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What is a whirling dervishes ceremony(Sema) ? The Whirling Dervish ceremony, called Sema, is a music and dance ritual born out of “love” and “respect” which are the primary ideals propagated by 13th century poet, theologian and Sufi master Mevlana C. Is the modern Sema only a commercial and touristic show ?The Mevlevi sect, Rumi's modern day following, has continued to draw on and develop inspired religious beliefs, literature, dance and music since 13rd century weaving into their lifestyles this once, original way of seeing the world. Why is the ceremony taking place in the House of Dede Efendi?The House of Dervish Dede Efendi is a most suitable place for the spiritual atmosphere of Sema ritual.
The Whirling Dervish ceremony, called Sema, is a music and dance ritual born out of “love” and “respect” which are the primary ideals propagated by 13th century poet, theologian and Sufi master Mevlana C. The Mevlevi sect, Rumi's modern day following, has continued to draw on and develop inspired religious beliefs, literature, dance and music since 13rd century weaving into their lifestyles this once, original way of seeing the world. In our role, our organization assumes accountability and accepts fully the responsibility to the origins and spirit of the ceremony. The House of Dervish Dede Efendi is a most suitable place for the spiritual atmosphere of Sema ritual.
DESCRIPTION: During the Middle Ages the Greek tradition of disinterested research was stifled in Western Europe by a theological dictatorship which bade fair, for a time, to destroy all hope of a genuine intellectual revival.
Most Arab cartographers also used Ptolemya€™s instructions in the construction of their own maps. Over the years, these enlightened Arabs injected new life and a storehouse of knowledge into the relatively backward science of Western Europe, and, for centuries, Arab culture actually dominated the Iberian Peninsula and Sicily.
In the year 1138, the royal palace at Palermo, Sicily was the scene of a long-awaited meeting between an unusual Christian king and a distinguished Muslim scholar. The monarch was Roger II, King of Sicily; his distinguished guest the Arab geographer Abu Abdullah Mohammed Ibn al-Sharif al-Idrisi [Edrisi].
Al-Idrisia€™s writings tell us less about his own character and personality than about those of the man who became his host and patron. Sicily in particular was an ideal meeting ground for the two civilizations a€“ Christian Europe and the Muslim Middle East. Early in the 11th century a band of Norman adventurers, the Hautevilles, had ridden into southern Italy to wrest it from the Byzantine Greeks and the Muslims, and in 1101 Count Roger da€™Hauteville capped his career by conquering Sicily.
Tall, dark-haired, bearded and corpulent, Roger, from a magnificent palace in Palermo, ruled his kingdom with a balanced mixture of diplomacy, ruthlessness, wisdom and skill that has led many historians to term his kingdom the best-governed European state of the Middle Ages.
Rogera€™s interest in geography was the expression of a scientific curiosity just awakening in Europe, but inevitably he turned to a Muslim for help. A few practical maps did exista€”marinersa€™ charts showing coastlines, capes, bays, shallows, ports of call and watering and provisioning placesa€”but in a typical medieval divorce of science and technology, these remained in the hands of navigators. To carry out the project, Roger established an academy of geographers, with himself as director and al-Idrisi as permanent secretary, to gather and analyze information. The academy began by studying and comparing the works of previous geographersa€”principal among them 12 scholars, 10 of them from the Muslim world.
Al-Idrisia€™s two geographers from the pre-Islamic era were Paulus Orosius, a Spaniard whose popular History, written in the fifth century, included a volume of descriptive geography; and Ptolemy, the greatest of the classical geographers, whose Geography, written in the second century, had been entirely lost to Europe, but preserved in the Muslim world in an Arabic translation.
After examining at length the geographical works they had collected, the king and the geographer observed that they were full of discrepancies and omissions, and decided to embark on original research.
During this research, al-Idrisi and Roger compared data, keeping the facts on which travelers agreed and eliminating conflicting information.
Finally, however, the long 15-year geographical study was finished and the task of map making began. Al-Idrisi explained that the disk merely symbolized the shape of the world: The earth is round like a sphere, and the waters adhere to it and are maintained on it through natural equilibrium which suffers no variation.
By al-Idrisia€™s time, Muslim astronomers had made great strides in methods of reckoning latitude.
Al-Idrisi himself gave three figures for the eartha€™s circumference, without deciding among them: Eratosthenesa€™ approximately correct estimate, a slightly smaller figure arrived at by Indian astronomers, and a still smaller numbera€”though larger than Ptolemya€™sa€”which was apparently agreed on by Sicilian scholars. On the disk, according to al-Idrisia€™s own account, were incised a€?by skillful workersa€? lines marking the limits of the seven climates of the habitable world, arbitrary divisions established by Ptolemy running east and west and bounded by parallels of latitude, from the Arctic to the Equator. The map, written in Arabic, shows the Eurasian continent in its entirety, but only shows the northern part of the African continent. The resulting book and associated maps which took 15 years to amass are, for this and the above reasons, unquestionably among the most interesting monuments of Arabian geography. Modern geographers have attempted to reconstruct the features of the silver planisphere by using a combination of the maps of Rogera€™s Book, which has survived in several texts, and its tables of longitudes and latitudes. Distortions, omissions, and misconceptions notwithstanding, the superiority of al-Idrisia€™s map over the world maps of medieval Europe is striking.
The first division of the first climate commences to the west of the Western Sea, which Idrisi called the Sea of Darkness. Following the Nile, still eastward, we find the nomadic Berbers who pasture their flock on the borders of a river flowing from the east, debouching into the Nile stream. It is clear that the part of southern Africa which is extended far to the east is a legacy from Ptolemy, but Arabian seafarers had taught Idrisi that the sea was open in the east, and in his own commentaries he writes: a€?The Sea of Sin [China] is an arm of the ocean which is called the Dark Sea [the Atlantic]a€?. To the south al-Idrisi pictured a great river, the Nile of the Negroes, a composite of the Senegal and the Niger Rivers that flowed from Central Africa west to the Atlantic. Sicily, naturally, came in for special praise; it was a pearl of the age, and al-Idrisi told the story of the Norman conquest of the island by Roger da€™Hauteville, the greatest of Frankish princes, followed by the succession of the great king who bears the same name and who follows in his footsteps. Idrisi was not, however, able to put the countries around the Baltic into proper shape, even though his notes show him to have been familiar with a great many places there, as in the rest of Europe. The impressive assemblage of facts from travelersa€™ accounts and geographical writings was interrupted now and then by fables, some taken directly from Ptolemy, some from popular folklore. Al-Idrisia€™s Rome had an oriental magnificence; ships with their freight sailed up the Tiber to be drawn thus loaded right up to the very shops of the merchants. The Arabs knew these islands through Ptolemy, and called them Jazaa€™ir al-Khalidat [The Eternal Isles], presumably a version of the Greek name. After telling us that the Canaries had been visited by Alexander the Great and that the tomb of a pre-Islamic South Arabian king, made of marble and colored glass, can be seen on one of them, al-Idrisi gives the names of two of the islands. Even more interesting is al-Idrisia€™s account of an actual voyage of exploration into the western Atlantic, undertaken by 80 brave men from Lisbon whom he calls the mugharrirun, best rendered as a€?intrepid explorers.a€? The expedition must have taken place before 1147 - the date Lisbon fell to the Christians - but it is impossible to be more precise.
It was from the city of Lisbon that the mugharrirun set out to sail the Sea of Darkness in order to discover what was in it and where it ended, as we have mentioned before. The inhabitants of the island of al-Sua€™ali are shaped like women and their canine teeth protrude.
The island of Qalhan is inhabited by animal-headed people who swim in the sea to catch their food. Al-Ghawr makes sense; it means a depression surrounded by higher land, and occurs elsewhere in the Arab world as a place name.
Al-Idrisi gives the names of 13 islands in the western Atlantic; a 14th, visited by the mugharrirun, is nameless. On his map, Idrisi shows a long string of islands in the Western Ocean reaching north from the equator to Brittany. However, Arab geographers and astronomers were much too accurate in their latitude calculations to mistakenly spread the Canary Islands so widely over the ocean. The three intermediate islands in the chain may be the first cartographic representation of the Azores. Idrisia€™s description of other islands in the Atlantic appear to have more to do with fanciful legends than with reality.
Some of these islands resemble the islands of Irish legend, and the Arabs may have incorporated parts of the Celtic tradition into their own legends. At the latitude of Tangier, in the Grand Sea, there are situated islands named a€?The Fortunate Islands.a€? These are spread in the sea, not far away from the west coast [of Africa], the Barbary Coast. Al-Idrisi presented the planisphere, a silver celestial sphere and the book to his patron in 1154, just a few weeks before Roger died at 58, probably of a heart attack; he went on to compose another geographical work for William I, Rogera€™s successor. According to Arab sources, Idrisi composed yet another more detailed text and map in 1161 for Rogera€™s son William II. In 1160, however, Sicilian barons rose in rebellion against William and during the disorders looted the palace; in a great fire in the courtyard, they burned government records, books and documentsa€”including a new Latin edition of Rogera€™s Book which al-Idrisi had presented to William.
Since the barons had attacked the Muslims of Sicily with particular ferocitya€”killing, among many others, a famous poet named Yahya ibn al-Tifashia€”al-Idrisi fled to North Africa where, six years later, he died. As he had brought the Arabic text with him, however, his great work lived on, winning widespread fame, serving as a model for Muslim geographers and historians for centuries and providing the great Muslim historian, Ibn Khaldun, with practically all his geographical knowledge. It is a curious thought that had Columbus been aware of the true distancea€”from al-Idrisia€™s estimatesa€”he might have hesitated to undertake his epoch-making voyage and might never have discovered that new world which came to light one morning on the far side of the Sea of Darkness.
Idrisia€™s works are of exceptional quality when considered in comparison with other geographical writings of their period, partly by reason of their richness of detail, but mainly because of the afore mentioned a€?scientific methoda€™ that was employed, a procedure which was indeed unlike that adopted by most Latin scholars of that era.
There is, however, a markedly retrograde character to certain portions of his work, such as East Africa and South Asia; despite his narrative of the Lisbon Wanderers (see above and Beazely, vol.
In view of its modernity and high intrinsic worth, it is difficult to understand why Idrisia€™s work, composed as it was at the chronological and geographical point of contact between the Islamic and Christian civilizations, remained so long un-utilized by Christian scholars in Sicily, Italy, or other Christian countries, until we remember that the primary - we might even say the sole - interest of the Latin West in Arabic literature centered on the preparation of calendars, star tables and horoscopes, and, to some extent, the recovery of ancient lore. Al-Idrisia€™s map places Gog and Magog in northern China, behind a great wall with a tower and a door; at the wall is an inscription, translated as a€?belongs to the Kufaya mountain range which encloses Gog and Magoga€?. The first translation known of Idrisia€™s work was published in Rome only in 1619, and then in a very much shortened form (the translator did not even know the authora€™s name). On the other hand, there is no question but that the Sicilo-Norman enthusiasm for geography exerted an indirect influence on the evolution of geographical knowledge, an influence that was to make itself felt more especially after the close of the Crusades period. Detail of the a€?The large Idrisi Mapa€? showing Europe and North Africa,a€? re-oriented with North at the top. Reproduction and re-orientation of a map of the world adapted from the Muqaddimah [Introduction] to Ibn Khalduna€™s monumental work, The History of the World, 1381; derived from the 1154 al-Idrisi map. Much of what we know about early Italy come from the Histora Naturalis by Pliny the Elder which was published around 77-79 A.D. Many people groups possess mythological descriptions of their origins, often contained in the form of totems -- ancient heroes, animals, or even plants and trees, from which that group of people emerged at first on earth. According to legend, the king of a small community in Italy ordered his twin sons to be thrown into the Tiber River.
Romulus (hence the name a€?Romea€?) forged numerous alliances with neighboring peoples in order to fortify and protect a€?for eternitya€? the city which eventually gained the name, a€?The Eternal City.a€? The time period for this story is not ancient.
They established an absolute monarchy with a Senate, a constitution, and a popular assembly. It was early Rome and not Athens that was to lay the greatest amount of groundwork for later democracies. To ensure that a dictatorship or absolute ruler could not emerge, the Republic developed a series of assemblies, assuring that every class within society would have representation. The Senate, however, endured through the several sacks of Rome by the barbarians, and even functioned under several Germanic emperors. Plebian Council: each of the 35 tribes selected representative to the Council, which passed most laws, and served as a court of appeals. Magistrates: served as judges, overseers of legal affairs, enforces of an early form of habeas corpus (an accused persona€™s right to be heard and not held without sufficient evidence) were selected by the Assembly of the Centuries. Consuls: were elected by the populace annually from among the magistrates, presided over the Senate and the Assemblies, had supreme civil and military powers, were heads of the Roman government, and when outside of Rome commanded an army. Roman society in the Republic developed a hierarchical format, dividing the people into two classes: the patricians (land-owning aristocracy) and plebians (eveyone else -- until slavery developed).
As the Republic took on a more military-expansionist quality, success in warfare became connected with advancement in politics. Rome was originally a land army, but copied the ships of the Carthaginians, who at the time were masters of the Mediterranean Ocean. In addition, Antiochus ordered all Jewish worship to cease, killed those who disobeyed, and profaned the temple by offering pigs on the holy altar. The unrest in Rome due to massive unemployment and the influx of new people led to the rise of radical rivalries. The appointment of Julius Caesar as dictator for life for all practical purposes marked the end of the Republic. Having arrived in Rome Octavian, aided by Marc Antony, then pursued Julius Brutus the assassin of his uncle to Greece, where two battles at Philippi in northern Greece took place, Octavian defeated and killed Brutus. The three members of the second triumvirate agreed to divide the Republic among themselves -- Octavian took the West, Antony took the East, including Egypt, and Lepidus took Spain and North Africa.
Marc Antony, now residing in Egypt, soon made a romantic friendship with Cleopatra with whom he produced several children.
Octavian and Anthony despised each other and Lepidus, the third member of the triumvirate, was too weak a character to stand up to either.
Following the death of Julius, six emperors from his family line ruled successively from 27 B.
Claudius was a respected older Senator leader when he succeeded Caligula, his nephew, in 47 A.D. For instance, during one part of the siege laid by the Romans, the Zealots destroyed food supplies that were stored in the city in order to gain an advantage over their rival factions. Vespasian gained control of the Roman wheat supply in Egypt and North Africa and thereby announced his intentions. When Vespasian left with his troops to go north, the Jews, and especially the Zealots, saw this as a sign of weakness. Prior to the arrival of Vespasian, civil war was taking place inside of Jerusalem The Hellenized Jews, the Pharisees, the Zealots, and the ordinary people were locked in a chaos of robbery, intrigue, murder, and assassination.
For three generations the high priest selected to lead temple worship did not come from the line of Aaron, as prescribed in Scripture. These high priests were rejected by the conservative, religious party as political stooges of the Romans and certainly not lawfully selected high priests. Things became so desperate in the city that people resorted eating animal manure, and there is even a reported case of cannibalism.
Finally, after months of siege, the Romans managed to scale the walls, burn the temple and burn the city. Jesus instructed his disciples and they in turn the other Christians in Jerusalem about this impending terror. The Christians were warned by the prophecy of Jesus to flee the city when they saw wars, rumors of wars, earthquakes and the other accompanying events. The temple worship in Jerusalem came to an end, as did the priesthood and the sacrificial system. It was Goda€™s final statement in the destroying of Jerusalem that the new Sacrifice had come, Jesus, the Lamb of God, He was now the High Priest. This dynasty brought excellent administrative leadership to the Empire through the absolute rule of Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, and Marcus Aurelius.
A large system of aqueducts, sewer systems, and medicine improved the health of the empire. Julius Caesar developed a calendar containing 12 months and 365 days which was universally adopted in the domains of the Empire. The Gregorian calendar has four months with a length of 30 days and seven months that are 31 days long. Central heating in homes was developed in construction methods that allowed for air spaces under houses through which hot air from furnaces could circulate.
Concrete was invented by the Romans, making possible the large construction projects--stadiums, theaters, basilicas, aqueducts, basilicas.
Roman architecture first used domes in constructing temples, which made possible larger unsupported ceilings in public buildings. Latin became the a€?lingua francaa€? throughout the empire and produced the foundation for the a€?Romance languagesa€? -- Italian, Spanish, French, Romanian. A successive line of emperors ruled absolutely from Rome over an empire that covered most of the known world. The Christian Church grew rapidly throughout the empire and very little opposition to the Church was experienced after the time of Trajan. The elevation of Constantine marked the beginning of a new Empire, an Empire to be greatly impacted by the Christian Church. There will certainly be emperors who would be disappointed that they are not included in the chart below.
Due to a variety of factors, including geography, military strength, and leadership, the city of Rome was over time able to gain control over central and southern Italy.
Rome was first governed by a monarchy which was replaced by a Republic -- the Republic provided a separation of powers and responsibilities, primarily concentrated in the Senate and among several important assemblies.
Tensions and conflict between the Patricians and the Plebeians escalated and broke out into hostilities which threatened the peace and security of Rome.
A first triumvirate was formed (Julius, Pompey, Crassus), seeking leadership and resolution to the conflict and granting authority. Juliusa€™ assassination on the floor of the Senate by Brutus resulted in the formation of the second triumvirate composed of Octavian, Marc Anthony, and Lepidus.
Although married to Octaviana€™s sister, Marc Anthony lived openly with Cleopatra in Alexandria, Egypt. The clash between Octavian and Anthony was settled at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC, with Anthony and Cleopatra driven back to Alexandria where both committed suicide.
The last of the Julian line, Nero, was emperor who killed the two apostles, Peter and Paul, in Rome in 67 AD. Rome grew to a huge empire that controlled almost all of the lands bordering the Mediterranean Sea from the Euphrates on the East to the Atlantic Ocean on the west, as well as Gaul (France), Spain, and England. Most roots of Western civilization can be traced to elements that existed in the Roman Empire from about 27 B.C. Rome contributed roads, bridges, architecture, citizenship, language, republicanism, and culture to Europe -- producing the famed Pax Romana. The rise of the Roman Empire was foretold in the dream of the Persian king, Nebuchadnezzar, as interpreted by Daniel in his prophecy 2:1-45. The Roman Empire provided the environment (language, roads) that enabled the Christian Church to grow throughout the known world.
Ultimately, the Christian Church conquered the Roman Empire through the faithful witness of Christians throughout the empire and with the conversion of the Emperor Constantine to the Christian faith. Describe the interaction between the Goths and the Romans, resulting ultimately in the sacking of Rome in 476 A.D. The small town was established on the banks of the Tiber River on an elevated site to give protection.
Jerusalem had been under Seleucid control for many years.A  When they heard a false rumor in 167 BC that Antiochus Epiphanes IV, king of the Seleucids, had been killed in battle in Egypt, a rebellion broke out in the city.
While in Egypt Julius developed a relationship with Cleopatra, teenage ruler of Egypt, who subsequently bore him a son.
Octavian, nephew of Julius, was appointed by the Senate to a new triumvirate togetherA  with Marc Antony and Lepidus in 43 B.C.
Having arrived in Rome Octavian, aided by Marc Antony, then pursued Julius Brutus the assassin of his uncleA  to Greece, where two battles at Philippi in northern Greece took place, Octavian defeated and killed Brutus.
Barack Obama is the change -- How can I help them - 1000 ways to help in a disaster - Albert V. Maldives, Somalia, finally disasters stuck America and you still You did nothing and others did little. On 16 January, a child who was injured during the earthquake sits, head wrapped in a bandage, in a corridor of the Peace Hospital, in Port-au-Prince, the capital of Haiti. The goal is to get you to believe in the physics scientific principle that you are not too small to make a difference. The good and the bad about the American news media and the overall electronic media coverage system.
A Disturbing collage of sound tracks of emergency sirens, screams, explosions, rumblings, the crack of lightning, heavy rain, and loud disturbing music. Funds of money are being pledged to help the victims and to rebuild the properties and the people live's. Janice reads the newspaper about the disaster and looks over the top of the paper to the TV to see the disaster coverage and appeals for help. Janice gets ready for bed, yawns excessively as she flips channel, then looks and the TV coverage for one final glance, then says, "Enough", and snaps the TV off. THE CAMERA OVERLAYS JANICE SLEEPING COMFORTABLY WITH SCENES OF VICTIMS HOMELESS AND MISERABLE. Scared again crouching up against the head of the bed and drawing up the covers to her neck. SCENES FADE IN AND OVERLAY ONTO JANICE'S FACE OF TRAGIC DISASTER FOOTAGE THAT SHE IS RECALLING FROM THE NEW COVERAGE. The purpose of this interview is to discover and answer the question, what are all the different reason why YOU help in disasters or when other people are in trouble. ROLL CREDITS WITH A MINIMUM OF 100 DIFFERENT WAYS THAT THOSE WATCHING CAN DO SOMETHING TO HELP NOW. Temple, Church, Cathedral, Bible, Koran, Shintoism, Islam, Good Samaritan, Children's Hospital, St. A three-year review of data just published in the scientific journal PeerJ challenges the conventional assumption that the iconic and famously elusive spotted cats are thriving in the wild. It finds leopards have almost disappeared from vast ranges in Southeast Asia and the Arabian peninsula while African leopards confront mounting challenges in the north and west. The big cats are threatened by spreading farmlands, declining prey, conflict with livestock owners, trophy hunting and illegal trade in their skins and teeth.
Their rangelands have shrunk from 35 million square kilometers in 1750 - before the colonization of Africa and the spread of firearms - to about 8.5 million square kilometers now, the study estimates. It will be used to update the endangered species list curated by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature, among several groups that conducted the study. It is "the single most authoritative and exhaustive review of this kind," said Guillaume Chapron, associate professor at the Swedish University of Agricultural Science.
Conserving wildlife and preventing conflict with livestock holders is complex and countries take different approaches, said Stuart Pimm, chair of conservation at Duke University in Durham, North Carolina. An ancient Spanish town that voted to change its name because it was deemed anti-Semitic has come under attack from extremist groups who have daubed the town's signposts and buildings with offensive right-wing symbols and messages protesting the change. Castrillo Mota de Judios ("Jews' Hill Camp") town Mayor Lorenzo Rodriguez Perez said that after the latest attack the town had decided to file a complaint with police. The north-central village of some 50 inhabitants voted in 2014 to change its name from Castrillo Matajudios ("Camp Kill Jews") to its current form.
He said the graffiti and vandalism by groups came from outside and would not change the town's push to honor its Jewish origins.
The town hall plans to visit Israel in July for a twinning ceremony with the village of Kfar Vradim. In the latest attack, the old town name was sprayed onto new road signs and as well as the extremist symbol of a circle with a cross.
Documents show the original name was "Jews' Hill Camp" and that the "Kill Jews" name dates from 1627, after a 1492 Spanish edict ordering Jews to convert to Catholicism or flee the country.
Researchers believe the village got its previous name from Jewish residents who converted to Catholicism and wanted to convince Spanish authorities of their loyalty. No Jews live in the village now but many residents have Jewish roots and the town's official shield includes the Star of David. Australia's prime minister on Sunday officially called a July 2 election and put economic management at the forefront of his campaign to win a second three-year term for his conservative coalition during an era of extraordinary volatility in the country's politics.
Kicking off a two-month election campaign, Prime Minister Malcom Turnbull said a center-left Labor Party win would prevent the Australian economy diversifying from a mining industry that had been hit hard by the Chinese slowdown and the associated falls in the prices of iron ore and coal, Australia's most lucrative exports. Climate change, gay marriage, climbing house prices, company tax rates and union corruption in the national building industry are also shaping into key issues.
Turnbull and Shorten recently outlined their conflicting economic policies on how Australia should rein in mounting debt without slowing an already sluggish economy. Neither man has ever led his party into an election campaign before and the eight-week campaign is the longest in decades.
Turnbull replaced his unpopular predecessor, Tony Abbott, in a leadership ballot of lawmakers in the Liberal Party in September, only two years after the coalition government was elected.
The change of prime ministers immediately boosted the government's standing in opinion polls, but recent polls suggest the government is now running neck-and-neck with Labor.
The government has released its budget plans for the next fiscal year, which begins on the eve of the election, calling for stimulus measures including income tax cuts for middle- and high-income earners and a gradual reduction of the company tax rate over a decade from 30 to 25 percent. Labor opposes most of the tax cuts and would spend the money saved on hospitals and schools. Shorten said the government's budget was crafted for "Malcolm's millionaires" and offered nothing for the poor.
The government accuses Shorten, a 48-year-old former union boss, of inciting divisive and outdated class warfare. A crucial election issue for many Australians is the policy differences on the Australian housing industry, which is a major strength of the economy. Many analysts agree that housing is overpriced in major cities including Sydney, and that the proportion of Australians who can afford to buy their own homes is shrinking. Australia for the first time has a prime minister and opposition leader who both argue that gay marriage should be legally recognized. Turnbull's government would ask the Australian public to vote on the issue in a plebiscite. Elections are a traditionally volatile time in a nation infamous for lax gun laws and a violent political culture, and they have been inflamed again this year by allegations of massive corruption from the local village to presidential level. Such small gifts are an effective, if illegal, way for politicians to win support in a nation where roughly one quarter of its 100 million people live below the poverty line.
To try to check vote buying, the election commission has banned mobile phones in polling places. At the national level, presidential and vice presidential rivals are also accusing each other of trying to rig the elections.
President Benigno Aquino, who is limited by the constitution to a single term of six years, has warned the favorite to succeed him, Rodrigo Duterte, is a dictator in the making and will bring terror to the nation.
Duterte, mayor of the southern city of Davao, has in turn accused Aquino's administration of planning "massive cheating" to ensure that his preferred successor, former interior secretary Mar Roxas, wins.
Followers of Duterte, who has admitted links to vigilante death squads in Davao that rights groups say have killed more than 1,000 people, have warned of a "revolution" if he loses. Meanwhile, at least 15 people have died in election-related violence, according to national police statistics. In the latest suspected case, a grenade blast killed a nine-year-old girl behind the house of a powerful political warlord in the strife-torn province of Maguindanao late on Saturday, said Chief Inspector Jonathan del Rosario. The girl's death has not yet been included in the tally, although it likely will be, according to del Rosario, spokesman for a police election-monitoring task force in Manila. Del Rosario said 90 percent of the nation's police force, or about 135,000 officers, were already on election-related duty and had been authorized to carry their assault rifles. Armed with laptops and smartphones, some 500 members of the Nahdlatul Ulama - one of the world's biggest Muslim organizations - are seeking to counter the Islamic State group's extremist messages. They are trying to hit back at IS's sophisticated Internet operations, which have been credited with attracting huge numbers from around the world to their cause. Internet propaganda is believed to have played a key role in drawing some 500 Indonesians to the Middle East to join IS, particularly among those living in cities where it is easier to get online. The dangers of the growing IS influence in Indonesia were starkly illustrated in January when militants linked to the jihadists launched a gun and suicide bombing attack in Jakarta, leaving four assailants and four civilians dead.
It was the first major attack in Indonesia for seven years, following a string of Islamic militant bombings in the early 2000s that killed hundreds.
As well as firing off tweets, the NU members have sought to dominate cyberspace by establishing websites promoting the group's moderate views, an Android app and web-based TV channels, whose broadcasts include sermons by moderate preachers.
The initiative has been building momentum for a while but started to pick up pace a few months ago. But it will be an uphill battle and the NU, which has been promoting moderate Islam for decades, conceded they have previously struggled to take on IS's hate-filled messages. The online drive comes as the NU is set to take its campaign to promote their tolerant form of Islam onto the international stage this week, with a two-day meeting from Monday of moderate religious leaders from around the world. They aim to showcase their particular brand of the Muslim faith, known as "Islam Nusantara", to counter the IS jihadists' radical interpretation of Islam. Meaning "Islam of the Archipelago" - Indonesia is the world's biggest archipelago, comprising over 17,000 islands - it is accepting of diversity and stresses nonviolence.
It grew up organically in Indonesia, as the religion entered the country gradually and had to mix with existing traditional beliefs such as praying at tombs, making it a naturally tolerant form of Islam.
Nowadays, most of the approximately 225 million Muslims in Indonesia practice a moderate form of Islam. The NU wants to persuade Muslims from around the world to look for inspiration to Indonesia, where religious minorities and a multitude of ethnic groups mostly coexist harmoniously, rather than to harsher forms of Islam from the Middle East. Mohammad Shahidullah, 65, had been missing since leaving home on Friday morning before villagers last night found his body in a pool of blood in a mango grove in Rajshahi. It comes amid a troubling rise in violence against religious minorities, liberal activists and foreigners in Bangladesh, with six murders since the start of last month alone. The police officer said the killing of the self-proclaimed Sufi master was "similar" to other recent hacking deaths of religious minorities carried out by attackers with machetes or cleavers. Sufi Islam is a mystical form of Islam popular in rural Bangladesh but considered deviant by many of the country's majority Sunni Muslims.
They include the Saudi Arabia-inspired Salafis and Wahhabis, who are gaining strength in the country. Suspected Islamists have been blamed for or claimed dozens of murders of atheist bloggers, liberal voices and religious minorities in recent years including Sufi, Shiite and Ahmadi Muslims, Hindus, Christians and foreigners. In the past five weeks, two gay activists, a liberal professor, an atheist activist and a Hindu tailor who allegedly made derogatory remarks about the Prophet Muhammad were hacked to death.
The Islamic State group and a Bangladeshi branch of Al-Qaeda claimed responsibility for several of the killings. However the secular government in Dhaka denies that IS and Al-Qaeda are behind the attacks, saying they have no known presence in Bangladesh, and blames the killings on homegrown militants. The fire, which started at 6 pm eastern (2200 GMT) last Sunday near the town of Fort McMurray in northern Alberta, spread so quickly that the town's 88,000 inhabitants barely had time to leave. Officials said that, even though the fire had largely pushed through Fort McMurray and was heading quickly northeast through dry boreal forests, the town was still too dangerous to enter.
Thousands of evacuees are camped out in nearby towns but stand little chance of returning soon. Some residents are complaining about the lack of news from the town, fire chief Darby Allen said in a video posted online late on Saturday.
An Alberta government statement issued on Saturday night said the fire had consumed 200,000 hectares - an area the size of Mexico City - and would continue to grow. More than 500 firefighters are in and around Fort McMurray, along with 15 helicopters, 14 air tankers and 88 other pieces of equipment, officials said.
An evacuee from the Fort McMurray wildfires sits on a bed at an evacuation center in Lac la Biche, Alberta, Canada, on Saturday. With a growing number of prominent Republicans refusing to fall in line, Donald Trump is standing firm in his assertion that the Republican Party doesn't have to be unified because he will gain Democratic votes to win in the fall. Trump played down his problems unifying the GOP as he continued to assail Democratic front-runner Hillary Clinton, whom he's dubbed "Crooked Hillary". Trump is once again raising former president Bill Clinton's marital infidelities, a preview of how the billionaire businessman is likely to respond to general-election attacks from Hillary Clinton and her allies about his treatment of women. Trump appeared to be responding to news that Priorities USA, the lead super PAC backing Clinton, has already reserved $91 million in television advertising that will start next month. Medecins Sans Frontii??i??res (MSF) called on the government to reconsider its drastic decision and continue providing humanitarian assistance to more than 600,000 refugees in the East African nation. Kibicho said the government would close the Dadaab and Kakuma refugee camps "within the shortest possible time" because of national security concerns.
He said Kenya had hosted more than 600,000 refugees for over a quarter of a century and had shouldered a 'very heavy economic, security and environmental burden' and asked for the support of the international community to expedite the process. However, human rights organizations have said despite the government's frequent statements that Somali refugees in Kenya are responsible for insecurity, officials have not provided credible evidence linking Somali refugees to any terrorist attacks in Kenya.
Aelbrecht said the closure of Dadaab, the world's largest refugee camp complex, would risk some 330,000 Somali lives and have extreme humanitarian consequences, forcing people to return to a war-torn country with minimal access to vital medical and humanitarian assistance. Somali refugees gathered around a water point at Hagardhere refugee camp in Daadab, northern Kenya. Khan celebrated his landslide election victory Saturday in a multi-denominational ceremony at an Anglican cathedral accompanied by London's police chief, Christian and Jewish leaders, and stars of stage and screen. They gave Khan a standing ovation as he pledged to be an approachable Everyman for his city of 8.2 million - including more than a million residents who, like him, happen to be Muslim. Khan's Labour Party candidacy to lead London triumphed in the face of a Conservative campaign seeking to tar him as sympathetic to Islamic extremists. Leading Muslim activists in the Conservative Party expressed shame and anger over their own candidate Zac Goldsmith's attacks on Khan, saying they had recklessly stoked racism and intolerance. Many criticized Goldsmith's final published appeal in a right-wing Sunday newspaper warning that London stood "on the brink of a catastrophe" if it elected Khan. Mohammed Amin, chairman of the Conservative Muslim Forum, said he had been disgusted by the Goldsmith campaign tactics. Amin said he voted for Goldsmith because he opposes Labour policies, but could not stomach campaigning actively for him - and instead took pride in seeing Londoners vote so strongly for a fellow Muslim of Pakistani background. Leading Conservatives defended their campaign tactics, even as they expressed surprise at losing a post locked down for the past eight years by the eccentrically popular Conservative, Boris Johnson.
Defense Secretary Michael Fallon, who previously accused Khan of sharing a platform with a London imam sympathetic to the Islamic State extremist group, repeated those since-discredited claims Saturday and insisted such charges represented "the rough and tumble of politics". He also declined, when pressed several times on the matter, to withdraw his campaign claim that London's security would be jeopardized by Khan. Leading Russian musicians staged a classical concert on Thursday in the ancient theater of Syria's ravaged Palmyra in a show to herald Russia's successes against terrorists in the war-torn country.
Famed conductor Valery Gergiev led Saint Petersburg's celebrated Mariinsky orchestra through pieces by Johann Sebastian Bach, Sergei Prokofiev and Rodion Shchedrin in front of a crowd of Russian soldiers, government ministers and journalists. Cellist Sergei Roldugin played a solo against the backdrop of the Roman amphitheater where jihadists from the Islamic State group staged mass executions less than a year ago. Syrian troops recaptured the UNESCO world heritage site from Islamic State group fighters in March. Russian army sappers said last month they had demined the ancient site - known as the "Pearl of the Desert" - where jihadist fighters blew up ancient temples and looted relics. The Kremlin shipped foreign journalists to the concert as it basked in the retaking of Palmyra, one of the most significant achievements since it launched a bombing campaign in September.
Putin said that he saw the concert as a sign "of hope not just for the rebirth of Palmyra as a cultural asset for the whole of humanity, but for seeing modern civilization rid itself of this terrible scourge of international terrorism". Mikhail Pyotrovsky, the director of Russia's Hermitage Museum, told journalists at the scene that "Palmyra is injured but she has not been killed" and pledged help in restoring it.
Sitting in the audience, Syrian tour guide Anwar Al-Omar told AFP that while he thought only Russia could help rebuild the ancient town he was downbeat about its prospects in the long-term.
Gergiev is one of the world's best known conductors but has faced backlash in the West for his strongly pro-Kremlin views, with his tours sometimes interrupted by protesters. Gergiev also conducted a charity concert in Tokyo for victims of the Fukushima tragedy in 2012 and led a charity concert tour to raise funds for victims of Russia's Beslan school massacre in 2004.
A live web broadcast showed the first-stage booster touching down vertically in the pre-dawn darkness atop a barge in the Atlantic, just off the Florida coast. Because of the high altitude needed for this mission, SpaceX did not expect a successful landing. Musk said this was a three-engine burn for the booster's return, "so triple deceleration from the last flight".
Musk contends rocket reusability is key to shaving launch costs and making space more accessible. Already in the delivery business for NASA, SpaceX hopes to start transporting US astronauts to the International Space Station by the end of next year in the company's next-generation Dragon capsules. In a groundbreaking announcement last week, Musk said his company will attempt to send a Red Dragon to Mars in 2018i??i??and actually land on the red planet. Brazil's Supreme Court on Thursday suspended a powerful lawmaker at the center of efforts to impeach President Dilma Rousseff, on grounds he tried to obstruct a probe into his alleged corruption.


Eduardo Cunha, the speaker of Brazil's lower house of Congress, is the architect of the impeachment drive that is expected to force Rousseff to step aside from office on Wednesday. He said his suspension, the latest in a whirlpool of corruption scandals, was retaliation for his campaign against Rousseff.
Her supporters argued it was grounds for the impeachment drive now to be dropped, though it was not expected to spare her now that her case is in the hands of the Senate.
Despite facing criminal charges including bribery and hiding money in Swiss bank accounts, Cunha has survived months of attempts by prosecutors and a congressional ethics committee to see him brought to justice.
A master backroom political operator, he is widely seen as the key figure in getting the impeachment proceedings greenlighted by the lower house in April. But the man Brazilians refer to as a real-life Frank Underwood - the corrupt US politician in the hit Netflix series House of Cards - appeared finally to have been brought down by the high court. Justice Teori Zavaski slapped the suspension on Cunha on Thursday morning, and the full court ratified it later in the day. Zavaski said that Cunha had obstructed justice "to prevent the success of investigations against him". With Rousseff likely to be suspended and replaced by her vice-president, Michel Temer, next week, Cunha would have moved up to first on the presidential succession list.
The government's top lawyer Jose Eduardo Cardozo said the suspension "shows that Mr Cunha abused his office". Rousseff is accused of manipulating government budget accounts with illegal loans, a charge which she describes as technical and not worthy of impeachment. Cunha is accused of taking bribes as part of the corruption scheme centered on Petrobras, the huge state oil company. He is also being investigated by the congressional ethics committee over allegedly lying to Congress about possessing secret Swiss bank accounts. Justin Anderson, a local resident, packs his three children and dog into his truck as he prepares to leave the Christina Lake Lodge campground in Conklin, Alberta, on Thursday. A convoy of evacuees began the long drive out of work camps north of the fire-ravaged Fort McMurray area on Friday morning.
Meanwhile, a mass airlift of evacuees was expected to resume, a day after 8,000 people were flown out.
In all, more than 80,000 people have left Fort McMurray, in the heart of Canada's oil sands, and officials say no deaths or injuries related to the fire have been reported. Crews battling the fire got a little help with temperatures forecast to fall overnight to 16 C from 30 C.
The Alberta provincial government, which declared a state of emergency, said more than 1,100 firefighters, 145 helicopters, 138 pieces of heavy equipment and 22 air tankers were fighting the fire, but Chad Morrison, Alberta's manager of wildfire prevention, said rain is needed. About 25,000 evacuees moved north in the hours after Tuesday's mandatory evacuation, where oil sands work camps were converted to house people.
Officials said a helicopter would lead the evacuation convoy on Friday morning to make sure the highway is safe. Fort McMurray is surrounded by wilderness, and there are essentially only two ways out via road.
Aided by high winds, scorching heat and low humidity, the fire grew from 75 square kilometers on Tuesday to 100 square km on Wednesday, but by Thursday it was almost nine times that - at 850 square km. Unseasonably hot temperatures combined with dry conditions have transformed the boreal forest in much of Alberta into a tinder box.
The region has the third-largest reserves of oil in the world behind Saudi Arabia and Venezuela.
The wildfire was expected to incur the largest insured property losses from a single disaster in Canadian history.
Capital Markets analyst Tom MacKinnon said in a report on Wednesday that the insurance losses was estimated between $2 billion and $3.6 billion.
Australian police have charged a 21-year-old woman with fraud after she allegedly spent $3.4 million that her bank mistakenly gave her, with much of the money reportedly lavished on handbags. The woman, named in Sydney media as Malaysian chemical engineering student Christine Jiaxin Lee, reportedly splashed out on luxury apartment rentals, designer bags and other high-end items after her Australian bank gave her an unlimited overdraft on her savings account.
Police arrested the woman as she attempted to board a flight to Malaysia on Wednesday night. They said she had been charged with dishonestly obtaining a financial advantage by deception and knowingly dealing with the proceeds of crime. Reports said that Lee, who has been released on bail, allegedly spent the money between July 2014 and April 2015, and that some $2.4 million had not been recovered. Stapleton questioned whether the cash could be considered a "proceed of crime", saying "it's money we all dream about". NSW state police detective inspector Sean Heaney told the ABC on Thursday that if members of the public find money in their accounts that should not be there, or they have an ability to overdraw on an account that they should not have, they should not spend the money. The Food and Drug Administration's action brought regulation of e-cigarettes, cigars, pipe tobacco and hookah tobacco in line with existing rules for cigarettes, smokeless tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco.
The rules promise to have a major impact on the $3.4 billion e-cigarette industry that has flourished in the absence of federal regulation, making the nicotine-delivery devices the most commonly used tobacco products among US youngsters. The FDA said it will require companies to submit e-cigarettes and other newer tobacco products for government approval, provide it with a list of their ingredients and place health warnings on packages and in advertisements. The FDA will require age verification by photo identification, ban sales from vending machines except in adults-only locations and stop the distribution of free product samples. The new regulations had been highly anticipated after the agency issued a proposed rule two years ago on how to oversee the e-cigarette industry and the other products. Burwell said health officials still do not have the scientific evidence showing e-cigarettes can help smokers quit, as the industry asserts, and avoid the known ills of tobacco. E-cigarettes are handheld electronic devices that vaporize a fluid typically including nicotine and a flavor component.
The e-cigarette vapor industry, which includes e-cigarettes, vapors, personal vaporizers and tanks, is expected to have about $4.1 billion in sales in 2016, Wells Fargo estimated. Three million US middle and high school students reported using e-cigarettes in 2015, compared with 2.46 million in 2014, according to the most recent federal data. A University of Southern California study of high school students last year found that those who used e-cigarettes were more than twice as likely to also smoke traditional cigarettes. The Workers' Party of Korea, the ruling party of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, opened its 7th Congress on Friday.
It is the first WPK congress in 36 years and the first under the leadership of Kim Jong-un. Analysts say the congress may focus on further consolidating the policy of simultaneously developing nuclear weapons and the national economy, and might emphasize the DPRK's status as a nuclear state. An estimated 3,000 party representatives will attend the meeting, which presumably will last three days. Yoon Hae-ryoong, a senior majoring in mechanics at Kim Il Sung University, told Xinhua that he sees the congress as a historical watershed in the revolutionary cause of the DPRK. He said the concurrent development of nuclear weapons and the national economy is a long-term strategic approach to dealing with "US imperialists".
In Beijing, Foreign Ministry spokesman Hong Lei said that China hopes the DPRK can "achieve national development" and "heed the calls of the international community and work with us to maintain peace and stability in Northeast Asia".
Pyongyang had announced in late October that the 7th WPK congress would be convened in early May. Cannabis may join the herb and spice rack in California kitchens as the most populous US state prepares for the possible legalization of recreational marijuana in November. Chef Chris Sayegh is leading the way by taking haute cuisine to a higher place with his cannabis-infused menus in private homes for as much as $500 a head, or in "pop-up" banquets around Los Angeles for $20 to $200 a person. Sayegh, 23, who cut his teeth in the kitchens of top restaurants in New York and California, said incorporating cannabis into his recipes creates an entirely new consciousness for diners that goes beyond the effects of a fine wine.
Edible marijuana products are nothing new, and the market for them has evolved into a multimillion-dollar industry. Marijuana has been legally permitted in California for medical purposes since 1996, and voters are widely expected to pass a measure on the upcoming November election ballot to legalize pot as a recreational drug for adults statewide. Sayegh said he began experimenting with cannabis cuisine after growing tired of pot-baked brownies and other snacks. In the kitchen, Sayegh uses oil containing an extract of tetrahydrocannabinol, the psychoactive component of cannabis, and a "vaporizer" to infuse ingredients with THC.
The livestreamed Cats Meok Bang show is a twist on an online trend of young South Korean men and women tucking into feasts in real time, while viewers send messages and sometimes virtual cash.
While the stars of those programs seek a rapport with their fans, cat TV has gained viewers despite its uneventfulness. Cats Meok Bang, a mash-up of the Korean words for broadcasting and eating, began by accident. Four months on, 110,000 South Koreans a month on average watch the show and more than 10,000 of them have bookmarked the show.
During the slow hours after patients leave his office, Yoo Young-hoon, 49, a physician in Seoul, said he always plays the cat TV on the screen next to the medical chart. Unlike dogs that are considered loyal to their owners, cats do not have a positive image in South Korea.
But viewers of the online cat show said they began paying attention to those animals roaming around the street with affection. Stray cats approach foods prepared by Koo Eunje, the 35yearold host of an online cat show in JeollaNamdo, South Korea. Alberta declared a state of emergency on Wednesday as crews frantically held back wind-whipped wildfires that have already torched 1,600 homes and other buildings in Canada's main oil sands city of Fort McMurray, forcing more than 80,000 residents to flee. Alberta Premier Rachel Notley said fire had destroyed or damaged an estimated 1,600 structures. Danielle Larivee, Alberta's minister of municipal affairs, said the fire is actively burning in residential areas. Fatalities have been reported from a collision on a nearby highway but she was unaware if it was related to the evacuation or fire. There were haunting images of scorched trucks, charred homes and telephone poles, burned out from the bottom up, hanging in the wires like little wooden crosses. Some residents were evacuated for a second time late on Wednesday when they were told to leave their emergency accommodations in the nearby hamlet of Anzac. The blaze effectively cut Fort McMurray in two late on Tuesday, forcing about 10,000 north to the safety of oil sands work camps.
The other 70,000 or so were sent streaming south in a bumper-to-bumper snake line of cars and trucks that stretched beyond the horizon down Highway 63.
Firefighters were working to protect critical infrastructure, including the only bridge across the Athabasca River and Highway 63, the only major route to the city in or out. Labour's Sadiq Khan, the son of a bus driver from Pakistan, voted early in his multiethnic constituency of Tooting in south London. His main rival, environmentalist Zac Goldsmith, cast his ballot in the posh Richmond neighborhood west of the city center. The vote is seen as the first major electoral test for opposition Labour leader Jeremy Corbyn, whose party has been rived by infighting over allegations of anti-Semitism. The results of the regional elections that are also being held in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland will likely set the tone for the final seven weeks of campaigning ahead of Britain's June 23 EU membership referendum.
In the Scottish Parliament, First Minister Nicola Sturgeon's pro-independence party is looking to tighten its hold on power as it seeks to build support for a second vote on seceding from the UK following a failed referendum on the issue in 2014. If Britain as a whole votes to leave the European Union but Scotland votes to stay in, Sturgeon says that would be a pretext for her Scottish National Party to demand another independence referendum. In London, polls show the city facing a straight choice between Labour candidate Khan and his Conservative rival Goldsmith.
The campaign has been dominated by negative campaigning, with Goldsmith seeking to establish links between Khan and Muslim extremists, which Khan has consistently dismissed as "desperate stuff". Khan, 45, is the son of a Pakistani immigrant bus driver who became a human rights lawyer and government minister, while ecologist Goldsmith, 41, is a son of the late tycoon financier James Goldsmith, a scion of one of Britain's wealthiest families. Despite the surface-level rancor, both candidates accept that the sky-high cost of homes and the city's creaking transport system are the dominant issues for voters. Of the 12 candidates, second preference votes for the top two are added on to determine the winner. London's Evening Standard newspaper endorsed Goldsmith on Wednesday, as he spent the last day of campaigning on a 24-hour tour of the city.
During a visit to a street market in south London on Wednesday, Khan told AFP his rival had run a "negative, divisive and increasingly desperate campaign". The new mayor replaces the eccentric Conservative Boris Johnson, whose eight-year term in office included the London 2012 Olympics and the launch of a cycle hire scheme dubbed "Boris Bikes". Out of London's City Hall, the fiercely-ambitious Johnson - a leading figure in the EU referendum's "Leave" campaign - is the bookmakers' favorite to become Britain's next prime minister.
Sadiq Khan, Britain's Labour Party candidate for mayor of London, and his wife Saadiya pose for photographers after casting their votes for mayor in South London on Wednesday. The leader of Bangladesh's top Islamist party Jamaat-e-Islami is set to hang within days after the Supreme Court on Thursday upheld his death sentence for war crimes. Motiur Rahman Nizami was convicted of murder, rape and orchestrating the killing of intellectuals during the country's 1971 independence struggle.
A defense lawyer for the 73-year-old said he would not seek clemency and Alam said jail authorities would begin preparing for the execution once they received a copy of the verdict. Security has been stepped up in Dhaka, already tense after a string of killings of secular and liberal activists and religious minorities by suspected Islamist militants. Hundreds of people who had campaigned for the Islamist leaders to be tried for their roles in the 1971 war burst into impromptu celebrations at a square in central Dhaka and in the port city of Chittagong. Three senior Jamaat officials and a key leader of Bangladesh Nationalist Party, the main opposition party, have been executed since December 2013 for war crimes despite global criticism of their trials by a controversial tribunal. Jamaat said the charges against Nizami were false and aimed at eliminating the leadership of the party, a key ally of the opposition BNP.
Nizami took over as party leader in 2000 and was a minister in the Islamist-allied government of 2001-2006. Prosecutors said he was responsible for setting up the Al-Badr pro-Pakistani militia, which killed top writers, doctors and journalists in the most gruesome chapter of the 1971 conflict. Their bodies were found blindfolded with their hands tied and dumped in a marsh on the outskirts of the capital. Prosecutors said Nizami ordered the killings, designed to "intellectually cripple" the fledgling nation. The 1971 conflict, one of the bloodiest in world history, led to the creation of an independent Bangladesh from what was then East Pakistan.
Nizami was convicted in October 2014 by the International Crimes Tribunal, which was established in 2010 by Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina's government and has sentenced more than a dozen opposition leaders for war crimes.
Rodrigo Duterte has a commanding lead in opinion polls ahead of the May 9 election, much to the dismay of business chiefs, investors and diplomats who see him as a clown with no clear economic policies and a possible liability for the country. Brash and openly scathing of the political establishment on the campaign trail, he has been likened to US presidential candidate Donald Trump.
And yet, Duterte's supporters point to his past to argue that as president, he would not be the disaster that critics fear.
As mayor of Davao city in the south of the country, they say, the 71-year-old former prosecutor waged war on drugs, crushed crime rates, lifted investment levels, improved health and education, and delegated policy issues to technocrats.
Eurasia Group, a global risk research firm, said in a report this week that the Philippines is likely to continue on the pro-growth and reform-oriented path set by outgoing President Benigno Aquino, regardless of who wins the election. It said that while Grace Poe, a senator who was at one stage the front-runner in opinion polls, appears more engaged and knowledgeable on economic policy, Duterte defers to capable advisers and is likely to pursue infrastructure development, administrative streamlining and openness to foreign investment.
Last week, members of the country's leading business club were stunned when Duterte addressed them in his usual style, threatening to kill criminals and making risque comments about Viagra use and his sex life, but shedding little light on the economic policies he would pursue if he became president. Presidential candidate Rodrigo Duterte (center) listens as Senate candidates Dionisio Santiago, right, and Sandra Camtalk to him while campaigning inManila. A senator selected as a fact-finder by a special Senate commission considering the impeachment of Brazilian President Dilma Rousseff recommended on Wednesday that she be put on trial for possible removal from office.
The Israeli military launched airstrikes early on Thursday on four Hamas targets in the Gaza Strip in response to mortar rounds fired at Israel, the military said. A bleeding pregnant woman dropped dead at the gates of Haiti's largest public hospital after failing to get help on Wednesday amid a weeks-old strike by resident doctors, nurses and other staff. A woman has been found alive after six days in a collapsed building and rescuers were working to free her, a Kenyan government official said on Thursday. Rescuers were creating room to release the woman who was speaking to medics waiting to treat her, said Pius Masai, the head of the National Disaster Management Unit. The New Day newspaper is shutting down after only nine weeks after its circulation failed to meet expectations. Relative calm prevailed on Thursday in the Syrian city of Aleppo following a US-Russian agreement to extend a cessation of hostilities that had crumbled after nearly two weeks of violence between rebels and government forces that killed dozens. Syrian state media said the army would abide by a "regime of calm" in the city that came into effect at 1:00 am for 48 hours. But the army again blamed Islamist insurgents for violating the agreement overnight by what it called indiscriminate shelling of some government-held residential areas of the divided city. President Bashar Assad said on Thursday his country would not accept less than an outright victory against rebels in the northern city of Aleppo and across Syria, state media reported. In a telegram sent to Russian President Vladimir Putin, Assad said the army would not accept less than "attaining final victory" in its fight against the rebels. Witnesses said at least one person was killed in rebel shelling overnight of the Midan neighborhood on the government side of the city.
A resident contacted in the rebel-held eastern part of the city said although warplanes were flying overnight, there were none of the intense raids seen during more than 10 days of aerial bombing.
People in several districts ventured out onto the streets where more shops than normal had opened, the resident of al Shaar neighborhood said. The only intense fighting reported was in the southern Aleppo countryside where Syria's al-Qaida offshoot Nusra Front is dug in close to where militias maintain a stronghold.
The surge in bloodshed in Aleppo wrecked the first major "cessation of hostilities" agreement of the war, sponsored by Washington and Moscow, which had held since February.
Meanwhile, around 64,000 Syrians are stranded at the border with Jordan after intensified violence around Aleppo, Jordanian border guards said on Thursday. Jordan, which is already home to more than 630,000 Syrian refugees, said it must screen newcomers to ensure they are genuine refugees and not jihadists seeking to infiltrate the country. A Syrian refugee woman, who is stuck between the Jordanian and Syrian borders, holds her child as she crosses into Jordan after a group of refugees had crossed into Jordanian territory on Wednesday. Davutoglu, who had fallen out with President Recept Tayyip Erdogan, announced he was stepping aside following a meeting with executives of the ruling Justice and Development Party, or AKP, which has dominated Turkish politics since 2002. Davutoglu indicated he did not plan to resign from the party, saying he would "continue the struggle" as a ruling party legislator. The shake-up is seen as the outcome of irreconcilable differences between Erdogan, who would like to see the country transition to a presidential system, and his once-trusted adviser. But the adviser to Erdogan tried to act independently on a range issues and often proved to be a more moderating force to Erdogan.
Crisis talks between the former political allies dragged out for nearly two hours on Wednesday but clearly failed to resolve their differences. Divisions between the Erdogan and Davutoglu camps first spilled into the open over the conflict with Kurdish militants. Erdogan took issue with Davutoglu after he spoke of the possibility of resuming peace talks with the PKK if it withdraws its armed fighters from Turkish territory. Volunteers in opposition-held areas of Syria are forced to improvise as they carry out one of the world's most dangerous tasks: dismantling cluster munitions, land mines and explosive booby-traps as they work to make battle-torn areas safe for civilians to return.
Booby-traps laid by the Islamic State group in the Kurdish-held town of Kobani, in northern Syria, have killed more than 20 volunteer sappers in 15 months, according to a senior regional official. The sappers were all regular fighters in the main Syrian Kurdish militia, the YPG, who volunteered to take a munitions-clearance course based on Internet videos and shared experience. Still, the amateur demining effort continues in other parts of Syria, often with minimal training and no specialized equipment. An estimated 5.1 million Syrians live in what the UN's demining coordination body, UNMAS, calls "contaminated" areas, where unexploded ordnance poses a threat to life and limb.
Defusing or otherwise neutralizing unexploded ordnance is a perilous task for even the best-trained technicians, to say nothing of volunteers. The weapons have been used extensively by the Syrian government, the Russian Air Force, and the Islamic State group in civilian areas throughout much of the war, according to evidence gathered by Human Rights Watch and other watchdog agencies.
The Syrian government has been able to rely on Russian military technicians to secure areas under their control, such as the ancient city of Palmyra, which pro-government forces retook from IS in March. As the modern tradition progressed, it has weakened primarily due to the lack of resources and community, which in the past were at the foundation, provided by Mevlevihanes or dervish lodges. Some of our most revered Sufi compositions were born in the house of Dede Efendi in the 19th century. As the modern tradition progressed, it has weakened primarily due to the lack of resources and community, which in the past were at the foundation, provided by Mevlevihanes or dervish lodges.
This particular program has been performed by our professional musicians and dervishes in Turkey and abroad over the last 5 years. Some of our most revered Sufi compositions were born in the house of Dede Efendi in the 19th century.
With this basis the Muslims combined the accumulated knowledge gained through exploration and travel. As his visitor entered the hall, the king rose, took his hand and led him across the carpeted marble to a place of honor beside the throne. Born in Ceuta, Morocco, across the strait from Spain, al-Idrisi was then in his late 30a€™s. Roger II, son of a Norman-French soldier of fortune who had conquered Sicily at the beginning of the 12th century, was an anomaly among Christian monarchs of his time. Captured by the Arabs in 831, the island had remained in Muslim control until the end of the 11th century. Four years later, he passed the territory on to his son, Roger, who in 1130 was crowned king as Roger II. His energy was a legenda€”one commentator remarked that Roger accomplished more asleep than other sovereigns did awakea€”and his court boasted a collection of philosophers, mathematicians, doctors, geographers and poets who had no superior in Europea€”and in whose company he spent much of his time. Christian Europea€™s approach to map-making was still symbolic and fanciful, based on tradition and myth rather than scientific investigation, and used to illustrate books of pilgrimage, Biblical exegesis and other works. He wanted to know the precise conditions of every area under his rule, and of the world outsidea€”its boundaries, climate, roads, the rivers that watered its lands, and the seas that bathed its coasts. Sicilya€™s busy and cosmopolitan ports provided an ideal place for such an inquiry, and for years hardly a ship docked at Palermo, Messina, Catania or Syracuse without its crew and passengers being interrogated about the places they had visited. This process of collecting and assessing material took 15 years, during which, according to al-Idrisi, hardly a day passed when the king did not confer personally with the geographers, studying accounts that disagreed, examining astronomical coordinates, tables and itineraries, poring over books and weighing divergent opinions. First, under al-Idrisia€™s direction, a working copy was produced on a drawing board, with places sited on the map with compasses, following the tables that had already been prepared. Although Ptolemy had discussed several kinds of projection (Book I, #119), the problem of flattening out the surface of a sphere so that it could be represented on a flat map would not be solved until the 16th and 17th centuriesa€”the Age of Explorationa€”and none too satisfactorily even then.
Zach states in 1806 that a€?the oldest terrestrial globe that is known was made for King Roger II of Sicily in the 12th century, and is especially remarkable for the value of the metal which was used in its construction, this being 400 pounds of silver.
Below the Equator, an unexplored southern temperate zone was thought to be separated from the familiar northern one by an impassable area of deadly heat.
Two are in the BibliothA?que Nationale de France, including the oldest, dated to about 1300 (MS Arabe 2221). From this reconstruction it is evident that, like Ptolemy, al-Idrisi pictured the habitable world as occupying 180 of the 360 degrees of the worlda€™s longitude, from the Atlantic in the West to China in the East, and 64 degrees of its latitude, from the Arctic Ocean to the Equator. Contrasted with the quaint and picturesque, but almost totally uninformative maps of the Christian scholars, the features of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East are easily recognizable in al-Idrisia€™s representationa€”Britain, Ireland, Spain, Italy, the Red Sea and the Nile. He had no doubt met travelers and merchants from Scandinavia at the court of King Roger and received important information from them, but we know that the Arabs too had connections with the Baltic peoples and also those in Russia at that time. In Russia, winter daylight periods were so short that there was hardly time for Muslim travelers to perform all five obligatory daily prayers.
Paris (Abariz) earned a condescending reference as a town of mediocre size, surrounded by vineyards and forests, situated on an island in the Seine, which surrounds it on all sides; however, it is extremely agreeable, strong, and susceptible of defense.
The Strait of Gibraltar, according to Rogera€™s Book, did not exist when Alexander the Greata€”as medieval legend had ita€”invaded Spain. Discovered by Hanno in the fifth century BC, they were explored and colonized in 25 BC by Juba II, erudite king of Mauretania and husband of Cleopatra Selene, daughter of Antony and Cleopatra. Some sources speak of these islands as if they were legendary, telling us for example that on each of the six islands - there are in fact seven - there was a bronze statue, like the one in CA?diz, warning voyagers to turn back.
The mugharrirun were so famous for their exploit that a street in Lisbon was named after them.
A street in Lisbon, near the hot springs, is still known as a€?The Street of the Intrepid Explorersa€?; it is named after them. It is hard to escape the impression that we owe the preservation of this account largely to the folk etymology in the last line. The Azores are named after a kind of goshawk - in Portuguese, aA§or - prevalent there at the time of discovery. The inhabitants threw stones at the travelers and hurt several of Alexandera€™s companions. A small fresh-water river runs down from the foot of the mountain, where the inhabitants live.
Al-Mustashkin is probably a corruption of al-mushtakin, meaning a€?the complainersa€? - appropriate enough for a population in thrall to a dragon. The Two Brothers could be the two small islands off Lanzarote in the Canaries, Alegranza and Graciosa, or indeed, any two prominent rocks off their coasts. This unnamed island, together with Masfahan, Laghus, The Two Brothers and possibly Sawa, are almost certainly islands in the Canary group. After describing the Canary Islands, Idrisi refers to an island in the Western Sea named Raqa, which is the Isle of the Birds, Djaziratoa€™t-Toyour. Distinct from the Canary Islands were the Isle of Female Devils, the Isle of Illusion, the Island of Two Sorcerers, and the Isle of Lamentation [Gazirat al-Mustashkin], which was inhabited and fertile, with tilled fields, but controlled by a terrible dragon.
An exchange of ideas and reciprocal influences between the two cultures certainly took place. This work is said to have been even more extensive than his earlier one, but only a few extracts have survived.
At the same time, the silver planisphere and celestial sphere disappeared, apparently cut up and melted down. Although the Arabic text of Rogera€™s Book was published in Rome by the Medici press in 1592, it was not again available to Europeans in Latin until the 17th century.
Certainly the influence of Idrisia€™s Geography could not have been great in the world of letters or else traces of it would more easily be detected in Western literature.
An explicit reference to Dul-Karnaia€™in (an Arabic name for Alexander, among others) by the gate, leaves no doubt as to Idrisia€™s source. Displays a Ptolemaic construction with an arrangement of horizontal divisions into seven parallel climate zones, originally oriented with South at the top. According to such mythologies the Germans emerged suddenly from a crack in the eartha€™s surface.
As with the story of Cronos and his son Zeus, the king feared that when they reached adulthood the twins would seize his position.
Natural resources in the area provided timber, clay, straw, and abundant fish for the construction of houses and protective walls and for food. They migrated into northern Italy and in the 6th century moved south from Tuscany northern Italy to the Tiber. The Senate functioned as an advisory council to the king, and the assembly had matters referred to it for popular input, which the king could accept or ignore. The citizens were divided into centuries (100 citizens) and 35 tribes, 4 major tribes in the city of Rome (urban dwellers) and 31 rural tribes (farmers, landowners).
The Senate began during the Roman monarchy, then gained additional power in the Republic, but with the advent of the Empire, declined in its power and influence.
In two months they amazingly built over 300 war ships and trained 10,000 marines to combat Carthage.
A series of heartless and corrupt kings led to a social and political chaos so bad that in 64 BC Rome had to step in and conquer the area in order to quell the confusion. A series of assassinations, grabs for power, and appointments of individuals by the Senate outside the normal rules of the constitution, caused a crisis.
When Pompey landed in Alexandria, he was killed by Egyptians who thought they were being loyal to Julius and would find favor with him.
Cleopatra presumed that after Julius returned to Rome he would call for her and her son to join him there. This action by the Senate and the perceived arrogance of Julius greatly alarmed a group in the Senate led by Julius Brutus.
It was not simply because of his personal attributes or that he was the nephew of Julius that caused the Senate to include Octavian.
Perhaps the geographic separation would enable the second triumvirate succeed where the first had failed. To make matters worse, Antony was married to the sister of Octavian and Octavian, in turn, was married to the sister of Marc Antony! The countryside was divided between several factions.The Hellenized Jews had become European in their dress, language, and culture. The Zealots also dressed as women to disguise themselves and plunged daggers into rivals on the streets of Jerusalem. Furthermore, Jewish worship had so declined that prostitutes, according to Josephus the Jewish historian of the Roman Empire and school mate of Titus, were plying their trade inside the temple walls! He placed three legions around the western sides of the city and a fourth on the east on i??the Mount of Olives. Josephus states that the stench of the dead on crosses was so great that legionnaires became sick at the odor.
This was Goda€™s judgement upon a people who rejected him, although he presented himself to them as their Messiah. The Julian Calendar provided the names of the months used world-wide and served as Europea€™s unified calendar until 1582 when Pope Gregory XIII developed the Gregorian Calendar. February is the only month that is 28 days long in common years and 29 days long in leap years. Public restrooms and public baths were also introduced by the Romans, although public toilets were present earlier in Greece, also.
Arches could support heavier loads than columns and flat roofs by distributing the weight downward through each segment of the archa€™s construction. Most famous of Roman domed buildings was the Pantheon in Rome, the temple dedicated to the worship and honoring of a€?all the gods,a€? which is what the word a€?pantheona€? means in Greek.
After Trajan, Christians became progressively accepted and many were appointed to positions in government and the military, and many others held important positions as teachers and professors. Marc Anthony despised Octavian and spent most of his time in Egypt with the Eastern troops. He became the first bona fide Emperor and the second of six in the Julian line to rule Rome.
When Pompey landed in Alexandria, he was killed by Egyptians who thought they were being loyal to Julius and would find favor with him.A  However, Julius had a personal rule -- no leader defeated by Julius would be put to death.
Actium was a naval battle, pitting the forces of Octavian and Rome against those of Marc Antony and the Egyptian forces of Cleopatra. 48 hours ago, UNICEF delivered tons of supplies to the Haitian capital and more are on the way.
We're not sending it to you to ask for more money, but to see if you'd be willing to forward it to your family members, friends or even office mates. After you forward the message below to friends you can help spread the word on Facebook and Twitter.
Even the tiniest action you take will set forces into motion that will reverberate throughout the world for an eternity; in that the law of conservation of energy states that the total amount of energy in an isolated system remains constant.
This site includes harsh and complimentary commentary on news, advertising, TV, radio, and Internet interviews and interviewers that affect the world and American people’s opinions, understanding of truth, and so-called opinion polls. THE SHOTS CUT BACK AND FORTH FROM DISTANT LONG SHOTS TO MEDIUM AND CLOSE SHOTS OF THE DEVASTATION TO PROPERTY THEN TO LONG SHOTS THAT ZOOM TO MEDIUM, CLOSE, AND EXTREME CLOSE UPS OF EMOTIONAL VICTIMS OF ALL RACES, AGES, AND CULTURES IN TERRIBLE DISTRESS.
PRIVATE GOVERNMENT, NON-PROFIT, AND CORPORATE PEOPLE AND GROUPS IN ACTION HELPING WITH SEARCH AND RESCUE, SEARCH AND RESCUE DOG TEAMS, MEDICAL, FOOD DISTRIBUTION, FOOD KITCHENS, SETTING UP TENTS, DISTRIBUTING BLANKETS, HELICOPTERING VICTIMS, BOATING AND CARRYING VICTIMS, COMFORTING PEOPLE, TAKING CARE OF CHILDREN.
Pakistan, Iran, Niger and other areas of Africa, China, Japan, the Caribbean, Guatemala, India, Russia, Malaysia, Sir Lanka, Indonesia, Thailand, Maldives, Somalia, finally disasters stuck America and you still You did nothing and others did little.
Their skins are sometimes worn as a symbol of power by African chiefs, including South Africa's President Jacob Zuma. Others include the National Geographic Society's Big Cats Initiative, the wild cat conservation organization Panthera and the Zoological Society of London.
He pointed to Kenya, which bans all hunting, and neighboring Tanzania, which devotes more land to hunting than preservation.
Rodriguez said that since then there have been six vandalism incidents as well as protests whenever Jewish or Israeli representatives visited. He accuses Turnbull, a 61-year-old self-made multimillionaire, of being out of touch with ordinary folks. Labor wants to reduce tax breaks on real estate to make it a less attractive investment for landlords. A Shorten government would put legislation to allow same-sex marriage to the Parliament within its first 100 days in power. The vote would not be legally binding and some conservative lawmakers have said they would vote down a gay marriage bill even if most Australians supported marriage equality. This is so people cannot photograph their ballots to prove to vote-buyers that they cast their ballots for the right candidates.
A handful of cyber warriors operate from a small office in Jakarta, while the rest work remotely, and the group mostly communicate with one another over the web. A squad of about 500 Muslims from the world’s biggest Muslim organization has begun its crusade to fight IS and its propaganda on social media to counter its influence on young Muslims.
But there could be a possibility that he was killed by Islamist militants," said Rajshahi district police chief Nisharul Arif.
Provincial officials said displaced people would be better off driving to cities like Calgary, 655 km to the south, where health and social services are better. About half of the crude output from the sands, or one million barrels per day, had been taken offline as of Friday, according to a Reuters estimate. Much of the negative advertising against Trump is expected to focus on belittling statements he's made about women in the past. Eng Karanja Kibicho announced on Friday that the government would no longer host refugees and was disbanding its Department of Refugee Affairs, which processes refugee registration.
Supporters said Khan's own message - that a victory for him would show the world how tolerant and open Britain was - carried far more power. The final round of ballot confirming confirmed early Saturday that Khan received 57 percent of votes, Goldsmith 43 percent.
The article claimed that Khan and Labour considered terrorists their friends and would handicap police efforts to prevent another attack on London, 11 years after 52 Londoners died in suicide blasts on three subway trains and a bus committed by British-born Muslims.
Before liftoff from Cape Canaveral, Florida, he put the chances of a successful touchdown at "maybe even" because the rocket was coming in faster and hotter than last time.
The Senate was scheduled to vote Wednesday on whether to open a trial and suspend Rousseff.
It appeared the highway is safe enough on Friday to move thousands more south on the highway. The convoy will pass through Fort McMurray where the fire has torched 1,600 homes and other buildings.
Morrison said the cause of the fire hasn't been determined, but he said it started in a remote forested area and could have been ignited by lightning. This amount of money would likely to be "by far the largest potential catastrophe loss in Canadian history," he said.
Industry officials said the regulations could hurt smaller companies and cripple a their job-creating business due to the expense of the regulatory process.


While some researchers believe e-cigarettes pose a lower cancer risk because they do not burn tobacco, other researchers view e-cigarette vapor as potentially harmful because of chemicals released during the burning process. They were asked instead to stay outside the meeting venue and interview Pyongyang residents.
He said that as a young college student, he was lucky to take part in the parade and torch march before the meeting. Cannabis dining, on the other hand, is a relatively new concept, and Sayegh wants to bring it to the masses. Carrot confit gnocchi with cannabis-infused pea emulsion was followed by New York strip steak with parsnip puree and a "medicated" red wine reduction. In a country where young adults increasingly live and dine alone, the shows have become so popular, some hosts have made small or big fortunes from the virtual cash sent from viewers. Some avid fans say they quit watching soap operas, reading online news or playing mobile phone game to watch. While visiting his mother-in-law in a mountainous village, Koo Eun-je, 35, saw a cat outside, wondered how it survived and put out leftover fish for it. Some viewers have sent Koo virtual cash items, which help cover his living expenses and cat food. The show has replaced his time on Facebook and his day is full of newfound cat-related activities although he still does not plan to adopt one. Stray cats are called "thief cats" because they are believed to survive by stealing food from humans. But now once in a while I look down, like beneath a car, to see what kind of cats live near my house," said Park Tae-kyung, a 33-year-old computer graphic designer. Flames are being kept from the downtown area thanks to the "herculean'" efforts of firefighters, said Scott Long of the Alberta Emergency Management Agency.
Fort McMurray is surrounded by wilderness in the heart of Canada's oil sands - the third largest reserves of oil in the world behind Saudi Arabia and Venezuela. There had been 2,500 evacuees registered at the local recreation center, although it was not known how many were still there when they were told to get on buses for Edmonton further to the south. Federal Public Safety Minister Ralph Goodale called it one of the largest fire evacuations in Canadian history, if not the largest. Now there is no bar to execute him unless he seeks clemency from the president and the president pardons him," said Attorney General Mahbubey Alam after the Supreme Court dismissed Nizami's final appeal. We hope the government will now execute him without wasting any time," said Imran Sarker, a secular blogger.
The Senate's website said Senator Antonio Anastasia made the recommendation for a Senate trial in a 126-page report he presented to the 21-member commission. The military said it hit "terrorist infrastructure sites" belonging to Hamas, the Islamic militant group which rules Gaza. Hundreds of people gathered around the woman just outside the General Hospital compound in Port-au-Prince's crowded downtown.
The party will hold an emergency convention on May 22 to select a new party leader who would also replace the premier. It comes a day after Davutoglu's government scored a victory of sorts, with the European Union's executive commission recommending approval of a deal to give Turkish citizens the right to travel to Europe without visas. Davutoglu was expected to play a backseat role as Erdogan pushed ahead with plans to make the largely ceremonial presidency into an all-powerful position. But the death toll in the Kobani area was so high that the campaign there has been suspended, Hisso said. Members of the Civil Defense demining teams in Aleppo province have developed their own methods, including burning explosives in primitive pits and detonating unexploded cluster munitions by shooting at them. Rumi taught that the mere existence of the human being served as an axis point for all of creation and this itself was visible evidence of the Universal Creator. These Mevlevihanes do privately exist, however our version of the full ceremony is preserved by becoming touristic show which is performed in less than ideal conditions sometimes in commercial venues that aren't necessarily ordained spiritual grounds. Bridging the past and present through his music, our musicians play his legacy, bringing you a unique experience in the center of the city of Istanbul.How can one participate?You may make reservations for the programme.
Rumi taught that the mere existence of the human being served as an axis point for all of creation and this itself was visible evidence of the Universal Creator. These Mevlevihanes do privately exist, however our version of the full ceremony is preserved by becoming touristic show which is performed in less than ideal conditions sometimes in commercial venues that aren't necessarily ordained spiritual grounds. With the underlying ideals of of respect and love present not only a ceremony that is a body of work combining perfectly performing arts facilities and dervish culture, but we also invite you to feel.
Bridging the past and present through his music, our musicians play his legacy, bringing you a unique experience in the center of the city of Istanbul. Almost at once the two men began to discuss the project for which the scholar had been asked to come from North Africa: the creation of the first accuratea€”and scientifica€”map of the entire known world.
After studying in Cordoba, in Muslim Spain, he had spent some years in travel, covering the length of the Mediterranean, from Lisbon to Damascus. His co-religionists, commenting on his oriental life-style, complete with harem and eunuchs, disparagingly referred to him as the a€?half-heathen kinga€? and a€?the baptized Sultan of Sicily.a€? Educated by Greek and Arab tutors, he was an intellectual with a taste for scientific inquiry, and relished the company of Muslim scholars, of whom al-Idrisi was one of the most celebrated.
Like Muslim Spain, it was a beacon of prosperity to a Europe caught in the economic slow-down we call the Dark Ages. In mathematics, as in the political sphere, al-Idrisi wrote of his patron, the extent of his learning cannot be described.
Picturesque and colorful, European maps showed a circular earth composed of three continents equal in sizea€”Asia, Africa and Europea€”separated by narrow bands of water. While medieval Europe had become fragmented and parochial, both politically and commercially, the Muslim world was unified by a flourishing long-distance commerce as well as by religion and culture.
The commissiona€™s agents haunted the ports, and if they discovered a traveler who had visited any particularly exotic region, he was conducted to the palace at Palermo to be questioned by al-Idrisi or even by Roger. Then a great disk almost 80 inches in diameter and weighing over 300 pounds was fabricated out of silver, chosen for its malleability and permanence.
The great geographer Gerardus Mercator commented, If you wish to sail from one port to another, here is a chart . A knowledge of this globe would not have come down to our day had not Idrisi, a famous geographer of that time, given an especial description of the same, under the title Nothatol mostak [Pleasure of the Soul].a€? According to other scholars it is more probable that the reference here is to a circular disc or planisphere made by Idrisi, or an armillary sphere, but not to a terrestrial globe.
Following the rough sketch prepared by al-Idrisi, the silversmiths transferred the outlines of countries, oceans, rivers, gulfs, peninsulas and islands to the planisphere. The planisphere showed the sources of the Nilea€”not explored by Europeans until the 19th century, but evidently known to 12th century Muslim travelersa€”and the cities of central Sudan.
Al-Idrisi described the lost city of Ghana (near Timbuktu, on the Niger) as the most considerable, the most densely peopled, and the largest trading center of the Negro countries. Few cities are comparable in the solidity and height of buildings, the beauty of the surrounding country, and the fertility of the lands watered by the Tagus. The Norwegians had to harvest their grain when it was still green and dry it at their hearths since the sun shines very rarely upon them.
Because the inhabitants of Africa and Europe waged continual warfare, Alexander decided to separate them by a canal, which he cut between Tangier and al-Andalus (southern Spain).
A passionate art collector, Juba was also interested in science and technology, inventing a new method of making purple dye from the orchil plant - and the export of orchil from the Atlantic islands was of economic importance until early this century.
But al-Idrisi tells of an attempted expedition to the Canaries in the late 12th century, during the reign of the Almoravid amir Yusuf ibn Tashafin. This is probably Tenerife, and the round mountain would be the 3,600-meter-high (12,000-foot) volcano called Pico de Teide. Eighty men, all ordinary people, got together and built a large ship and stocked it with enough food and water for several months. The sheep are a problem, for the Azores were uninhabited when settled in the 15th century, and even if we slightly stretch the meaning of the word ghanam, which can also mean a€?goats,a€? we are still left with the problem of the origin of the creatures. There are many rivers and pools, and thickets where donkeys and long-horned cattle take refuge. There used to be a dragon in the area, and the people were forced to feed it with bulls, donkeys or even humans, according to the legend; when Alexander arrived, the people complained to him of the dragona€™s depredations. Al-Sa€™ali is a word that refers to a kind of female demon or vampire; judging by al-Idrisia€™s description of the female inhabitants of the island, it is apt.
This story of Alexander and the dragon echoes the Eleventh Labor of Hercules, the Golden Apples of the Hesperides, guarded by the dragon Ladon. It could be argued that the first six islands, spread over three entire climate zones between the equator and the Strait of Gibraltar, represent the six known Canary Islands, forced into this north-south alignment by the physical constraints of the circular map with its narrow band of the Surrounding Ocean. The first two islands are the Canary Islands, properly shown in the first climate zone and carried forward from Ptolemya€™s map as the Fortunate Islands or Islands of the Blest. This story may be a borrowing from Greek mythology, where a dragon guarded the golden apples of the Hesperides. In the 1400a€™s, therefore, Christopher Columbus had to rely on other sources of information. Unlike a multitude of Arabic writings of far less intrinsic value, the Rogerian Description found no Gerard of Cremona (translator of Ptolemy into Latin) to put it into Latin, and the authoritative geographical knowledge of the Western world was destined to develop unenriched by the treasures which Roger and Idrisi together had amassed. Gog and Magog appeared on Arabian maps as Yajoj wa Majoj from the 10th century; they appear on Al-Idrisia€™s map of 1154 under the same names. The climate numbers are given along the vertical axis, and the ten longitudinal divisions are given across the top. The text was accompanied by 71 part maps, a world map and 70 sectional itinerary maps, representing the seven climates each divided longitudinally into 10 sections. Many primitive tribes believe that a totem animal was their ancient ancestor, hence the totem poles among the Alaskan tribes. When they arrived at the Tiber and the early settlements around present-day Rome, they cleared the mud huts of the original inhabitants, dug canals for irrigation and draining of swamps, and organized cattle herding into a sustainable industry. Rome with its navy invaded Carthage, burned it to the ground, and poured salt onto the soil so that a city could never again be built there. To the south in Attica and the Peloponnese the Attican League rose in rebellion against the Roman invaders, but were quickly defeated.
This is but one of several times that God used pagan armies as his tool to bring justice to evil kings and kingdoms. Brutus was a close friend of Julius and had fought with him at Pharsalus against Pompey, but he was alarmed at the power grab by Julius To protect the Republic against a dictatorship, Brutus and others in the Senate made a bloody plan. Roman culture had so idealized the military that it was inconceivable for anyone but military leaders to be appointed to the triumvirate. The fact was that Octavian had marched on Rome and demanded that the Senate appoint him as one of the consuls! He was a well-qualified leader and was the emperor who ordered the census which caused Joseph and Mary to travel to Bethlehem.
He was then succeeded by his brother, Domitian, who many saw as a weaker candidate because he lacked the military zeal of his father and brother. Vespasian with 60,000 Roman legionnaires worked his way south through Syria, Samaria, and northern Judah, systematically wiping out all resistance to Romea€™s authority. In protest, many of the faithful, a probably led by the men who should legally have become high priest, left Jerusalem for Masada in the south east. When the Passover season arrived, Titus a€?politelya€? allowed the thousands of pilgrims to enter the city, but then refused to allow them to leave. When it was discovered that some attempted to escape after having swallowed the gold jewelry and coins, the Romans hired Arabs to slit the stomachs of those who attempted to flee in order to seek for the hidden gold. But it was a further evidence of the truthfulness of the message of Jesus, that in him alone is found the forgiveness of sins and the free gift of eternal life. Some were fed by manmade reservoirs, one of the earliest, large scale attempts to manage natural resources. There are at least 333 terms that are literally the same in spelling and meaning in both Latin and English. He placed two other men under Maximian and himself as junior partners, so-to-speak -- Constantius in Gaul as a junior partner under Maximian, and Galerius in the east under Diocletian, giving to them the title Augustus. But for this study, the following are listed as emperors and lines of emperors that are worth remembering. Lepidus foolishly attempted to take authority over Octaviana€™s troops and was expelled by Octavian from the triumvirate.
WITHOUT MOVING HER HEAD HER EYES SWITCH FROM ONE VOICE TO THE OTHER AS A CONVINCING ARGUMENT IS HEARD. The plan is that investors won't price as many would-be owner-occupiers out of the housing market.
Bush, the only former Republican presidents still living, said they would not back Trump's candidacy.
That was the first successful landing at sea for SpaceX, which expects to start reusing its unmanned Falcon rockets as early as this summer to save money and lower costs. The Royal Canadian Mounted Police is escorting 50 vehicles at a time, south through the city itself on Highway 63 at a distance of about 20 kilometers south and then releasing the convoy. Wall Street analysts expect the regulations to herald a new wave of consolidation led by big tobacco companies.
It throws off the whole flavor of the dish," he said, adding that he "micro-doses" his dishes to the desired potency of individual clients. When the stray cats finally come to eat the food left out for them, people watching online sit enraptured by their feline charms.
But it has helped change negative images of stray cats in South Korea, which has traditionally seen them as thieves. An update from the Municipality of Wood Buffalo later in the evening indicated the fire was continuing to claim homes and had destroyed a new school. Rousseff is facing impeachment over allegations her administration violated fiscal laws by shifting around government funds to plug holes in the budget.
The Gaza Health Ministry said three children and a 65-year-old Palestinian suffered light-to-moderate injuries in an airstrike that hit a metal workshop in Gaza City. They covered her body in a blanket and carried it to a nearby radio station in an impromptu protest, chanting: "Medicine needs to work!" "This woman came here to get help but couldn't find any doctors.
The newspaperi??i??the first title to launch in Britain in 30 yearsi??i??had been seen as a counter to the trend of declining newspaper sales in an online world. The axis is illustrated through turning or whirling, the most common movement in the Universe from microcosmic organisms likeatoms to macrocosms like planets, solar systems and galaxies; therefore, mirroring this movement is a way to pray or reach Creator. In our role, our organization assumes accountability and accepts fully the responsibility to the origins and spirit of the ceremony. As a young man with poetic pretensions he had written student verse celebrating wine and good company, but in the course of his journeys he had discovered his real passion: geography.
The occupying Arabs had built dams, irrigation systems, reservoirs and water towers, introduced new cropsa€”oranges and lemons, cotton, date palms, ricea€”and exploited the islanda€™s mines and fishing grounds. Nor is there any limit to his knowledge of the sciences, so deeply and wisely has he studied them in every particular.
The Garden of Eden and Paradise were at the top and Jerusalem at the center, while fabulous monsters occupied the unexplored regionsa€”Sirens, dragons, men with dogsa€™ heads, men with feet shaped like umbrellas with which they protected themselves from the sun while lying down (see #205, #207, #224, #226). The mission he entrusted to al-Idrisi was intellectually Herculean: to collect and evaluate all available geographical knowledgea€”from books and from on-the-spot observersa€”and to organize it into an accurate and meaningful representation of the world. Muslim merchants, pilgrims and officials used so-called a€?road booksa€?, itineraries that described routes, traveling conditions and cities along the way. What was the climate of the country, its rivers and lakes, mountains, coastal configurations and soil? All creatures are stable on the surface of the earth, the air attracting what is light, the earth what is heavy, as the magnet attracts iron.
The mathematician al-Khwarizmi reduced Ptolemya€™s estimate of the length of the Mediterranean Sea from 62 to 52 degrees; the Spanish Muslim astronomer al-Zarqali further adjusted the figure to the correct 42 degrees. Roger II of Sicily had his world map drawn on a six-foot diameter circle of silver weighing about 450 pounds. The Baltic area and Poland were represented much more precisely than on Ptolemya€™s maps, showing the fruit of the geographersa€™ investigations.
In the fourth section of the first climate, al-Idrisi located the sources of the Nile in their approximately correct position, though he pictured the Nile of the Negroes as joining the Egyptian Nile at that point. The gardens of Toledo are laced with canals on which are erected water wheels used in irrigating the orchards, which produce in prodigious quantity fruits of inexpressible beauty and quality. Juba populated the Canaries with Berber-speaking colonists, perhaps the ancestors of the Guanches.
The admiral in charge of the expedition died just as it was about to set out, so the venture came to nothing. Then they set sail with the first gentle easterly and sailed for about eleven daya€™s, until they came to a sea with heavy waves, evil-smelling, ridden with reefs and with very little light. The a€?sea with heavy waves, evil-smelling, ridden with reefs and with very little lighta€? can probably be ignored, for the passage is influenced by the a€?land of darknessa€? thought to exist in the farthest West, and the reefs may echo a passage in Platoa€™s Timeus which speaks of the shallows in the Atlantic marking the site where Atlantis sank. No large mammals are indigenous to the Azores, and sheep or goats could only have been brought to the island by previous mariners.
In the Arabic-speaking world, popular legend transferred a number of the heroic deeds of Hercules to Alexander - including the building of a land bridge across the Pillars of Hercules. The wood is deep black, and merchants come to the island to harvest it and then sell it to the kings of the farthest West.
The same linear arrangement of islands appears on 14th century maps such as the 1351Laurentian portolano (Book III, #233), and, a full century later, on the Bartolomeo Pareto map (1455), since it was still impossible to determine longitude.
The sixth island, shown opposite the entrance to the Mediterranean, would be al-Ghanam [Island of Sheep], Madeira. I think that Babcock comes close, but, rather than the cormorant, the bird referred to is the goshawk [Afar], a species of hawk that closely resembles an eagle and abounds in the Azores, and from which the entire archipelago gets its name.
On the Island of Two Heathen Brothers, two pirates lived until they were turned into rocks, and the inhabitants of the Island of Kalhan had the bodies of men and the heads of animals. Using a globe prepared by a German cartographer named Martin Behaim (Book III, #258), based on Ptolemya€™s miscalculations, Columbus also added in Marco Poloa€™s equally misleading estimates of distances and concluded, incorrectly, that by sailing west from Spain he could reach Japan or India after no more than a 4,000 mile voyage.
The consecutive numbers sometimes used to refer to the sectional maps are shown in the upper right corner of each section.
The leading city of the rebellious Attican League, Corinth, was burned to the ground by the Romans. For many years the plebians, out of loyalty to the Republic, overlooked the need for social reforms, but with the influx of slaves things were about to change.
The three arbitrarily chose themselves to take the power in what was basically a military coup. Hence, Julius, the last man standing of the three, returned to Rome and was declared a€?Perpetual Dictatora€? by the Senate in 44 B.C. Second, he secretly stole the private will of Anthony and made its terms known to the Senate.
They secured Roman control of Britain and strengthened the borders with the Germanic tribes. The Zealots tended to be hot-headed nationalists bent on independence, not only from Rome, but also from what was perceived to me a corrupt priesthood. Many citizens fled in front of the troops to the south, leaving behind burning towns and cities, and seeking the safety of the high-walled Jerusalem. Some believe these were the Essenes who kept the Dead Sea Scrolls along the shores of the Dead Sea.
This put enormous strains on the food and water supplies and virtually broke down all health and sanitation systems. Expansion into the Balkans, Spain, Britain, Gaul, Persia, and North Africa produced the greatest era of Romanization. The road networks were built throughout Europe, the Middle East, and North Africa, including the famed Apian Way that connected major cities and military bases in Italy with Rome. The idea was that when either Diocletian or Maximian would die or retire, the junior partners would become the next emperors. Upon arriving in Egypt and learning about Pompeya€™s death, Julius put to death the assassins of Pompey. Hence, Julius, the last man standing of the three, returned to Rome and was declared a€?Perpetual Dictatora€?A  by the Senate in 44 B.C. Many citizens fled in front of the troops to the south, leaving behind burning towns and cities,A  and seeking the safety of the high-walled Jerusalem. Two former Trump rivals for the nomination, Florida Governor Jeb Bush and South Carolina Senator Lindsey Graham, are among those who have also said they don't plan to back Trump. He said the Conservative campaign sought to frighten non-Muslim voters "about Khan, the alleged Muslim extremist". That's not right," computer technician Jean Michel Tius said as he watched the crowd march away with the body. This impressive practice is built on the foundations of aesthetic symbolism, from the details of dervish's dress to the fulfillment of the ceremony.
This impressive practice is built on the foundations of aesthetic symbolism, from the details of dervish's dress to the fulfillment of the ceremony. In this way we are part of the process of echoing the resounding love and respect born in the messages of Rumi. We invited you also to remember your most powerful feelings and treasure them after leaving our door.
He is responsible for singular innovations and for marvelous inventions, such as no prince has ever before realized. His purpose was partly practical, but mostly scientific: to produce a work that would sum up all the contemporary knowledge of the physical world. Other Muslim scholars, like the Iraqi astronomer al-Battani and the Persian al-Biruni (#214.3), composed tables giving the latitudes of leading cities.
The works of Al-Idrisi include Nozhat al-mushtaq fi ikhtiraq al-afaq - a compendium of the geographic and sociological knowledge of his time as well as descriptions of his own travels illustrated with over seventy maps; Kharitat al-`alam al-ma`mour min al-ard [Map of the inhabited regions of the earth] wherein he divided the world into seven regions, the first extending from the equator to 23 degrees latitude, and the seventh being from 54 to 63 degrees followed by a region uninhabitable due to cold and snow. The British Isles also were treated with a surprising insight, probably due to contacts between Norman England and Norman Sicily. It is a considerable island, whose shape is that of the head of an ostrich, and where there are flourishing towns, high mountains, great rivers and plains.
Gradually, knowledge of the location of the Canaries was lost, even though Lanzarote, the island nearest the North African coast, lies less than 100 kilometers [60 miles] west of the mainland. Al-ldrisi says the admirala€™s curiosity was aroused by smoke rising from the sea in the west, probably the result of volcanic activity.
Neither name is Arabic, nor do they appear to be transcriptions of Greek, Latin or Romance - but the fact that these two islands had names at all means mariners must have visited them, and the names are either native designations or hark back to some lost, perhaps oral, source. They were sure they were about to perish, so they changed course to the south and sailed for twelve days, until they came to Sheep Island, There were so many sheep it was impossible to count them, and they ranged freely, with no one to watch them. The Azores lie almost 1,300 kilometers (about 800 miles) west of the coast of Portugal - one-third of the way to America.
Some Greek mythographers thought the Islands of the Hesperides lay off the coast of North Africa, and we have already seen how al-Idrisi associates Alexander with two of the Atlantic islands.
The island is said to have been inhabited in the past, but it fell to ruin and serpents infested the land. Al-Sua€™ali and al-Mustashkin both sound completely legendary, but there is nothing legendary about Hasran and Qalhan, which sound as if they might belong together. During the period of rediscovery of the Azores under Prince Henry the Navigator, these birds were supposedly responsible for guiding the sailors to these distant islands.
According to one historian, friendly relations were established between the Sultan of Spain and the invaders.
When they reached maturity, Romulus murdered Remus (a memory of Cain and Abel?) and formed the community of Rome. The three were Julius Caesar from his assignment in England, Pompey from his station in Spain, and Crassus in his station from Syria.
In order to prevent armed revolutions in Rome, generals returning to Rome were forbidden to allow their troops to cross the Rubicon en mass. Antonya€™s will provided for large land grants in Italy for the children he had sired with Cleopatra.
The dating of the writing of the Book of Revelation by John while on Patmos determines whether the book was written prior to the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 A.D. They passed new tax codes to restore the Roman treasury and increased the silver base for the Roman currency. The civil war was directed not only at Rome, but was conducted within Jerusalem by one faction against the other.
The goal was to prevent chaos at the death of an emperor and to provide orderly succession of leadership. Christians were required to make sacrifices to the gods or face imprisonment, exile, or death. Cleopatra, according to legend used a poisonous snake in her bed to inflict the fatal wound. The woman has been given oxygen and she is trapped in small corner of her room, said Abbas Gullet, head of the Kenya Red Cross. Rumi believed passionately in the power of music, dance and poetry as a path for reaching Creator and since the eighth century, Rumi's teachings have been developed by his followers. Rumi believed passionately in the power of music, dance and poetry as a path for reaching Creator and since the eighth century, Rumi's teachings have been developed by his followers. If you take notice also of defect or fault, we also kindly ask your forgiveness, and you can be sure that we will work hard to fix it.
Others belonged to a later tradition of systematic geography, like the 10th century scholars Ibn Hawqal (#213) and al-Masa€™udi (#212), who produced books intended as something more than practical guides for the tax collector or the postman: as additions to the fund of human knowledge. An element of subjectivity entered into the fact that southern Italy was represented as larger than the north, and that Sicily occupied a substantial part of the Western Mediterranean, in contrast to Sardinia and Corsica, which shrank in scale. This country is most fertile; its inhabitants are brave, active and enterprising, but all is in the grip of perpetual winter. The Greeks called the Canary Islands TA?n MakarA?n NA“soi [The Islands of the Blessed], and they were regarded as the furthest known land to the west. In another passage al-Idrisi gives more details of this island - incidentally showing that a longer account of the voyage of the mugharrirun must have existed. In the 19th century, Carthaginian coins were found on the most westerly of the islands, Corvo - 31A° west longitude - and although the find has been questioned, the origin of the coins has never been satisfactorily explained.
But if the word is Arabic, one would expect it to be preceded by the definite article a€?ala€?. Since the only inhabited islands in the western Atlantic just before the coming of the Europeans were the Canaries, Hasran may belong to that groupa€”unless, of course, it is to be sought in the Caribbean! If the isle of Raqa is indeed one of the Azores, then the discovery of these islands occurred as early as the 10th century. The king was replaced by two consuls who were elected by the populace annually (the idea was you cana€™t trust one ruler or hea€™ll attempt to rule absolutely, and cana€™t allow him to serve for long periods of time or he will rule forever!), and the Senate was given expanded powers (rather than being merely an advisory group as they were under the former monarchy). General Hannibal of Carthage, during the second of the three Punic Wars invaded Italy, crossing the Alps with his troops, including a unit of 37 elephants.
Crassus had earlier gained fame for having defeated the slave revolt in Italy led by the slave Spartacus. I tell you the truth, this generation will certainly not pass away until all these things have happened. Her death placed the vast wealth of Egypt at Romea€™s disposal and Egypt voluntarily became a province of the Roman Empire. HER FACE WINCES, SQUIRMS, AND CONTORTS TRYING TO IGNORE OR CLOSE OUT THE VOICES, BUT SHE CAN NOT MOVER HER HEAD, HER HANDS, OR HER BODY. The odds of a disaster of one type or another happening to you, your family and close friends in your lifetime is likely ONE HUNDRED PERCENT certain. Even if it is seen as a form of religious ceremony, Sema is an art form just like music and dance, and we believe these traditions need to be shared in order to survive. In addition, scientific expeditions were dispatched to areas on which information was lacking. Contrary to a still popular misconception that up to the time of Columbus everyone believed the world was flat, many scholars and astronomers since at least the fifth century B.C. Not surprisingly, the best part of both map and text, accurate and detailed, dealt with Sicily itself. It forms an island 300 miles long by 150 miles wide: this is surrounded by the Nile on all sides and at all seasons . Al-Idrisi gave the names of many English towns, principally ports, with the distances between them. They caught some of the sheep and slaughtered them, but the flesh was so bitter they could not eat it. He says Sheep Island is large, shrouded in shadows, and filled with small sheep whose flesh is bitter and inedible. Corvo is marked on the Canterino map of 1351, where the name occurs as Corvini - considerably before its official discovery.
First, it filled the tribes and Council with newcomers who were not content to allow the status quo to continue. Those who accept the early date under Nero interpret Revelation to apply primarily to the destruction of Jerusalem, the temple and sacrificial system, and ultimately the downfall of the Roman Empire, and do not see the book addressing primarily things which are to happen wo thousand or more years in the future.
Sema today reflects this impact, echoing love and respect where you can see, peace is accessed through the arts. In this way we are part of the process of echoing the resounding love and respect born in the messages of Rumi.What are the differences between this event and the others? Sema today reflects this impact, echoing love and respect where you can see, peace is accessed through the arts. Draftsmen and cartographers accompanied these expeditions so that a visual record of the country could be made. The greater part of the country is only habitable on the borders of the Nile for the rest of the country . Hastings was a considerable town, densely populated, with many buildings, markets, much industry and commerce; Dover, to the east, was an equally important town not far from the mouth of the river of London, the broad and swiftly flowing Thames. In 1402 the Normans partially conquered them, meeting stiff resistance from the indigenous Guanches. They took some sheepskins and sailed on to the south for another twelve days until they sighted an island.
Nearby is another island, called Raqa, which is the home of a red bird the size of an eagle, which catches fish in its claws and never flies far from the island. Certain adventures of Sinbad the Sailor, from Tales of the Arabian Nights, are almost identical to those of Saint Brendan. All officials served one-year terms, except during times of emergency, so that no one person could gain power over his fellow citizens.
So angered were they that they declared war on Cleopatra -- knowing that this would bring Antony into the conflict also, but avoiding, technically at least, a Roman civil war.
Some believe also that Nero was the emperor who sent John the Apostle to exile on the island of Patmos where he composed the Book of Revelation. Those who accept the late date for the book view it as a prophecy about things to happen at the end of the age. So angered were they that they declared war on Cleopatra -- knowing that this would bringA  Antony into the conflict also, but avoiding, technically at least, a Roman civil war. The main difference of our event, entitled “800 years of Love” our efforts that we make are at approaching Sufi origins. You may get there sooner or you may not get there as soon as you expected, but you will certainly get there. In the mid-15th century, the Spanish took control of the Canaries and continued the conquest.
The settlers quickly burned down all the forests, so it is now hard to know for certain, but some sort of scented wood may have once grown there.
But whether the Irish borrowed these myths from the Arabs, or vice versa, or if they both obtained them from an earlier common source is a matter of conjecture. Over time a constitution was adopted that featured an early form of separation of powers and a system of checks and balances. This particular program has been performed by our professional musicians and dervishes in Turkey and abroad over the last 5 years. Al-Idrisia€™s silver disk, or planisphere, was a form of projection considerably in advance of others of its time. Fighting was still going on when Columbus used the islands as the first stop on all four of his voyages to the Caribbean. They headed toward it in order to explore and when they were not far offshore, they suddenly found themselves surrounded by boats, which forced their ship to land beside a city on the shore. A king of the Franks heard of this, al-Idrisi adds, and sent a ship to the island to bring him that fruit and some of the birds, but the ship was lost and never returned. MULTIPLE OTHER SHOTS TO CREATE THE EFFECT OF ACTION FOR THIS OTHERWISE STATIC SCENE SEQUENCE.
With the underlying ideals of of respect and love present not only a ceremony that is a body of work combining perfectly performing arts facilities and dervish culture, but we also invite you to feel.
The Guanches were not finally subdued until the end of the 16th century, when they and their language virtually disappeared. They saw the men who lived there; they were light-complexioned, with very little facial hair. And in the ninth century, 70 Muslim scholars, working under the patronage of Caliph al-Maa€™mun, gathered in the Syrian Desert to determine the length of a degree of latitude. There are arid wastes where one must walk two, four, five, or twelve days before finding water . From the few words of Guanche preserved in the Spanish chronicles, we know they spoke a form of Berber, and were therefore probably descended from Jubaa€™s colonists. We invited you also to remember your most powerful feelings and treasure them after leaving our door. Rather than rely on travelersa€™ guesses of distance, as previous astronomers had done, they used wooden rods to measure the road they traveled until they saw a change of one degree in the elevation of the polestar. Yet when Europeans encountered them, they had no memory of the mainland; having no boats, they were unaware that the other islands in the group were inhabited.
If you take notice also of defect or fault, we also kindly ask your forgiveness, and you can be sure that we will work hard to fix it. Their calculation resulted in a figure for the eartha€™s circumference equivalent to 22,422 miles, an error of 3.6 percent, almost as accurate as Eratosthenesa€™ estimate and a considerable improvement over Ptolemya€™s. On the fourth day a man who spoke Arabic entered and asked them who they were and where they were going and what was the name of their country.
They told him everything and he said not to worry, and that he was the kinga€™s interpreter. The next day they were taken into the kinga€™s presence and he asked the same questions they had been asked by the interpreter. They told him what they had told the interpreter the day before, of how they had embarked upon the ocean in order to find out about it and see the wonders it contained, and how they had come to this place. When dawn broke and the sun rose, we found we were in great pain because we had been so tightly bound. One of them asked us: a€?Do you know how far you are from your country?a€™ a€?No,a€™ we answered. The ritual of the Mevlevi sect, known as the sema, is a serious religious ritual performedby Muslim priests in a prayer trance to Allah. Mevlevi believed that during the sema the soul was releasedfrom earthly ties, and able to freely and jubilantly commune with the divine. The Whirling Dervishesplayed an important part in the evolution of Ottoman high culture.From the fourteenth to the twentieth century,their impact on classical poetry, calligraphy and visual arts was profound.



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