As a child growing up in Michigan in the 1950s, our telephone was connected to elaborate circuitry known as switchboards. A telephone call back then was a closed circuit from one point to another, and trust me, when the phone rang in my house, it was a very big deal. So in telephony fifty years ago, the circuit and that which was being transmitted on the circuit were connected. In 1960, scientists began experimenting with what's known as "packet switching" on telephone lines, where the data being transmitted was separated from the circuit and repackaged at the other end. Packet switching is a network communications method that groups all transmitted data, irrespective of content, type, or structure into suitably-sized blocks, called packets. This ability to separate form from content is at the heart of all of the disruptive technologies and innovations that we have in communications today.
While there are certainly questions as to whether value is transferring or disappearing, there's no doubt that venerable institutions are in trouble today as the result of application separation.
It's the single most significant issue confronting the copyright industry and copyright law in contemporary culture, for the ability to separate form from content didn't exist when original laws were written or the concept of copyright was even conceived.
Since all of that has changed, the ability to make money from content of all forms must be connected to the original content itself and not the form in which its presented, and this will require a major shift in the paradigms governing copyright.
There is no stage in the online world, and value propositions based on such are unworkable.
We must find a way to attach a value to original content in such a way that, no matter how it is consumed, the copyright owners are compensated. In "The Remarkable Opportunities of Unbundled Media" in 2005, I wrote of six ways to make money in a truly unbundled, application separation world, and these still make sense today. Of these, I believe number four and number six hold the greatest revenue possibilities for media companies.
In Media 2.0, the stage is separate from the play itself, and enterprises that support this will prosper.
This is the only thing that makes sense to the Web, and what's stopping it is the fear of the copyright industry, a fear based in the misguided belief that it will destroy the money tree known as charging for every form of presentation. Like compound interest, residual payments for copyright are the Eighth Wonder of the World. The worst thing about such assumptions is that clinging to them prevents us from moving forward with the new. Copyright owners should be able to set the price for consumption of their goods and services, but once that price is set, it shouldn't matter which channels or forms I choose to consume those goods and services.
NBC President and CEO Jeff Zucker is in the business of art, and his views are shared by those within his community.
There is a huge difference between analog dollars and digital pennies, but it has nothing to do with value, for analog dollars come in opaque boxes while digital pennies are transparent. So Zucker's statement is more precisely that he doesn't want to trade opaque dollars for transparent pennies, and this is the problem for all mass media that is supported by advertising. But application separation allows extreme precision, and this is both the great strength and the great weakness of the Web.
With transparency comes the ability to determine costs, and this terrifies those whose business models are built on opaque sales. Another problem for the "analog dollars and digital pennies" argument is that at the heart of the personal media revolution is a satisfaction with those pennies.
The stage has long been a necessary part of our culture, and in some ways, it'll always be with us.
In the field of telecommunications, a telephone exchange (US: telephone switch) is a piece of equipment that connects phone calls.
In the United States, the word exchange can also have the technical meaning of a local access and transport area under the Modification of Final Judgment (MFJ). On March 10, 1891, Almon Strowger, an undertaker in Topeka, Kansas, patented the Strowger switch, a device which led to the automation of the telephone circuit switching. Because the switches were hard-wired together and fairly hard to re-wire (re-grade), telephone exchange buildings in many larger cities were dedicated to circuits that began with the first two or three numbers of the (in North America) standard 7 digit phone numbers. Because the pulses in a Strowger switch exchange took time, having a phone number with lots of 8s or 9s or 0s meant it took longer to dial.
The local exchange automatically senses an off hook (tip) telephone condition, provides dial tone to that phone, receives the pulses or DTMF tones generated by the phone, and then completes a connection to the called phone within the same exchange or to another distant exchange. The exchange then maintains the connection until a party hangs up, and the connection is disconnected.
Digital switches encode the speech going on, in extremely minute time slices a€” many per second. Some telephone switches do not have concentrators directly connected to them, but rather are used to connect calls between other telephone switches. DLCs are often referred to as Subscriber Loop Carriers (SLCs), after Lucent's proprietary name for their pair gain products.
Long distance switches may use a slower, more efficient switch-allocation algorithm than central offices, because they have near 100% utilization of their input and output channels. The structure of a switch is an odd number of layers of smaller, simpler subswitches, interconnected by a web of wires that goes from each subswitch, to a set of the next layer of subswitches. A time-division subswitch reads a complete cycle of time slots into a memory, and then writes it out in a different order, also under control of a cyclic computer memory. The scarce resources in a telephone switch are the connections between layers of subswitches. One way is to have enough switching fabric to assure that the pairwise allocation will always succeed by building a fully-connected mesh network. Another way is to have a minimal switching fabric that still can theoretically make all the connections, and reorganize the switch's connections when a new connection won't fit. If a subswitch with the needed pair of connections can't be found, a pair of subswitches will still have the necessary in and out, because there has to be at least the same number of connections between each layer of the switch, or else the switch will not be able to complete a full set of connections. The pair of subswitches' connections can be reorganized with a clever algorithm called a topological sort, so that all the existing connections continue, though they might migrate between the two different subswitches. To prevent frustration with unsensed failures, all the connections between layers in the switch are allocated using first-in-first-out lists. Choose from 2 or 3 distinctive ring phone numbers but pay for only one phone line plus "distinctive ring" for up to two additional numbers.
ATX-250 (Two Devices) In addition to tone detection, the ATX-250 Automatic Call Processor can process selective ring detection.
ATX-300 (Three Devices) 3 device (plus an answering machine) Automatic Call Processor designed for ultimate reliability. An Industrial Grade Automatic Call Processor eliminates dedicated phone lines by expanding the number of devices you can connect to a single line.
Use the Line Hunter for private phone numbers, business numbers, personal numbers, modems, data and credit card terminals, storage and monitor systems, and more! The IPS provides various methods of initiating an AC power reset to meet any requirement for complete in and out-of-band network control. Click here if you want to share 3 or more devices on one line and don't know what type to choose. I’m a millennial, but even I remember the experience of calling the telephone operator and getting a live human to look up the number of a business or place a collect call. Spark is more well known for things like in-place editing and a mobile friendly toolbar, which you can see at right. JRB: I want developers to understand that accessibility is fundamental to user interface development.
JRB: Most importantly, we have more individual core contributors this cycle who truly believe in addressing accessibility issues. I want to believe that the aural interfaces we have today still just the awkward first attempts to build an abstract audio interface pattern language.
JRB: In Drupal 8, we are building tools that manage a couple of the trickier components of accessibility in a browser. Switchboard operators at work in Helena in 1906 included chief operator Anna Bennett (standing) and, from left to right, Elizabeth Hartwig, Irene LaSalle, Susie Hildebrand, Elma Barnes, Tillie Gillan, Susette Amacker, Kate J. The first telephone arrived in Montana in 1876, the same year Alexander Graham Bell patented his invention, and by the 1890s many Montana cities had telephone exchanges. Arguimbau describes the working conditions of these female employees in “Number, please,” originally published in Montana The Magazine of Western History and excerpted below. Often a maze of cords and sockets, switchboards were attended by one operator in a small exchange or by a roomful of operators in the larger towns, usually all young women.
Although female telephone operators may have been recognized for their abilities, they often worked long hours for very low pay. The board was a vast expanse of eyes, with, at the base, a dozen or so pairs of plugs on cords for connecting and an equal number of keys for talking, listening, and ringing. Read Dorothy Johnson’s reminiscence, “Confessions of a Telephone Girl,” in Montana The Magazine of Western History 47, no.
After her brief stint as a telephone operator, Dorothy Johnson went on to become a premier Western novelist.
This entry was posted in 1800-1899, 1900-1945, Work and tagged Montana, Telephone Operators, Women.
Martha Edgerton Rolfe Plassmann claimed that she and her husband brought the first telephone equipment to Montana in 1876 when they came to Helena for Herbert to take charge of Helena Schools. With Earth Day 2014 fast approaching (Tuesday, April 22), the 44th birthday of the modern environmental movement provides a great opportunity to take small, easy steps to shrink your carbon footprint at home and put money back into your pocket year-round. Check your set-top box: The set-top box hooked up to your television to deliver pay-TV services from cable and satellite companies may well use more energy than your big screen TV alone (especially true for DVR set-top boxes).
See the light (bulb): Replacing old, inefficient light bulbs with new energy-saving versions can lead to big savings.
A programmable thermostat is your friend: Why run your central air conditioning or furnace at the same temperatures round-the-clock when you’re not home most of the day?
Watch that washer and dryer: With new detergents designed to work in cold water, select that setting for all but the dirtiest loads.
These easy steps highlighted in our infographic can turn your whole house into a year-round celebration of Earth Day.

This article originally appeared on NRDC’s Switchboard blog, and is reprinted with permission.
The "operator" connected circuits as calls were made, and the technology to automate all that was just coming into being.
Depending on what you could afford, your circuit was often shared with others in what were known as "party lines." You'd pick up the phone to make a call only to discover that some other member of your "party" was using the line.
The network over which packets are transmitted is a shared network that routes each packet independently from all others and allocates transmission resources as needed.
The breakthrough came when the Department of Defense used it to build ARPANET (Advanced Research Projects Agency Network), the precursor to the Internet. Former FCC Chairman Michael Powell referred to it during a formal chat with students at Stanford University in 2004. The issue, however, is not how to protect oneself from this disruption, but rather how to move forward within it.
Formulas for determining value that are based on forms of presentation are simply unworkable, for the Web routes around such roadblocks, viewing them as impediments to the mission of putting packets together with consumers of packets. It wasn't Hulu's decision, for Hulu is merely a form of presentation; Hulu's "content partners" asked for it. Hulu thinks it can create sufficient scarcity to force people to its own property, where it can then make money.
These three methods all stem from the laws of mass marketing, but the Web is not a mass-marketing medium, no matter how much traditional media moguls say it is or try to enact laws that make it so. Content has been freed from the limitations of the stage, and the sooner we all accept that, the sooner we can get on with the task of creating ways to pay for the costs of creating content. Already, consumer industries are creating their own media for distribution, and this will be a growing business, perhaps even harkening back to the day when advertisers paid for their own programs that were distributed via the fledgling broadcast networks. Getting into this business is smart for media companies who want in on the new distribution models, but (so far), they're blinded by the old mass media scarcity concept, which is what produces the kinds of problems we're seeing with Hulu's "content partners." If you seriously want a share of helping users rebundle, then you must be prepared to put your own material out there for rebundling by others, too.
The only group that would be impacted by such a system are the lawyers paid to ferret out "offenders" who are simply trying to find a better way to serve the wants and needs of the people.
They are built on assumptions that must be challenged in today's world, for they are formulas that support greed and nothing else.
This is a greater fear for the mass marketing world than the actual dollars versus pennies argument, for atomized and transparent content does not play well with blue smoke and mirrors — the kind of stuff that these businesses use to create wealth for themselves. Whether it's print or broadcast, the opaque nature of the sale is what allows the media companies to grow their businesses, and the more opaque, the better. The ability to serve and track ads separate from the pages on which they are served has changed the balance of power in the publisher-advertiser relationship, and those opaque dollars are flying out the window with remarkable speed. After all, if one can determine cost, one can determine profit, and that's a public relations nightmare that high margin companies can't afford.
A central system of switches and other equipment that establishes connections between individual telephones.
Each operator sat in front of from one to three banks of A?-inch phone jacks fronted by several rows of phone cords, each of which was the local termination of a phone subscriber line.
While there were many extensions and adaptations of this initial patent, the one best known consists of 10 layers or banks of 10 contacts arranged in a semi-circle. These phone exchanges promised faster switching and would accept pulses faster than the Strowger's typical 10 pps a€” typically about 20 pps. In a holdover from the days of plug-board exchanges, the exchanges were typically named with a name whose first two letters translated to the digits of the exchange's prefix on a common telephone dial. Additional features, such as billing equipment, may also be incorporated into the exchange. It is a device for routing calls from one telephone to another, generally as part of the public switched telephone network.
The remote switch is dependent on the parent switch for routing and number plan information.
The majority of work and expense of the phone system is the wiring outside the central office, or the "Outside Plant". These devices are used to provide service where existing copper facilities have been exhausted or by siting in a neighborhood, can reduce the length of copper pairs, enabling digital services such as ISDN or DSL. Early SLC systems (SLC-1) used an analog carrier for transport between the remote site and the central office. Universal DLCs have two terminals, a central office terminal (COT) and a remote terminal (RT), that function similarly.
In other words, each voice channel is represented by a time slot (say 1 or 2) on a physical wire pair (A or B). In most designs, a physical (space) switching layer will alternate with a time switching layer. The first thing to try is to search for a subswitch that contains the needed in and out connections. This is the method usually used in central office switches, which have low utilization of their resources. This is the method usually used in long distance switches, which have high utilization of their switching fabric.
Starting from some input or output, the computer traces a connection to an output, then traces the other connection at that output to an input, and so forth, until it comes to an end. That way, when a disgusted customer hangs up and redials, they will get a different set of connections and subswitches.
If you use two lines in your home or business, this two-line automatic phone fax switch is what you are looking for. Works great with phone company call forwarding (forward your voice calls to your cell phone) and TDD devices too. Use the Polnet for modems, data and credit card terminals, storage and monitor systems, and more! Either have up to 12 unique phone numbers on 4 lines using your local phone companies distinctive ringing service or up to 1-4 incoming phone numbers on 1-4 lines with up to 12 outgoing devices without ordering distinctive ringing. We reserve the right to charge up to the actual price of shipping on all orders outside the continental United States. But from the beginning, improving the experience for everyone has been a big priority, and one of the most exciting developments is a new aural interface.
Renee about Drupal 8 and the nature of working on accessibility, the passion for this work really shown through. As front end developers we build templates that expose context in a predictable, consumable way. According to Ellen Arguimbau, author of “From Party Lines and Barbed Wire: A History of Telephones in Montana,” early telephones needed to be connected directly by wire.
Photographed here is Helen (last name unknown), an operator at Many Glacier Hotel in Glacier National Park in 1925.
For example, in 1907 Rocky Mountain Bell operators’ wages were frequently as low as thirty to forty dollars per month for a ten- to twelve-hour day. On a busy day these cords were woven across the board in a constantly changing, confusing pattern; half the people using telephones were convinced that Central was incompetent or hated them, and Central—flipping plugs into holes, ringing numbers, trying to remember whether 44 wanted 170-K or 170-L, because if she went back and asked him, he’d be sure she was stupid—was close to hysterics. She said that late at night, at the end of a long shift the operators would change how they answered the switchboard. Adjust control-panel settings for the screen to turn off after 15 minutes of inactivity and for the computer to power down after 30. To select the best one for your needs, consult NRDC’s updated Light Bulb Buying Guide. Lowering the temperature setting from 140 degrees to 120 saves money and still gets the water plenty hot.
If you have an electric water heater, and a slightly older washer, you’ll save up to 50 cents a load, or around $175 a year, because most washer electricity use goes toward heating the water. And if everyone else takes them, too, these small changes could add up to big financial, energy, and pollution savings for our planet. These operators were often featured in television shows and films of the period, and they were just an accepted part of life. Principal goals of packet switching are to optimize utilization of available link capacity and to increase robustness of communication.
And the problem for everybody in the world of communications is that once you separate "content" from the form in which it is presented, you give up the ability to monetize any subsequent forms of presentation. What difference would it make, for example, if a film was pirated, if the value of that film was connected directly to it, rather than associated with the form in which it was presented? But Boxee is also a form of presentation, and while Boxee actually enhances Hulu's content by optimizing it for viewing on a television set, Hulu's content partners view it as another way to squeeze profit from copyright.
If their videos go elsewhere, they want compensation, but this is contrary to the nature of the Web. Number six is so potentially lucrative that it alone could support the artistic endeavors that drive media companies in a mass marketing world.
In a 2007 speech, he made a statement that has been parroted by the mass media crowd ever since.
The old saw about not knowing which 50 percent of the audience sees your ad is what has built media empires, despite the metrics of circulation or program ratings.
Mass media does not want to truthfully examine costs, for those costs support the infrastructure that allows for the making of money in the first place. The United Kingdom never adopted the two-letter, five-number format, remaining with the three-letter, four-number format until converting to all-numeric phone numbers in 1968.
The subscriber's dial pulsed at 10 pulses per second (depending on standards in particular countries). The advent of DTMF tone-signalling solid-state switches cut off the crossbar's takeover before it could really get going. Before the exchanges became automated, operators had to complete the connections required for a telephone call. They work by connecting two or more digital virtual circuits together, according to a dialed telephone number. The digits are then sent to the receiving end of the line, where the reverse process occurs, to produce the sound for the receiving phone.

The interface between concentrators and telephone switches has been standardised by ETSI as the V5 protocol. Unlike a digital loop carrier, a remote switch can route calls between local phones itself, without using trunks to the parent switch. Pair gain or digital loop carriers (DLCs) are located outside the central office, usually in a large neighborhood distant from the CO. Later systems (SLC-96, SLC-5) and other vendors' DLC products contain line cards that convert the analog signal to a digital signal (usually PCM). Both terminals interface with analog signals, convert to digital signals, and transport to the other side where the reverse is performed. In order to connect two voice channels (say A1 and B2) together, the telephone switch interchanges the information between A1 and B2.
The layers are symmetric, because every call is symmetric (there's a connection in both directions).
Each time it traces from input to output, the connection is placed in one subswitch, and removed from the list. A last-in-first-out allocation of connections might cause a continuing string of very frustrating failures. The only two-line Automatic Call Processor that actually turns your existing inside phone wires into a mini-network. This Modem Sharing Device has special polling features and interfaces with an rj-31x jack used for larger phone systems. You get up to 3 incoming phone numbers on each phone line and it hunts for an open line on outgoing calls so you never get a busy signal.
By Web-browser: The IPS can be controlled by a master control unit that is accessible via the internet.
As a practice we have established and then refined patterns of visual expression over the past 30-plus years. Skeumorphic designs bring our understanding of the physical world to bear on pixels and bits.
But that little bit of designer in me, that memory of a linguist I almost was, remembers being thunderstruck with insight reading Jackendoff’s unfurling of metaphor after I had just so recently fallen smitten with the strict generative grammar of early Chomsky.
We are still learning how to pack context into denser forms through non-visual expressions. Tabbing is then constrained to those elements until the constraint is superseded or released.
To facilitate that connection, telephone companies established exchanges, staffed almost entirely by young female operators.
Census Bureau report: “For many years it has been recognized that operators’ work in telephone exchanges attracts a superior class of women. That year, Butte operators struck for higher wages and an eight-hour day, and the company, in recognition of their united strength, almost immediate agreed to a minimum wage of fifty dollars per month, an eight-hour day, and a closed shop.
It was every operator’s dream that when her ship came in she would open all the keys on a busy board, yell “To hell with you,” pull all the plugs, and march out in triumph, leaving everything in total chaos.
You can find links to the full text of all Montana The Magazine of Western History articles relating to women’s history here. Rolfe was the first to introduce the telephone in Montana when it was just beginning to be regarded in the east as a practicable means of communication. Ask your service provider for an Energy Star version 3 and if you have multiple TVs, request a whole home DVR for your main TV and for the others, request a thin client that uses far less power than a DVR and still allows you to watch live or recorded shows.
Be sure to set the screen to turn off, not to display a continuously running slide show or screen saver because these use a lot of energy. With the new Xbox One and PS4, go into the unit’s menu to ensure the automatic power-down feature is enabled and set for one hour of inactivity or less. Choose maximum spin speed on your front-load washer and your clothes won’t come out as wet, requiring less drying time and energy. Most people think this should come in the form of micropayments, but that concept assumes a virtual box office, a bottle neck that the Web would view as inefficient and route around. The latest silliness from the RIAA is that they "own" the music you buy, and that you are merely purchasing the right to listen to it.
There are uncertainties built into such measurements that can be exploited to hide realities that the publisher or programmer would rather keep hidden.
A workplace that serves as a telecommunications facility where lines from telephones can be connected together to permit communication. 869a€“1234 was formerly TOwnsend 9a€“1234, and before that (in some localities) might have been TOWnsend 1234 (only the capital letters and numbers being dialed). Depending upon the answer, the operator might plug the plug into a local jack and start the ringing cycle, or plug into a hand-off circuit to start what might be a long distance call handled by subsequent operators in another bank of boards or in another building miles away.
All switches built since the 1970s are digital, so for practical purposes this is a distinction without a difference.
This digital signal can then be transported over copper, fiber, or other transport medium to the central office. The connections of both subswitches are placed in a list that also includes the desired new connection. When it traces from output to input, the connection is placed in the other subswitch and removed from the list.
Use up to three telecommunication devices plus an answering machine on one single phone line.This is our most popular fax switch. Instead of having one phone number for 2 or 3 devices, you have 2 or 3 phone numbers and only pay for one phone line. For a blind user, they must traverse every cell in the table to discover a missing requirement.
I know that must not be completely clear, but that’s why we’re presenting a session about aural user interfaces and how we can use these new tools to build them! That same year, the legislature enacted a law banning the employment of girls under the age of sixteen as telephone operators and in 1909 limited the hours of telephone operators to nine hours per day in cities and towns of more than three thousand people, except under special circumstances of illness or emergency.
It was in 1877, when he was at the head of the Helena schools, he obtained a few of the first instruments to come west [in fall of1876] and installed them on an old telegraph wire he had previously strung between his home and that of Colonels Sanders, for communication purposes.
If you can’t program your thermostat, get a new one and if you want to splurge, buy a Nest model that learns your schedule and can provide even greater savings. If you’re only doing one load and not in a hurry, pick dryer settings like Eco mode or energy saver – they typically save energy by using lower temperatures but take a little longer. The value is always with the presentation, and this is the real problem in an unbundled world.
It would also require an elaborate rights management system to protect the copyright owner, and this has already been deemed unworkable by the music industry. This is the ludicrous end of trying to control the forms in which products are consumed (I own the socks; you're purchasing the right to wear them). Application separation indeed changes everything, but it does not necessarily follow that it has to mean a loss for the people who create that which has been separated. In December of 1930, New York City became the first locality in the United States to adopt the two-letter, five-number format; it remained alone in this respect until after World War II, when other municipalities across the country began to follow suit (in some areas, most notably much of California, telephone numbers in the 1930s and early 1940s consisted of only six digits, two letters which began the exchange name followed by four numbers, as in DUnkirk 0799).
A side effect of the fictional-number pool being reduced to 100 numbers is that the same ones now often recur in different movies or TV shows. Other components include ringing generators to provide ringing current and battery backups. To do this, it exchanges data between the time slots and connections 8000 times per second, under control of digital logic that cycles through electronic lists of the current connections.
To complete correctly, tracing must begin with single connection inputs and outputs, and only then trace double-ended inputs and outputs, which might form loops. This experiment was shortly followed by the installation of lines to Virginia City and Deer Lodge, the first long distance telephone system. LED bulbs, now less than $10 at big box stores, are a good investment because they can save $100 or more over their lifetime. The people formerly known as the audience have figured out that the music's the thing, not the packages in which it comes.
This is doable for the artists of society, but artists are generally terrible business people, so the business of creativity has had very little to do with creativity or the artists themselves.
All that has changed, and to the new participants in the media game, those pennies look like a lot of money. Using both types of switching makes a modern switch far smaller than either a space or time switch could be by itself. Inquire about our RAD (Remote Access Dialer) for use with multiple location polling applications with this product. Now is the time for front end developers to start thinking about accessibility as a multi-modal effort. With3 billion screw-based sockets still containing an inefficient incandescent or halogen bulb, switching to LEDs and CFLs would add up to a whopping $3 billion in savings for U.S. And don’t stream video with your game console because it requires up to 30 times more energy to play a movie than such devices as a smart TV or an external box like Apple TV, Roku, or Amazon Fire TV.
Also don’t forget to clean the lint off the screen before each load so your dryer can run more efficiently.
It has become the purview of smart business people who view creative endeavors as their property.
The next test succeeds, the connections to the repaired subswitch are marked "not in use", and the switch returns to full operation. When we speak of making something accessible, we tend to refer to making an interface for blind users or for users with physical capabilities that make keyboard and mouse use difficult, as examples. We no longer have the excuse that the tools and technologies available to us do not support efficient workflows for non-visual UI development. So much that we humans do starts with structure that softens with time to fit our curvy, winding nature.

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