Scientists are humans - humans classify things, even from the first moments of their lives. Biological classification was developed to order organisms into groups that had more or less similar structures. Classifying organisms can be enormously complex, controversial and difficult - it usually involves much debate, research and testing and generally is only temporary. When Linnaeus devised his classification system, he used structural features to place all things into one of 3 a€?kingdomsa€? - Kingdom Animalis, Kingdom Plantae and Kingdom Mineralia.
DNA sequencing is the technology that has had the greatest effect on the development and revision of classification in biology. Cytochrome c is an important molecule involved in a particular step of respiration in mitochondria.
By comparing the similarities and differences in cytochrome c, we can construct a phylogenetic tree of eukaryotes in which the protein has been analysed. This phylogenetic tree tells us nothing about the relationships between the great apes, including humans because they all have the same cytochrome c. Before Linnaeus, organisms were given Latin names which identified and to some extent described them.
Of course, many organisms have common names like Mountain Ash (Eucalyptus regnans) but often, this species is given different names in different parts of Australia, several different kinds of tree are called a€?Asha€? and the common name gives no clue to its relatedness to other plants. Note carefully that each species has a binomial (a€?two-word namea€?) - the first word is the genus with a capital letter and the second name is the species with a small letter. Classifying extinct organisms relies almost entirely on study of their fossils but generally only hard parts are preserved. Similarly, the little known Marsupial Mole bears striking similarities to the European Mole. Word list: classification taxonomy phylogeny phylum binomial genus (pl. This dot point will be (has been) covered in practical lessons.A A  Refer to your Practical Record Book. It is difficult to define species.A  One definition is a€?a group of organisms capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring of both genders, and separated from other such groups with which interbreeding does not (normally) happena€?. Similarly, the little known Marsupial Mole bears striking similarities to the European Mole.A  The similarities are a result of convergent evolution - the reproduction of these animals is very different. Bonnie Roberts - The above photo was taken at Irene Latham's Poets in the Sky with Cupcakes, where Lynn Roberts (no kin) and I were pink twins. But since I have been married nearly 20 years to my husband, Michael, I guess I should commit. Kate Michaels has asked me to write a reference for her in support of her internship application and I am delighted to do so. Professor Donaldson if you need any additional information about Kate Michaels please contact me by phone or email. I know the problem was the instructions and not the burrito because I gave it a second try.
The new four story condominium development on Bank Street features homes with state of the art appliances and the latest in furnishings.
Buyers and their agents should stop by the sales office on Bank Street or request a copy of the four color brochure to learn more about this very special property.
The question before the Supreme Court involves states rights, and governors around the country will be watching.
Final Event: Race to the Finish As quickly as you can, add hyphens, apostrophes, commas, and semicolons to the passage below.
College professors encourage their students extensive vocabulary and 50 word compound complex sentences. Much college writing includes perfectly structured paragraphs with an introduction three or more supporting sentences and a conclusion. Did you insert two semicolons, five to seven commas (depending on whether you use the serial comma), three apostrophes, and five hyphens? Many middle-aged (not middle-age) people plan to work beyond the age of 65 (not age 65). Our system administrators have identified an issue with one of our mail arrays related to a hardware failure of one storage member in the SAN.
A creative yet pragmatic communicator with award-winning experience in narrative storytelling and news production. Extensive experience in film production, with works featured in regional, national, and international film festivals.
Proficiency in handling sensitive matters and communicating diplomatically with people of differing views. Strong skills and experience in research and in communicating through letters, emails, op-eds, social media, and speeches. Supervised support staff of 14, including legal secretaries, paralegals, and general office support. Consistently maintained Number 1 or 2 ranking for order fulfillment in a team of 32 order pickers. Created a system for finance managers that generated and emailed monthly financial reports and spreadsheets for on-time budget planning. Review your older jobs and accomplishments to be sure the language still communicates well.
For instance, if you are more than 10 years out of school, drop your college activities unless they communicate something unique and amazing.
Imagine this situation: That job you held from 1993 to 1996 was once a significant part of your resume, worthy of five bullet points of accomplishments. Just as emptying your closet of old clothes helps you focus on and build a new wardrobe, eliminating old resume details helps you focus on and build a case for the newest phase of your career. Replace some of the text with concise bullet points if you have chunks of text that are longer than three lines. Replace typefaces such as Times New Roman and Book Antiqua with a sans serif typeface like Trebuchet, and see if you like the difference. Experiment with incorporating a strong left alignment rather than centered headings, to communicate energy rather than formality. College instructors sometimes ask me to recommend a text to use in their business writing classes. I'm pleased to announce a complete new communications curriculum for college instructors. One of my many favorite learning activities from the curriculum involves revising relationship-busting statements.
If you are a college instructor, you can find about more about the free curriculum and how to receive it. If you are not a college instructor but want to try your hand at revising the statement above, please do!
If you are holding back, thinking Well, it depends, you are with The Gregg Reference Manual.
Should organisms be grouped according to the similarities and differences between them, or according to how they are related by descent? In humans, cytochrome c is constructed from 104 amino acids.A  Other organisms have differences in the number and sequence of these amino acids. A I am promoting Lynn's new book, SOULS to KEEP, the cover of which is on the front of our spiffy pink sweat shirts, provided to us by Lynn's guy, David. And I know that many readers, followers of AP and Chicago, wonder why I am not using the commas. Kate worked with me from January, 2014 through August, 2015 as a teaching assistant in our marketing program, I was her direct supervisor. She used creative approaches to help students' understand complex concepts in marketing statistics.
Perhaps my carelessly following rather than interpreting the instructions wrecked the meal?


Buyers looking for beautifully appointed two and three bedroom contemporary homes with open floor plans will want to visit this high end development. Whether they live in New York, New York or Cairo, Egypt, people like to feel included and informed.
Professors and teachers admire academic writing however readers needs on the job are different.
Although business writing contains elegantly structured chunks of text it also features one sentence paragraphs. Proven ability in written and visual communication, with particular expertise in social media. Eliminate early jobs such as working in a frozen yogurt shop (unless you are applying for a fast-food management position) and acting as a camp counselor (unless you are still in the counseling field). For example, the SUMMARY OF QUALIFICATIONS shown in Tip 1 above includes this list, which might include links to online samples (indicated by underlining): letters, emails, op-eds, social media, and speeches. Your resume should make you feel pleased, proud, and confident as you move into your future.
Both instructors and students can benefit from the tips on completing the assignment--tips about the purpose of the message, its audience, the communication strategy, and content.
Students first recognize why the instructor statements below are relationship busters. Although his drawings and paintings were created in the early nineteenth century they have been the subject of a relatively recent intense revival of interest; through the various methods of mass reproduction in the past few years they have become more widely known and consequently more popular than ever before. Carefully remove from oven, peel off plastic film and allow to sit for 1 minute before serving. In reply, they sent me a coupon for a free frozen entree, and I bought the same burrito.
When new things come to light in your job search or profession, share them with your network. Business writers will use a one sentence paragraph when they want a statement to stand out. Apply these tips to make your resume fresh and representative of who you are today, with an eye to tomorrow. Assignments cover explanations, requests, bad-news messages, inquiries, solicitations, messages saying no, complaint resolutions, a range of job-search messages, and other pieces. Instructors can never be sure where students may go wrong with a writing assignment that requires them to imagine themselves communicating on the job.
The course, Business Writing That Builds Relationships, developed out of my long-standing interest in diplomatic, relationship-building messages at work. The lithographs based on Robertsa€™ drawings have been reproduced for a popular market in a wide range of media from elaborately illustrated books to posters, calendars and postcards. She took initiative to enhance online outreach to students, showed evidence of a keen understanding of both short term results and long term benefits of various marketing strategies, and consistently delivered professional, high-quality work.
My friend Sarah began a job search on September 1, 2007 and ended it three months later, nevertheless, she still networks. His views of the exotic Near East have become the standard by which the nineteenth century condition of the monuments and landscape has been judged.
Today it is common to find popular publications of Robertsa€™ works with elaborate descriptive text in as many as five languages in the book shops and even on the news stands of Cairo and Jerusalem. These publications are certainly more compelling and presumably more attractive to the tourist than any comparable collection of modern photographs. A I need pink to brighten up my face, and I love looking like a pink popsicle and don't mind as long as Lynn looks like one, too.
With the eye of a romantic and the hand of a master draughtsman he combined the natural beauties of exotic places with the awesome character of ancient remains and ruins.
A It IS unusual, Irene, to have a new collection launch and reading in a Pumping Station Museum, but, hey--I like it.
The abortive Eastern campaign of Bonaparte and his invasion of Egypt and the Holy Land at the beginning of the century had a number of lasting effects, not the least of which was that it set the stage for a large-scale influx of travelers and adventurers, literally following in the footsteps of the French revolutionary army.
The first quarter of the nineteenth century saw more general interest and ready access to that part of the world, the arrival of more foreign travelers and adventurers from Europe than ever before, and the collection of Egyptian antiquities and artifacts on a unprecedented scale.
Graphic representations of the sites and remains in the Nile valley and the Levant were in great demand.
The market had been fueled a few decades earlier by the appearance of the popular engravings of Vivant Denon and the other French artists who illustrated the multi volumed Description de la€™Egypt. He was born in 1796, the son of a shoemaker and was apprenticed to an ornamental house painter named Bengo at an early age. When he completed his apprenticeship he soon found his real vocation as a theatrical scene painter, an occupation in which he quickly developed a high level of skill. A Here she is reading a poetic sky passage from SOULS to KEEP at Irene's launch of her latest poetry collection THE SKY BETWEEN US.
For a time he toured with a traveling theatrical group in Scotland and the North of England and even appeared on stage in minor roles. In 1822, when his growing reputation had spread, he emigrated from Scotland to London at the age of 26. He was soon employed at most of the fashionable theatres of the time including the Old Vic and Drury Lane.
Lynn Roberts read a poetic "sky" passage from her new novel during "open mic." A For those living in Birmingham, Alabama, you can now purchase a copy of Lynn's novel at Jim Reed's bookstore!
Among his theatrical accomplishments that have been noted he was responsible for the sets for the first London performance of Mozarta€™s Abduction from the Seraglio at Convent Garden. Roberts was at the top of his craft, a rapid worker who was very much in demand for his abilities and his speed of execution. A Thank you, Irene, for such a creative, fun way of launching your book that gave so many of us a chance to share our poetry as well. He had, however, artistic aspirations beyond that of a theatrical scene painter, so he soon began to work at the serious aspects of the "fine" arts. In 1824 he exhibited paintings at the British Institute and at the opening exhibition of the Society of British Artists, of which he was a founding member. A View of Rouen Cathedral attracted a good deal of attention but he was not elected an Associate of the Royal Academy until 1838.
Roberts became a full Royal Academician two years later, signaling his complete acceptance by other professionals as an artist to be recognized.
He attained a wide popularity in England and on the continent and one mark of distinction was that he continued to be an exhibitor at the Royal Academy every year from 1840 to 1864.A  His recognition and statue was such that he was appointed one of the commissioners for the Royal Exhibition of 1851. A Irene treated many of her poet and writer friends by launching her new book with a "POETS in the SKY with CUPCAKES" celebration at a most unusual site, the Historic Cahaba Pumping Station Museum in Birmingham. He received commissions for paintings directly from a variety of people ranging from Queen Victoria to Charles Dickens (who also happened to be his friend).A A A  In 1838, the year of his elevation to the rank of ARA (Associate of the Royal Academy), he made his epochal trip to the Near East on a journey which lasted eleven months.
He spent considerable time in Cairo on three visits, evidenced by the number of detailed renderings of mosques, tombs and other architecture as well as the many scenes of daily life. He traveled the whole length of Egypt and farther south into Nubia than most people during his time.
Alexandria, however, is represented by only a few compositions and the other monuments of the Delta not at all, in contrast to the lavish treatment accorded to the sites of Upper Egypt, especially in the Luxor area.A  When Roberts returned to England from Egypt, Nubia, Palestine and Syria, he brought back with him an estimated 272 detailed drawings as well as books filled with other, mainly smaller, sketches. With the help of his friend and fellow artist, the talented lithographer, Louis Haghe, Roberts turned much of this material into 247 plates for publication.
The mathematics of this project are simple, Roberts made almost 300 drawings in eleven months, approximately 330 days,A  plus a panorama of Cairo and three full sketch books, a massive output for any draughtsman. A If you want to find out how something that looks like a thunderstorm, feels like a thunderstorms, bends cornstalks in wind like a thunderstorm, is complete with "shredded clouds" and lightning strikes like a thunderstorm, but isn't EVEN a thunderstorm, read the book.
When a reasonable amount of time is deducted for the vagaries of travel in remote countries in the early nineteenth century, indisposition or illness, as well as the preparation necessary for the actual work of recording the monuments, it almost defies the imagination to explain Robertsa€™ enormous productivity. A It's a very good read, and you'll learn something about being an imperfect human and how it's okay, and, in fact, the kind of soul you want to keep.A I'm putting the last touches on Harry's book.
A Reading through it tonight, I kept thinking, "What an amazing poet, an amazing human being." A Not all amazing poets are amazing human beings.


There are few recognizable errors in the reproduction of the ancient monuments but some of these seem to be the result of artistic choice.
A You would think poets would be, but some are just word crafters, and not people of love, insight, and inspiration. A few random examples of deviation from reality will serve to suggest the artistic license Roberts employed. In one well known composition the orientation of the monuments suggests that the sun is rising (or setting) in the south, obviously positioned for dramatic effect.
The drama is heightened by the inclusion of the less obvious vignette of a group of nomad bedowin struggling to save their black tent blown by the desert winds.
In another lithograph the entrance to the Great Pyramid appears on the south, rather than the north side of the structure.
One view of the Amun Temple at Karnak from the east includes the distant Nile at two different, disconnected, levels in the background. A I think Mule on a Ferris Wheel is only going to publish people and poets like Harry and Jimmy. However, the ability of an artist to be so precise in the delineation of the details of ruins and their settings, while maintaining such a level of rapid execution, might suggest the use of some mechanical drawing aid. The immediate possibility that suggests itself is the use of an optical instrument such as the camera lucida, a device particularly suited to the reproduction of complex architectural subjects and scenery, and one recently invented, or at least perfected, in Roberta€™s time. In its least complicated manifestation it is little more than a piece of glass held at a fixed angle below the eye. A Here in all its messiness, happiness, and occasional tumult is family life, the world of parents and children, of marriages ended and new ones begun, of the next generation claiming its place. The image of the subject is seen on the angled glass, but it is drawn on the paper below, in effect a tracing of an illusion. A Looking at the different roles he has filled--husband, father, grandfather--the man in these poems cherishes and celebrates love while acknowledging the pain it can bring. With the simplest version of the camera lucida the drawing is reversed, seen in a mirror image.
The more developed form of the camera lucida employs a prism that serves to right the image and correct the reversal. A His 54-page thesis, "Travel for Agorophobics" will be published by Aldrich Press and out by next year! He was granted a patent in 1806 for "An instrument whereby any person may draw in perspective, or may Copy or Reduce any Print or Drawing". It was so-named on an analogy with the camera obscura, known and used by artists for centuries. Whereas the camera obscura, or "dark chambera€? is descriptive of the device it names, "camera lucida" is something of a misnomer because a confined space is not part of the necessary attributes of the device. The noted artists who are known to have employed the camera lucida as an aid included painters and draughtsmen as diverse as the French academicianA  Adolph Bougoreau, or the English landscape painters, Edward Lear, John Sell Cotman and Frederick Catherwood.A  Catherwood, incidentally, another artist who worked in the Middle East, actually makes a good comparison because, like Roberts, he is best known today for his somewhat romantic views of archaeological remains.
His records of the early cultures of Central and South America are better known today than his views of the Middle East which predated them.
In any case, the use of an optical aid greatly facilitated Catherwooda€?s field work which was often accomplished under difficult conditions. James, in his recent book on artist-travelers, Egypt Revealed, documents the use of the device by a number of early students of Egyptology including Robert Hay and George Alexander Hoskins, so it was certainly not unknown in Egypt as a field aid in the time of David Roberts.
David Hockney, the contemporary English artist, has recently advanced the provocative theory that the instrument or some variation of it was known and used by painters as early as the Renaissance.
Katharine Sim, who wrote what is probably the most complete biography of Roberts, saidA  a€?a€¦there has never been any mention of his using binoculars, or a camera lucidaa€¦a€? Sim was so puzzled by the seeming accuracy of Robertsa€™ vision that she consulted an ophthalmic optician for an opinion.
He agreed that the ability to capture vivid and accurate detail in a brief exposure was very rare. The attempt to explain Roberts' work as enabled or facilitated by a device like the camera lucida must rest on three considerations: 1) The lithographs often have the appearance of a traced drawing. Murphy states that 90% of individuals polled have said they would prefer to die at home, surrounded by their loved ones.
This in itself is admittedly not a particularly conclusive argument and is based on a subjective esthetic judgment. One might argue that this is possibly attributable to the translation of Robert's original work to the medium of lithography by another hand.
Murphy offers a view of death as something other than a "medical event" that need not take place in a sterile hospital and that the time before dying and death itself can be an important part of living in which closure, love, and forgiveness can take place and plans for what the dying person wishes must be put into writing for doctors, other caregivers, and family members.A  The book's scope is far wider than these elements in taking a whole new look at dying and death. 2) The sheer number of works produced by Roberts on his Middle Eastern trip, when measured against the available time for work in the field, suggests that few, ifA  any, draughtsmen or artists could have produced such quantity while maintaining the high quality, accuracy, and attention to extremely complex detail. 3) The recognition that there exists in some of the lithographs a certain degree of visual distortion possibly the result of the use of a device incorporating a lens or necessitating a fixed viewpoint. We can't even imagine what the landscape of Alabama literature would be, would have been without you and your labors of love in poetry.A  Congratulations! It is evident after inspection of the lithographs that Roberts combined overall views of the monuments and the landscape with separately prepared sketches of the picturesque local inhabitants in a regular manner that becomes a hallmark of his characteristic style.
His standard formula or working method consisted of the representation of the carefully delineated monument or locale first, with the secondary insertion of a€?set-groupsa€? of people and animals, probably derived from the smaller sketches in his notebooks. These additions of local color were regularly used to provide a focus of interest in the composition as well as serve to increase the sense of scale. There is a clarity in his line drawing that is instantly appealing and visually satisfying.
Even when he intentionally distorted the arrangement of a ruined monument or changed the physical orientation for artistic effect, his skillful hand and his careful attention to detail still created a vivid record of the antiquities as they were at the mid-nineteenth century. Bill Wilson, consultant with the Center for Congregational Health in Winston-Salem, will present on "The Realities of Ministry in the 21st Century." Lots of discussion and dialogue!
Robertsa€™ contemporary, the famous art critic, John Ruskin, singled out Roberts as the a€?only one professedly architectural draughtsman of notea€? among English painters in his time. He further described Roberts' work as a€?dependant on no unintelligible, lines or blots, or substitute types,a€? suggesting the accuracy of Roberts' renderings. Compared to the pioneer photographs of the mid-nineteenth century they are so fresh and revealing today that one has to recall that they were created more than a century and a half ago. They provided generations of a€?armchaira€? travelersA  with a vicarious experience and they continue to whet our appetites for the reality. The color is not always accurate in many of them but this is in part due to some variation in the hand coloring process in the original published lithographs as well as the reproduction technique used. A I need pink to brighten up my face, and I love looking like a pink popsicle and don't mind as long as Lynn looks like one, too. A Here she is reading a poetic sky passage from SOULS to KEEP at Irene's launch of her latest poetry collection THE SKY BETWEEN US.
A His 54-page thesis, "Travel for Agorophobics" will be published by Aldrich Press and out by next year!
We can't even imagine what the landscape of Alabama literature would be, would have been without you and your labors of love in poetry.A  Congratulations!
One might argue that this is possibly attributable to the translation of Robert's original work to the medium of lithography by another hand.
Malm's Grief Retreat following the death of my mother in 2002, and found it to be extraordinarily helpful in my own grief process. Since this article was written the author has re-examined many of the Roberts Egyptian scenes with an idea of determining how much the use of human figures was included to establish scale.
It has become apparent that Roberts, in his inclusion of human images, constantly reduced their size in proportion to their context with the consequent effect of making buildings and monuments appear larger than actuality. In some case, such as Abu Simbel, and the Temple of Dandur, this has made the monument appear much more imposing than it is in reality.A Copyright 2009 William H.



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