Voice-over-IP (VoIP) is nothing new, of course, but so far it's been regarded merely as an add-on to America's regular, analog-based copper and cellular voice networks -- networks that are currently maintained as a matter of legal requirement.
Intermediate certificate authorities are just as potent as the root CAs that form a secure web. Researchers confirm that Mars has seen many ice age cycles over time, and is still coming out of the last one.
Many courts have held laser may not be used past 1,000 feet due to the possibility that part of the laser beam might strike an adjacent vehicle.
Many times on the stand the officer will be asked the specific speed they visually observed a suspect vehicle prior to taking enforcement action.
Officer Steven Wood of the Bexar County Sheriffa€™s Office, pictured above with the LTI laser gun was determined the Top Gun, top student, in the class scoring 396.58 of a possible 400 points. Radar In School Zone Research Published-With thei?? assistance of the El Paso ISD Police Department, i??SMLa€™s research article a€?Radar In School Zonesa€? was published in the fall 2011, Vol.
To study the effects of visible use of radar in school zones, SML and Edgar Garcia of El Paso ISD Police measured some 347 drivers for their speed and cell phone use on September 20, 2011. SML To Be Published By Police And Security News-Confirmation has been received that SMLa€™s article a€?It Will Happen To Youa€? will be published by the national law enforcement publication in an upcoming issue. SML Exhibits And Speaks At New Mexico Chiefs Of Police Convention-December 7-9 saw SML exhibit at the New Mexico Chiefs of Police Annual Convention in Albuquerque, NM. Such discussions had been conducted at previous state-wide conventions as SML has attended the last six state-wide conventions of the Chiefs of Police of New Mexico.
SML Attends The Annual Convention Of The International Association of Chiefs Of Police-SML attended the annual convention of the IACP held in Chicago during the last week of October 2011. Handling Citizen Complaints About Speeding-December 13-14 saw SML meet with officers of the Las i??Cruces New Mexico Police Department. Results presented to the complainant are color coded with green meaning no problem, yellow meaning a potential problem, and red a definite problem.
SML teaches at Emergency Operations Center in San Antonio, Texas.A  SML taught the NHTSA recommended Master Radar Laser Certification curriculum to several police agencies December 19-21, 2011. A A A  Officer Steven Wood of the Bexar County Sheriffa€™s Office, pictured above with the LTI laser gun was determined the Top Gun, top student, in the class scoring 396.58 of a possible 400 points.
Radar In School Zone Research Published-With the assistance of the El Paso ISD Police Department, SMLa€™s research article a€?Radar In School Zonesa€? was published in the fall 2011, Vol. Handling Citizen Complaints About Speeding-December 13-14 saw SML meet with officers of the Las Cruces New Mexico Police Department. A A A  Results presented to the complainant are color coded with green meaning no problem, yellow meaning a potential problem, and red a definite problem.A  Home owners, tax payers, customers greatly appreciate this service provided by the Las Cruces Police Department and tell others, a€?something is being done about speeding in my neighborhood!a€? SML does not sell Jamar products.
The FCC isn't necessarily such a stickler for tradition, however, as it is now encouraging phone networks to explore what would happen if VoIP replaced everything else.


Scoring was determined by four criteria all with a maximum value of 100 each being: testing, field exercises, class participation, and a student graded presentation.
Units of the El Paso ISD Police Department and several officers were highly visible in the same school zone of Beall Elementary School on Piedras Street in El Paso. This department is a national leader in offering service to citizens who complain about speeding in their neighborhoods.
Part of the activities require officers to conduct field surveys of estimating the speeds of 100 vehicles and the distances of 50 vehicles.A  The courts have held a Valid Visual Tracking History is necessary before the officer verifies the actual speed of the target vehicle with a radar or laser speed assessment system. Scoring was determined by four criteria all with a maximum value of 100 each being:A  testing, field exercises, class participation, and a student graded presentation.
It gives helpful hints into what officers must know when they testify.A  With the poor economy, more and more speeding citations are being challenged in court.
Once the Jamar Speed Enforcement Evaluator is removed, many times Radar In Use signs are put up. In other words, how would the system cope if the only phone numbers were Internet Protocol addresses; if even emergency calls were transmitted over the web; and if remote rural communities became dependent on VoIP, with no other type of network as a backup?
All officers were requested to bring with them to class the Operators Manual of their radar or laser gun provided by the manufactureri??.
These officers were told to turn on their Stalker II, Ka band radar units at 34.7 GHz and leave them in the constant transmit mode. Citizen complaints about neighborhood speeding are at the top of the list of calls received by dispatch. All officers were requested to bring with them to class the Operators Manual of their radar or laser gun provided by the manufacturer. The percentage of drivers on their phone in the school zone was 6% and 58.8% of school zones drivers were at or below the school zone speed limit of 15 mph. Companies that want to participate in the experiment have until late February to submit their ideas, with approvals expected to be granted as early as March -- but don't fear, the tests will only be permitted in "discrete geographic areas or situations," which is the FCC's way of politely reminding telecom providers not to get ahead of themselves.
Officers were also required to log and demonstrate the correct set up procedure of each device including checking the accuracy of transmission using tuning forks in the case of radar and establishing and shooting a Known Distance and Vertical and Horizontal Sight Alignment with laser.
The research wanted to see if the addition of radar in school zones would have any effect of speeds driven.
2d 225, the court ordered the a€?officer must be able to establish that the target vehicle was within the beam widtha€? at the time of the infraction. Officers were also required to log and demonstrate the correct set up procedure of each device including checking the accuracy of transmission using tuning forks in the case of radar and establishing and shooting a Known Distance and Vertical and Horizontal Sight Alignment with laser.A  Both of these external tests were logged by the officers for potential use as proof the device was operating properly.
The research wanted to see if the addition of radar in school zones would have any effect of speeds driven.A  We also wanted to see if the percentages changed of drivers on their cell phones while in the school zones. Officer Joy Mickendrow of the Neighborhood Enforcement Team was in charge of the program before she was promoted to detective.A  However, the program continues.


The internal test button of both radar and laser guns do not measure the accuracy of the transmission of each device and should not be used a prima facie evidence of the correct operational accuracy of each device.A  Departments should establish their own standards on officer training, certification of officers, and time periods for re-certification of equipment including tuning forks. El Paso is unique in that the City Council of El Paso passed and adopted a city-wide Ordinance No. First, most of these complaints are based on the noise of drivers.A  Unfortunately, most of citizens confuse the noise made by drivers as speeding, when it is not the case.
A warning letter is then sent to the driver on Las Cruces Police Department stationary telling them they were observed speeding.
A good rule is to use the same training and re-certification requirements of the state police agency within an individual state. The After percentage of drivers at or below the posted speed limit changed significantly with 96.8% of drivers driving at or below the 15 mph school zone limit. Tuning forks are not interchangeable and must stay with the radar gun as delivered by the manufacturer.A  Quoting from the Operators Manual of a major manufacturer of radar guns in their section Why Testing Is Important, a€?In order to ensure continued compliance with FCC rules, meet legal requirements for admissibility or radar speed measurements, and verify full operating performance, the following test procedures are recommended. 5501, effective September 1, 2009 meaning the City of El Paso is responsible for enforcing violations city-wide.
SML is conducting this project for an upcoming article titled a€?Handling Citizen Complaints About Speedinga€? which will appear in national law enforcement publications. Two tuning forks are supplied with each radar gun.a€? Departments should verify that equipment re-certification companies re-certify equipment to standards accepted as they appear in DOT HS 809 812 (radar) and DOT Hs 809 811 (laser). The percentage of drivers on their hand held cell phones was also reduced dramatically with the After sample showing only 2% of the drivers on their phones compared to the Before sample of 6%. During the home visit, Officer Mickendrow presents the statistics from the Jamar pole mounted Speed Enforcement Evaluator. Graduates of the Master Radar Laser Instructor Course are certified to teach other officers to Operator or Master Radar Laser Instructor certification standards. Clearly, the visibility of radar use in the measured school zone was effective.A  SML advised the El Paso ISD Police Department to initiate RET meaning Random Enforcement Techniques in their school zones. RET is random as the name implies.A  Effective measures are placing of School Zone Radar Equipped letters on the rear bumper of each unit, placing additional signs of Radar In Use in the school zone, and using a radar display attached to the police unit. Such a radar display shows oncoming driers their speed and should be placed at the entrance to the school zone.A  On some days there is no visible radar in the school zone. On other days there is.A  Such random enforcement techniques work and do not require constant visibility of police units in school zones. Drivers will not take the chance of getting caught speeding or using hand held cell phones in school zones.



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