Alcohols are organic molecules with the C-OH functional group and sugars always have many of these groups. Let's look at the possible changes in oxidation state in the reaction of one of these alcohols and chromium trioxide.
Only the carbon of the alcohol functional group and the chromium center change oxidation states.
To find the standard name of any simple alcohol, aldehyde, ketone, or carboxylic acid it is necessary to find the name of the longest carbon chain that contains that functional group. Oxidizing agents, such as chromium trioxide, convert the C-OH group of alcohols into the C=O group of an aldehyde or a ketone.


The carbon of the alcohol is oxidized by 2 electrons, from -I to I, and the chromium atom is reduced by 3 electrons, from Cr(VI) to Cr(III).
In an aldehyde, the carbonyl carbon is bonded to one other carbon atom and one hydrogen atom. Because the number of electrons transferred must be equal, we multiply the oxidation half reaction by 3 and the reduction half reaction by 2 before we add them to get the net oxidation-reduction reaction. Replace the final e with "ol" for an alcohol, "al" for an aldehyde, or "oic acid" for a carboxylic acid.
Number the carbon atoms (with the functional group at the lower number end of the chain) to indicate the position of the functional group for alcohols or for ketones.


The aldehyde and carboxylic acid functional groups are always on C1 and don't need to be numbered.



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