy the lower right edge of the map, as they do on the Hereford map. Together they would have provided a propaganda backdrop for the public appearances of the ruler, ruling body, noble or cleric who had commissioned them, and some may have been able to stand alone as visual histories.
The Hereford map, as an inscription at the lower left corner tells us, was certainly intended for use as a visual encyclopedia, to be 'heard, read and seen' by onlookers.
Because of the maps' size, they were able to include far more information and illustration than their predecessors. More space was also found for current political references and information derived from contemporary military, religious and commercial itineraries. Today, the earliest survivor, dating from the beginning of the thirteenth century, is a badly damaged example now in Vercelli Cathedral, probably having been brought to Italy in about 1219 by a papal legate returning from England.
We know from Matthew Paris that the Westminster map was copied by others, and it is likely to have had a lasting influence even though the original was destroyed in 1265. A Latin legend in the bottom right corner of the Hereford map refers to the 5th century Christian propagandist Orosius as the main source for the map, but as we have already seen, it incorporates information from numerous ancient and thirteenth century sources and adds its own interpretations of them. The map is an outstanding example of a map type that had evolved over the preceding eight centuries. The circular world map has a diameter of 45.7 cm (44 cm wide and 57 cm high), there are minor cuts on the sides, but originally it must have been complete as indicated by the fact that on the left side, where the sheet has been enlarged by pasting on a narrow strip of paper, parts of the legend have been lost.
But among the maps contemporary with that of the Zeitz mappa mundi is the 1448 world map of Andreas Walsperger (#245), the so-called Borgia world map (#237) of the first half of the 15th century, the Benedetto Cotruglia€™s De navigatione world map of 1465 (#250) and the Fra Mauro mappa mundi (#249) of the last quarter of that century are all oriented to the South. Likewise, the limits of the terrestrial disc as determined by the circle are the same, the only difference being that in Walsperger this circle is drawn eccentrically and does not define the limits of the map, and, moreover, it is not complete, being interrupted by the seas. Thus, to the legend according to which the wife is buried alive on her husbanda€™s death, he adds the critical remark that Strabo had stated that the wife was burnt (Legend 35). In their stead Donnus Nicolaus Germanus, who worked in Florence, introduced from 1466, not only for the Tabulae modernae but also for the actual Ptolemaic maps, the trapezoid form with slanting meridians, retaining however the horizontal latitudes (the so-called Donis projection). Although in this case, as in the case of the modern maps of Spain and Italy, the portolan maps had smoothed the road to truth, Germanus gives Jutland the form of a prancing caterpillar with an open mouth (the eastern mouth of the Lim Fjord?), which is familiar to us especially from the Ulm editions. While Walsperger lists kA¶ppenhan in Denmark, Zeitz considers the southern outer port of DragA¶r? Winkelse and Candelburg.A  This divergence from the portolan maps is striking, as Canterbury was called a€?sco pomas da€™conturbaa€? in the Pisan map and Winchelsea is spelled Ginalexo almost without any variation from the Luxor Atlas to at least FreducciA  in 1538 (London).
It is the only map to show Jews, with their pointed hats, confined in the mountains by Gog and Magog (Legend 40).
In addition to the outer frame with degrees there are also two inner frames, also with indication of degrees, as was the case in the Nancy codex of 1427 and the Brussels Lat. The map of Europe VIII (the area between the Baltic Sea and the Balkans) thus shows, despite the previous existence of the map of the North, only the island Scandia, while in the maps referred to above the entire southeast of Sweden with Bornholm and Gotland have been taken over from the map of the North. Also the Zeitz map says a€?ducatusa€? but writes correctly a€?olsaciea€?.A  Later, after the date October 4, 1468, had been established in the Wolfegg manuscript, Fischer arrived at the conclusion that this type had existed earlier as confirmed by the Zeitz map. FischerA  discusses the Zeitz manuscript and calls it only a€?a peculiar and, indeed, incomplete world map which, as regards structure and execution, depends on the outline maps of the second Greek version of Ptolemya€?. Although in this case, as in the case of the modern maps of Spain and Italy, the portolan maps had smoothed the road to truth,A  Germanus gives JutlandA  the form of a prancing caterpillar with an open mouth (the eastern mouth of the Lim Fjord?), which is familiar to us especially from the Ulm editions. The Philippines, as an archipelago of 7,100 islands, is situated between the South China Sea to the West and the Philippine Sea of the Pacific Ocean in the East. In some circles, especially political ones, this term acquired a pejorative characteristic. Often we are also grouped into a number of ethnic or ethno-linguistic identities, such as Apayao or Isneg, Tinggian, Kalinga, Bontoc, Kankanaey, Ibaloy, Ifugao, and Bago.These groupings, while convenient, do not fully reflect the real particularities and the extent of diversity among the region's people. To the East, left on the chart, where the earthly Paradise is established as a city with towers and walls, are the sources, going from left to right, of the rivers of Paradise: Pison, Tigris, Euphrates and Gichon. Some belong to a subgroup of maps called the Vienna- Klosterneuburg map corpus, the world maps, according to Dana Benett Durand, which were compiled with the help of coordinates. There is one lone red dot on the West African coast, but there is no place-name given - could this be a relic of the Portuguese voyages? Most of these were recopied versions of earlier medieval works, but nevertheless Klosterneuburg constituted a seed-bed of scientific innovation. The best preserved copy is in the British Library and there is also a poorer copy in the University of Leiden. Then there is a bay with the same position, form and extension, as the Sinus Magnus on the Martellus map and on Behaima€™s globe, which has been identified as the Sinus Magnus.
Considering that in 1489 Martellus knew about the inner courses of many South American rivers, we have no reason to doubt that, forty years earlier, Walsperger knew of the Patagonians. The meeting with the Tewelche in Saint Julian was the full confirmation, for Magellan and Pigafetta, of what they already knew from their maps. The 180A? on his maps was the measure of longitude from the Fortunate Islands to the east coast of China. Some belong to a subgroup of maps called the Vienna- Klosterneuburg map corpus, the world maps, according to Dana Benett Durand, which were compiled with the help of coordinates.A A  After its translation into Latin by Jacobus Angelus about 1406-7, the popularity of Ptolemya€™s Geography increased steadily throughout the 15th century, as reflected in the frequency of printed editions from 1475 onward. Crone it fails to reach the standard to which the public of the time was already accustomed.
The Martellus delineation included some Ptolemaic dogma in its continental contours and projection but significantly modified and improved upon the ancient model with regards to its contents. The coast of Cathay is approximately 130A° West of Lisbon on the Martellus map, on the Behaim globe and in the Columbus-Toscanelli concept. Copious marginal notes, in the handwriting of Bartholomew and his older brother Christopher, are found in the Admirala€™s copy of the printed book of Marco Polo published at Louvain between 1485 and 1490. The coasts charted by Diaz have been fitted into the circular outline of the world of the Fra Mauro hemisphere, representing such a marked trend to the southeast that the Cape of Good Hope seems to be due south of the Persian Gulf, whereas it is due south of the Adriatic. Yet the Martellus map shows South Africa extending across the frame of the map to 45A° south.
He has described this voyage and plotted it league by league on a marine chart in order to place it under the eyes of the Most Serene King himself. This dates the legend as 1489, probably in January of that year, just before Bartholomew went to Seville.
Arthur Davies, in his discussion of this map refers to it as the Tiger-leg peninsula; in others it is referred to as Catigara. Considering that in 1489 Martellus knew about the inner courses of many South American rivers, we have no reason to doubt that, forty years earlier, Andreas Walsperger (#245) knew of the Patagonians.
The Laon globe (#259), made in France about 1493 (probably by Bartholomew Columbus when he served Anne, Regent of France) has the Tiger-leg to 40A° south. She examined it and saw its connection with the Martellus map in the British Library and with the conceptions of Columbus. Fortunately, Martellus copied most of the nomenclature and legends on to the smaller map, now in the British Library, so the a€?Yalea€™ Martellus can recover them without difficulty.
Next come three regional maps, striking because of the enormous nomenclature on the coasts.
The three manuscript maps were larger in scale and showed more detail than the codex world map.
This large map, 180 cm by 120 cm, formed a standard Portuguese world map, continually added to by new discoveries, including those of CA?o and Diaz. Some historians claim that their presence indicates the map cannot be dated before 1498, when Vasco da Gama returned with news of his voyage to India. Modern Africa is so long, however, that it breaks through the frame at the lower edge of the map. Unlike Ptolemya€™s Asia, Martellusa€™ version has an eastern coast with the island-bedecked ocean beyond and additional names taken from Marco Polo. From this we can see that in the Insularia Martellus used modern information when he had it, incorporating it into a classical format. Martellusa€™s depiction of rivers and mountains in the interior of southern Africa, along with place names there, appear to be based on African sources. He suggests that the reader might prefer to stay safely at home, and learn about the world through his book. Like its model, the projection is the barrel-shaped (homeoteric, or modified spherical) a€?second projectiona€™ of Ptolemy. Columbus thus had documentary support for his beliefs about oceanic distances from his readings of earlier cosmographers, Cardinal Da€™Ailly (#238) and Paolo Toscanelli (#252).
Its shape, outline and position are identical with the representation of Cipangu on the Behaim globe.
From its literal meaning in Greek it also signifies the plant ox-tongue, so called from its shape and roughness of its leaves.
Conventionally holds a mirror in one hand, combing lovely hair with the other According to myth created by Ea, Babylonian water god. The large city at the top edge is Babylon (its description is the map's longest legend [A§181).
12-30.A  The conservator Christopher Clarkson drew my attention to the gouge in the Mapa€™s former frame.
Talbert (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000), which I employ throughout my book, but with the caution that in dealing with the manuscript culture of medieval Europe, it is misleading and anachronistic to speak of a€?standarda€? or a€?correcta€? spellings, especially of geographical words. Casual visitors to the dark aisle where it hung could see only a dark, dirty image which they were encouraged to view in a pious, but also rather condescending manner.
Crone of the Royal Geographical Society, revealed that despite the antiquity of many of the map's sources much was almost contemporary with the map's creation and was secular.
Much of the text that follows is an amplification of information panels and leaflets prepared for the British Library's current display of the map. Most medieval mapmakers seem to have accepted this constraint, but world maps showing four continents are not uncommon: notably the world maps created by Beatus of Liebana (#207) in the late 8th century to illustrate his Commentary on the Apocalypse of St. It may have incorporated information from an earlier survey commissioned by Julius Caesar and, to judge from some early references, it may originally have shown four continents. These texts owed much to classical writers, particularly Pliny the Elder (23-79), who himself derived much of his information from still earlier writers such as the fifth century BC Greek historian Herodotus. As befitted the encyclopedic texts that they illustrated, the maps became visual encyclopedias of human and divine knowledge and not mere geographical maps. Many were purely schematic and symbolic, showing a T, representing the Mediterranean, the Don and the Nile, surrounded by an 0, for the great ocean encircling the world, sometimes with a fourth continent being added. It was only from about 1120 that Jerusalem took Oclos' place as the focal point of the map, as it does on the Hereford Mappamundi. They retained and expanded the geographical and historical elements of the older maps - coastlines, layout and place names on the maps frequently reveal their ancestry - but to them they added several novel features.
Inscriptions of varying lengths amplified the pictures and sometimes contained references to their sources.


Much better preserved, until its destruction in 1943, was the famous Ebstorf world map of about 1235. It is difficult to account otherwise for the striking similarities in detailed arrangement and content between the Psalter world map, the recently discovered 'Duchy of Cornwall' fragment (probably commissioned in about 1285 by a cousin of Edward I for his foundation, Ashridge College in Hertfordshire) and the Aslake world map fragments of about 1360.
In many of its details it particularly resembles the Anglo-Saxon World Map of about 1000 and the twelfth century Henry of Mainz world map in Corpus Christi College, Cambridge.
The map was also formerly folded, as can be seen from a mark passing through Jerusalem, the center of the map.
Thus it is not surprising that, around the mid-15th century, a mappa mundi was oriented to the South. In Walsperger, the circumference forming the northern limit, with an extensive stretch of sea beyond, makes Norway appear as a peninsula, although, as the Zeitz map shows, this was not the intention (in the Table, the southern part of Norway seems to be cut off by a sea inlet, while actually the separating feature is a mountain chain). In this connection, compare the Catalan-Estense map in Modena (#246), whose author, approximately contemporary with Walsperger (#245), used the old portolan chart as a basis and only enlarged it to east and south to about double the extent. And in contradiction to Walspergera€™s statement that in Norway the trolls (goblins) appeared in concrete shapes (in figuris) and aided people, the Zeitz map says (Legend 45) that, instead, they beat them but had never yet been seen.
According to NordenskiA¶ld, Berlinghieria€™s printed edition is the only one to retain the rectangular form, and the Bologna edition is the only one that uses the pure conical projection with slanting meridians and bent parallels of latitude.
However, it appears already in the first version (which lacks the map of the North) in the Germania map and was then taken over into the map of the North. This opinion is contradicted by the fact that the script is Gothic, while contemporaneous manuscripts that came from Italy already show the antique. Also Truntbaym (elsewhere tronde = Trondhiem), rogel (Rochelle) and the frequent use of W instead of V (Wenecia, Wiena) must be cited as examples of Germanization.
As regards also the shape of the mountains, the number of cities and other symbols, Zeitz differs considerably, and on the whole appears to be executed with less care. In the north, it terminates at Pasaleng Bay, Ilocos Norte, where the coastal bridge Patapat Viaduct winds through. Its main islands are Luzon (on which the capital Manila is situated), Mindanao and Visayas.
In current usage, Northern Cordillerans use it disparagingly, when speaking of people from eastern Mountain Province.
Around Alpha and Omega they form a group (Seraphim, Cherubim, Throne and Dominationes), the very first beginnings (Principatus), the archangel and angel. Thus it is not surprising that, around the mid-15th century, a mappamundi was oriented to the South. In particular, the maps and coordinate tables associated with this school help to fill in a period of relative cartographic obscurity between the Claudius Clavus map of about 1425 and the tabulae modernae of the later Ptolemaic manuscripts about 1450.
Walspergera€™s map testifies generally to an enduring belief in fables and monsters: a€?And around this pole [the Antarctic one] are most amazing monsters not only of the animal variety but even among humansa€?.
The Walsperger map comes with a statement of purpose, announcing that it has been a€?made geometrically from the cosmography of Ptolemy proportionally according to longitude and latitude and the divisions of the climates.a€? Yet latitude and longitude do not appear on the map. One of the earliest world maps showing such influence by displaying, for example, the closed Indian Ocean of Ptolemy, is the 1414 Pirrus de Noha map (#239) accompanying a manuscript of Pomponius Mela.
In particular, the maps and coordinate tables associated with this school help to fill in a period of relative cartographic obscurity between the Claudius Clavus map of about 1425 and the tabulae modernae of the later Ptolemaic manuscripts about 1450.A  Between 1425 and 1430, Mustinger and his collaborators were working on a map genre that assimilated the Jerusalem-centered medieval world map with elements from Ptolemy and the portolan [nautical] charts, which when reconstructed are similar in their general geographical configuration to the circular Vesconte-Sanudo maps (#228).
Kimble demonstrated that, as far as 13A° South, the nomenclature of West African coasts is 80% identical in the two maps but bears no relation to the nomenclature of any other map of the period.
The minor differences in location between these three must be seen against the enormous exaggeration of the extent of Eurasia which they exhibit in comparison with all previous estimates.
The only other claim that the Cape was at 45 degrees south is in the hand of Bartholomew Columbus. It suited Columbus admirably and it is likely that Bartholomew made the change at his direction. It is shown to more than 25A° south in the Cantino map of 1502 (Book IV, #306), Canerio map of 1504 (Book IV, #307), the WaldseemA?ller maps of 1507, 1513 (Book IV, #310) and many others. The map is surrounded by a dozen puffing classical wind heads, and for the first time in a non-Ptolemaic map, there is a latitude and longitude scale on the side.
At her request, Roberto Almagia and Raleigh Skelton examined it and pronounced it authentic.
The first is of Western Europe and Morocco, cut off in the east through the center of France; the second starts from this line and extends east as far as Naples and Tunis. The Martelli were a prominent merchant family in Florence, and Enrico Martello sounds Italian enough. If the two Ptolemy atlases can be dated as the first and last of his works, it is interesting to see that he reverts to the pure Ptolemaic form for the world in the later edition, with the lengthened Mediterranean and the closed Indian Ocean. Ita€™s likely that this information came from an African delegation that visited the Council of Florence in 1441 and interacted with European geographers. This provided him with the ammunition to further promote his plan to sail west to reach the Indies.
The Martellus map in the British Library is less than 20 inches (50 cm) from west to east, and is on a scale one-quarter that of the Yale map.
Crone points out that this reference has special significance because Augustus had also entrusted his son-in-law, M. Sometimes identified with Sirens, the mythical enchantresses along coasts of the Mediterranean, who lured sailors to destruction by their singing. Amazon means a€?without a breast,a€? according to tradition these women removed the right breast to use the bow.
At the right edge, a looping line shows the route of the wandering Israelites in their Exodus from Egypt; it crosses the Jordan to the left of a naked woman who looks over her shoulder at the sinking cities of Sodom and Gomorrah in the Dead Sea (she is Lot's wife, turned into a pillar of salt [A§254]. 400), a text that was often attended during the Middle Ages by diagrammatic a€?mapsa€? illustrating the concept.A  See also David Woodward. Others delved into the question of its authorship, which had previously been assumed to be obvious from the wording on the map itself.
The medievalized depiction on the bottom left corner of the Hereford world map of 'Caesar Augustus' commissioning a survey of the world from three surveyors representing the three corners of the world may be based on a muddled - and religiously acceptable - memory of these classical events. Even though the inscriptions on the maps gradually became more and more garbled and the information more and more embellished, distorted, and misunderstood, they nevertheless retained their tenuous links with ancient learning. More than simple geographical shorthand, such maps were also meant to symbolize the crucifixion, the descent of man from Noah's three sons and the ultimate triumph of Christianity.
Palestine itself was usually enlarged far beyond what, on a modern map, would have been its actual proportions.
A note on one of the most famous of them, the Ebstorf, says that it could be used for route planning. Although the maps were still dominated by biblical and classical history and legend, most other information seems to have been acceptable and was accommodated within the traditional framework. Far larger than the Hereford Word Map and much more colorful, it was probably created under the guidance of the itinerant English lawyer, teacher and diplomat, Gervase of Tilbury. In transmission some facts and text became garbled and some inscriptions are gobbled gook or wrong. The sea, as in all other maps of this atlas, is green, the mountain ranges grayish-brown or yellow, while the cities are represented by small filled red circles. Some explanations also include the influence of the contemporary Islamic cartography, the cosmographical concepts of Aristotle, and, of course, the maritime commercial focus of the Indian Ocean and thus towards the South.
The author of the latter map has, consequently, used either that of Walsperger or a source common to both.
But unlike this Modena map, which shows even fewer cities than most portolan charts, we find in the same area on both charts almost the same wealth of topographical data which is surprising (since the portolan charts never suggested anything of the kind) in the first Tabulae modernae of Spain and Italy appended by Donnus (Donis) Nicolaus Germanus. And the legend concerning trees that give birth to birds (Legend 46), which all other maps, including Walsperger, place near Ireland, is in Zeitz linked to Scotland.
However the Zeitz Germania map retains the Ptolemaic rectangular shape of the land map and Jutlanda€™s old shape, although it shows the new form in the map of the North. Much more weight attaches to the germanization of city names, referred to above, which we find also in Walsperger who worked in Constance.
Directly outside the gate holding them in are the characteristic legends a€?here the pygmies fight with the cranesa€? (a reference to the ancient tale of the pygmies and the cranes) and a€?here men eat the flesh of mena€?.
This usage presumably had its origin in the difficulty of obtaining large sheets of vellum of double size for the often used format of a€?fol. Murder and manslaughter, for instance is more usually dealt with under tribal law which might include blood debt, only satisfied by the death of the perpetrator. While there are diverse types, an ili usually consists of a closely-knit cluster of villages, or a core village and its outlying hamlets, within a more or less defined territory.A mix of indigenous, non-indigenous, and migrant peopleBigger and more diverse populations are found in Cordillera's melting pot areas, such as those in urban (or rapidly urbanizing) Baguio-Benguet and in the foothills and valleys adjoining the great lowlands of Luzon. Andreas Walsperger, in fact, did not even think it necessary to address the issue, probably considering it congruent with the wider culture of his readers and patrons.
Sweden is an island with the towns Stockholm and Upsalia; and in Russia there is Norgadia [Novgorod]. Another red dot is found on Taprobana and the island where Saint Thomas is thought to be buried, and another marks the stone tower on the narrow land bridge to East Asia. Konrad Kretschmer, who discovered the Walsperger map back in the 1890a€™s, said with disgust, a€?Not a single line of the map is from Ptolemy!a€? This is not quite fair, as random features from Ptolemy appear, such as the Aurea Kersonesus [Golden Chersonese] in the Far East, an enclosed Caspian Sea - though a Caspian gulf is also retained - and the stone tower that marks the border with India.
South of that limit, however, the Martellus map gives the outlines and nomenclature of the voyage of Bartholomew Diaz in 1487-88, while the Behaim globe has invented nomenclature corresponding to nothing in Portuguese cartography. It is difficult to avoid the conclusion that he copied a map which was originally designed to support the ideas of Columbus.
Due south of the Malay peninsula, at 28A° South, there appears an enormous peninsula which widens and turns north to join China again with the largely circular concept of the Fra Mauro map. On the face of it, seeing it on the Martellus map, it asserts that Diaz had proceeded north along the cast coast of South Africa to beyond Natal. Columbus hoped Spain would support a voyage westward to Cipangu, 85A° away, and to Cathay 130A° to the west. Of course, this is mostly symbolic, as neither Henricus Martellus nor anyone else had a complete set of accurate coordinates. The sheets of the a€?Yalea€™ Martellus, together with certain regional maps, were acquired by the patron. The one piece of information he gives us about himself, that he had traveled extensively, suggests a career in business. Again, with the Tigerleg or the Dragona€™s Tail, there has been an controversial attempt to identify it as an early map of South America, turning Ptolemy's a€?Sinus Magnusa€? into the Pacific Ocean.
Clearly, Ptolemy maps were considered as illustrations for a revered and ancient text and did not have to include the latest news. Three other surviving maps contain some of this same information, but the Martellus map covers more territory than any of them, making it the most complete surviving representation of Africansa€™ geographic knowledge of their continent in the 15th century.
The splendid manuscript of Martellus preserved in the National Library at Florence contains thirteen tabulA¦ modernA¦, but is probably later than the earliest printed editions of Ptolemya€™s Geography.A  However, Martellus revised the Ptolemaic world map based on Marco Poloa€™s information on Asia, and he incorporated the recent Portuguese voyages to Africa. Due south of the Malay peninsula, at 28A° South, there appears an enormous peninsula which widens and turns north to join China again with the largely circular concept of the Fra Mauro map.A  This peninsula does not exist in fact, and seems to be a repeat of the Donus Nicolaus map of the world in the Ulm Ptolemy, cut away by the circular outline of Fra Mauro. On the face of it, seeing it on the Martellus map, it asserts that Diaz had proceeded north along the cast coast of South Africa to beyond Natal.A  His furthest point, in fact, was the Rio de Infante [Great Fish River] on the south coast, at 34A° south. Although the Columbus brothers knew that Marco Polo had returned from China by this sea route, they inserted this great obstruction of Tiger-leg by 1485. The circle one-third of the way from the bottom is Jerusalem, the Map's central point, with a crucifixion scene above it ([A§387-89]). Its images and decoration have been examined from a stylistic standpoint by Nigel Morgan and put into the context of their time, while the late Wilma George examined the animals in the light of her own zoological knowledge [2] The chance discoveries of fragments of other English medieval world maps in recent years [3] have expanded the context within which the Hereford World Map can be examined, and the Royal Academy exhibition, 'The Age of Chivalry' of 1987 enabled the map to be displayed in the company of other non-cartographic artifacts of its own time.
Generally, though, it was not difficult to adapt surviving copies of existing, secular world maps to suit the purposes of Christian writers from the 5th century onwards.
This was in order to match its historical importance and to accommodate all the information that had to be conveyed. Christ would, for instance, be shown dominating the world, or the world might even be depicted as the actual body of Christ. The world was shown as the body of Christ and much space was devoted to the political situation in northern Germany: an area of particular concern to the Duke who may have commissioned it. As he had renounced Walspergera€™s scientific additions (celestial spheres, climates, polar legends, etc.), which partly fill the seas, he could also do without the now empty ocean space and close the two circles. Especially in the German region we find names of quite insignificant places like Ragnit, the only town of the district of the same name in the former East Prussia. The author of the Zeitz map gives the islands of the Indian Ocean names different from Walsperger in part (Insula Jabadum, Orgia, Insula preciossissima); he also shows Imaus mons, the Magnus sinus and other details absent from Walsperger, and places the Amazons not on the continent but on one of these islands.
Finally, the correction of a€?olfaciea€? into a€?olsaciea€?, as stated above, speaks for a German rather than an Italian author. The author of the ZeitzA  map gives the islands of the Indian Ocean names different from Walsperger in part (Insula Jabadum, Orgia, Insula preciossissima); he also shows Imaus mons, the Magnus sinus and other details absent from Walsperger, and places the Amazons not on the continent but on one of these islands. Within the enclosure is a crowd of people, the only ones depicted on the entire map, wearing pointed hats - a clear though exaggerated reference to the a€?Jewa€™s hata€? of medieval custom. During Spanish times, the whole range was called Nueva Provincia, (New Province).Its inhabitants are a loosely-connected federation of tribes belonging to the mountains. In these areas, the original indigenous communities have given way to hybrid communities composed of varied mixtures of indigenous and migrant people.
Some explanations also include the influence of the contemporary Islamic cartography, the cosmographical concepts of Aristotle, and, of course, the maritime commercial focus of Walspergera€™s time of the Indian Ocean and thus towards the South. Reality is recognized in the Holy Land, where all dots are black, and Russian orthodoxy is apparently considered beyond the pale, as all places in Russia are also marked with black.
It had not yet freed itself from the fabulous appurtenances and the ancient monastic pattern.
No wonder that, having regard to his maps, he concluded that this river flowed from Paradise.
On the other hand, Heinrich Winter blames the pernicious influence of Ptolemy for the mapsa€™ abandonment of the accurate geographic forms of the contemporary sea charts. The correspondence between the Behaim globe and the 1489 Martellus map consequently ended in 1485, when Diego CA?o had returned from his first voyage after reaching 13A° south (Cape Santa Maria in the Congo, 1482-1484). Yet that map could not have been completed until early in 1489 for it had complete details of the discoveries of Bartholomew Diaz in his voyage of 1487-88, when he circumnavigated the Cape of Good Hope (capo da€™ esperanza) and reached the Indian Ocean. At that latitude one degree was thought to be 50 miles (80 km), according to the Toscanelli letter, so that Japan was only 4,250 miles (7,200 km) west. Martellus assembled the paper sheets, stuck them on a canvas backing, made his characteristic rectangular picture frame for it and colored the seas in dark blue.
His surviving work includes two editions of Ptolemya€™s Geography, a large wall map now at Yale University, and five editions of the Insularium Illustratum of Cristoforo Buondelmonti. The correspondence between the Behaim globe and the 1489 Martellus map consequently ended in 1485, when Diego CA?o had returned from his first voyage after reaching 13A° south (Cape Santa MariaA  in the Congo, 1482-1484). It would show King John that even if the Portuguese reached India they could not reach the Spice Islands (which were on the equator east of Tiger-leg) without having to make long voyages into the southern stormy seas. To have included Cipangu would have required a scale reduced one-sixth, too small to permit of legible nomenclature.
Carte marine et portulan au XIIe siA?cle:A  Le Liber de existencia riveriarum et forma maris nostri Mediterranei. The amount of space dedicated to the other parts of the world varied according to their traditional historical or biblical importance and the preoccupations of the author of the text that the map illustrated.
Like Walsperger, he represents Europe as having a a€?cata€™s backa€? in the north, Jutland with the same pronounced contraction, Sweden as an island, and finally, the Baltic Sea in the same form, different from that in the portolan charts. Finally it is also very remarkable that he re-establishes the island of Meroe in the Nile, common to all old maps from Ptolemy, but replaced in Walsperger by a lacus Meroys.
The confusion of Gog and Magog with the Ten Lost Tribes is not surprising unless contrasted with the careful scholarship of a Fra Mauro (#249).
Some maps or half-maps as well as explanations are lacking, and others have been mis-bound.
Most tertiary educated Cordillerans speak English, since it is the usual medium of instruction at the college level in the Philippines. Spanish deeds were never issued for the land in the Cordilleras since the Spanish were continuously repelled for the whole of Spanish colonial period.Cordillerans view land as the source of life, an integral part of their cultural identity, that traces its origins from the land. The price that the Igorots had to pay for this independence was that they became different from their colonized brothers. This feature is reminiscent of the sea charts, which found it useful to put religiously keyed symbols or flags on the various ports. A scale for calculating distances is found at the bottom of the Walsperger map [it is more decorative than trustworthy].
This was the time when Martin Behaim, as a member of the King Johna€™s mathematical junta, was able to study the map and proposals of Columbus. He returned from this voyage in December 1488 and, within a year, full details, including rich nomenclature, had appeared on the map of Martellus made in Italy; this despite the utmost secrecy on the part of King John of Portugal. The fact that the map had been put away in a Swiss bank for perhaps 60 years explains why it went unobserved. Martellus had been required by his patron to include in the codex a world map and regional maps which had just come into his possession in 1489.
The historian Roberto Almagia has pronounced that Henricus Martellus was an excellent draftsman, who drew upon the latest information and improved the maps he adapted for his collections. This was the time when Martin Behaim, as a member of the King Johna€™s mathematical junta, was able to study the map and proposals of Columbus.A  On the 1489 Martellus map there is an inscription next to the Congo that mentions the commemorative stone (PadrA?o) that CA?o erected at Cape Negro during his second voyage (1485-87) when he reached as far as Cape Cross. For King John and for the Catholic Sovereigns it showed that Spain could easily reach Cathay and then the Spice Islands, secure from all interference from Arabs or Portuguese in the Indian Ocean.A  Columbus may have deceived himself regarding the existence of the Tiger-leg but, since it suited his plans so admirably, one suspects that he asserted its existence just as he later made the Cape of Good Hope to be at 45A° south. The second major difference is that, while the coasts from Normandy to Sierra Leone, on the Yale map, are based on the world map of Donus Nicolaus of 1482, the corresponding coasts on the British Library Martellus uses a Portuguese map for them. Behind the blue band of the river is a grim array of grotesque figures to indicate the existence of primitive peoples. There may be significance in the soulless mermaid placed in the map close to the unattainable Holy Land, or she may be a possible temptation to sea-faring pilgrims. Phillott, wrote that it shows a a€?rejection of all that savoured of scientific geography, . Because of this, space devoted to the author or patron's homeland was often much exaggerated when judged by modern standards, as in the case of England, Wales and Ireland on the Hereford Mappa Mundi.
Crone demonstrated, the Hereford also contains sequences of the more important place names along some major thirteenth century commercial and pilgrimage routes. Although this map derives, along with Walspergera€™s 1448 map, from a common original, circular in form, made around 1425 at the abbey of Klosterneuburg, and therefore is not Ptolemaic in origin, some Ptolemaic maps adopted the legend of the enclosed Jews, which, along with Gog and Magog, was passed down well into the 16th century. If, as is the case with the Ptolemaic Ulm editions of 1482 and 1486, the explanations (contents, length of the day, and the distance in hours from Alexandria) for each map are on the recto of the specific double-map-sheet, such mis-binding would be immaterial. Land is considered sacred and tribal land can neither be owned nor sold, but it nurtured to produce life for the communal benefit. The Philippines staged Asia’s first nationalistic revolution in 1896, and declared its independence on June 12, 1898. The furthest point reached by Diaz, the Rio de Infante [the great Fish River], is duly recorded as ilha de fonti.
His great talent for such an exacting task was his skill as a draughtsman-cartographer experienced in altering the scale of maps of islands that he was copying.
Someone with access to it and to the reports of Bartholomew Diaz, drew the prototype of the Martellus map. According to the historian Arthur Davies, this is conclusive evidence that the prototype originally terminated at 35A°, with the legend correctly placed near it. On a world map, though, as opposed to the strip itinerary maps produced by Matthew Paris in about 1250, the route planning could only have been very approximate and very much incidental to the main purposes. The former is called the Nile in some cases only, while the one flowing in the northeasterly direction is always called the Nile.A  The use of affrorum being presumably explained by a legend on Africa in some portolan maps. This longevity may have been based on a sense of Biblical authorization, the extreme distance at which these peoples were placed a€“ a€?orientalizeda€? and a€?septentrion-ateda€? to the far end of Asia - or a popularity exceeding that of other medieval legends.
However, as stated above, we have here individual sheets pasted on a guard, and the explanation to each map is on the back of the preceding map.A  As a result of such mis-binding, for instance, not only is the explanation to Tab. Neither of these languages are commonly spoken at home or at work.The Gran Cordillera is the highest and largest mountain range in the Philippines. For Cordillerans, the loss of their land, or their alienation from it, can be equivalent to taking their lives.
Above Jerusalem, which in accordance with the traditional manner is placed at the center of the world sphere, the Red Sea is depicted. Even today, the best source for information on the voyage of Diaz is the Martellus map of 1489. The extra ten degrees in shifting the Cape to 45A° south meant more than twenty degrees extra distance in a voyage to India. Two peculiar features in the region of South Africa suggest that Bartholomew Columbus was that someone. When Bartholomew altered the prototype map to 45A° south, he was unable to remove the legend. The policy of secrecy of King John was shattered in one great leakage by someone in a unique position to know all the details. Moreover, and perhaps this was the decisive factor, it would take Portuguese ships to nearly 50A° south to round Africa, into what Diaz had already found to be the roughest seas encountered anywhere in the world. Moreover, and perhaps this was the decisive factor, it would take Portuguese ships to nearly 50A° south to round Africa, into what Diaz had already found to be the roughest seas encountered anywhere in the world.A  Bartholomew, in 1512, gave evidence in the Pleitos (the great lawsuit of the Columbus family versus the Crown of Spain) and declared that he had gone about with his brother in Spain helping to gain support for his enterprise.
14), which may have resulted from the survey of the provinces ascribed by tradition to Julius Caesar.
In the Hereford map they could revel in this pictorial description of the outside world, which taught natural history, classical legends, explained the winds and reinforced their religious beliefs. The Ptolemaic text reads: Beginning from here an island, meroe regio, is formed by the Nile in the west and by the Astabora River which flows from the east. Each island-picture is surrounded by a frame, drawn and painted in ivory to give the impression of a carved wood frame, suggesting a picture hanging on a wall. Highlights include flower exhibits, lectures, garden tours, floral competition and a parade of floats.Adivay FestivalAdivay festival in Benguet which means "coming together of people to celebrate" is celebrated every month of November. Such picture-islands occupy nearly all the folios, making an Atlas of Islands, and are then followed by a superb picture-map of Italy, taken from the 1482 world map of Donus Nicolaus. The two upright fingers branching up from the Mediterranean are the Aegean and the Black Sea with the Golden Fleece at its extremity. The islands in this codex were copies from the Ulm Ptolemy, from the Isolario of Bartolomeo de li Sonetti printed in Venice in 1485, and from other sources. It is in celebration of the founding anniversary of the province and the Peace acts called Bodong. The USA established strategic military bases in The Philippines, with the consent of the established government in Manila.
It is the poetic expression of the heroic exploits, romance, joys, successes as well as tribulations, and the way of life of the Kalingas from birth to death. During World War II, the Japanese temporarily overtook the American presence, causing Philippine people to fight alongside by joint the US and Philippine Commonwealth Military in order to extricate the Japanese by 1945.
The eastern prolongation of the continent, extending as far as Java Insula, and separated from Asia only by a narrow strait, once again brings us back to the true Ptolemaic tradition of an enclosed Indian Ocean, as does the placement of the Nile River in the heart of Africa. The Festival highlights the weaved clothes (laga) exhibits, world class coffee beans and other products of Kalinga.Lang-ay FestivalLang-ay Festival in Mountain Province celebrated every April 7. This is a week-long agro-industrial trade, tourism and cultural fair with tribal dances and songs. Again, similar to the fight against the Spanish, the indigenous inhabitants protested against the destruction of their land and the neglecting of their rights. Mining operations continued to grow and by 1939 the Philippines ranked among the world’s leading gold producers, and second to the state of California among US producers. This account of Gallo was copied, almost verbatim by Serenega in 1499 and by Giustiniani in 1516.
Bartholomew left Genoa as a youth in 1479 and officially made only one further visit to Italy, in 1506. Gallo could have acquired knowledge of the role of Bartholomew only from his own lips, in 1489.
The political elite hoped that the creation of several provinces would, by increasing the region’s representation, increase development spending in the area. Under her leadership the human rights situation started to improve; political prisoners were released, repressive laws were repealed and all relevant UN Conventions were ratified.



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