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In the Spring semester, I will be on leave as Visiting Professor at the Toulouse School of Economics (TSE), in Toulouse, France. I also serve as faculty in the Program in Economic Policy Management (PEPM) at Columbia University's School of International and Public Affairs (SIPA). In the Spring semester (2012-2013), I will be on leave as Fulbright Senior Scholar visiting the Foreign Trade University in Hanoi, Vietnam.
The article Prelude to War in the Pacific, published on the latest issue of Executive Intelligence Review, provided a detailed analysis on why the provocative meddling in the Pacific region by the United States is dangerous, why China's territorial claims of the Nansha and Xisha Islands are legitimate, and how the United States is sabotaging the amicable resolution of the regional conflict. Bylined by the Washington Bureau Chief of the publication William Jones, the article noted that Washington did not sign the UN Law of the Sea Convention, but elaborated its unilateral "freedom of navigation policy" out of the country's own selfish interests. The policy effectively allows the US Navy to sail wherever and whenever it wants, unimpeded by any treaty, which essentially making US military vessels a modern form of "gunboat diplomacy", wrote Jones. It denounced Western media for depicting China's claims to the Nansha and Xisha Islands as a Chinese "power grab", arguing that for most of China's history, these claims have never been contested.
Throughout the region's history, extensive activities by Chinese on the islands were present, including fishing and planting, and some Chinese even lived on the islands for years. Jones also argued that Chinese possession of the islands would have a beneficial effect on navigation in the region.
Jones believed that countries in the region had a path to peaceful resolution to the conflicts of their territorial claims, but Washington was actively sabotaging the efforts. The article highlighted the agreements between the countries of the region, encapsulated in the 2012 Declaration of Conduct signed by the members of ASEAN and the government of China. Here is the $1.3 billion plant that Tianjin Pipe Corporation (TPCO ) is building near Corpus Christi, Texas. The plant is expected to supply pipe for the massive Eagle Ford Shale formation in south Texas, which energy observers think may contain as much as 20 trillion cubic feet of natural gas and 3 billion barrels of oil. Despite the downturn in energy prices in the last two years, Kurtz said TPCO hasn't delayed or canceled the project. When the project was unveiled five years ago, the labor market in the area was different from now. Chinese employers with a shortage of highly skilled workers have opened their doors wider to foreign talent. Ashley Sutcliffe (left), public relations manager at Zhejiang Geely Holding Group, one of China’s biggest private carmakers, holds a discussion session with his colleagues in Hangzhou, capital of Zhejiang province, on Friday.
The trend is being spurred by a new government manpower policy that encourages companies to hire directly from the international market. Major international headhunting companies have benefited from the change, seeing robust growth in such business in recent years, a China Daily investigation has found. Spring Professional, a subsidiary of leading human resources company Adecco Group, has operated on the Chinese mainland for more than 10 years.
It says that in the past three years, its annual revenue in China has grown by between 70 and 100 percent, thanks to the growing demand from Chinese companies for international staff. Robert Parkinson, CEO and founder of RMG Selection, another international human resources company that focuses on China, said its annual placement for foreigners in Chinese companies has doubled in four years.
Parkinson said the demand for skilled technical foreign talent is growing as China moves from low-cost manufacturing to more diversified innovative business.
Business for international recruiters is poised to continue soaring after the government pledged to introduce more overseas talent for pillar industries during the 13th Five-Year-Plan (2016-20), with "the market playing the leading role", instead of government-initiated recruitment. China targets top overseas talent, including professionals in innovation, breakthrough technologies and new industries, as well as scientists in strategic sectors. Audrey Deng, a recruitment manager with more than eight years' experience, said six automobile clients have created more than 80 new positions, mainly for leading experts from countries including the United States, Germany and Japan. Christine Raynaud, Greater China CEO for Morgan Philips Group, a global recruitment company, said that despite the growing demand, international recruitment is difficult for local and foreign companies in China.
Raynaud said the internet could speed up the screening process, but when it comes to the final interview, only professional human resources experts can judge whether candidates are suitable. Backed by international resources and professional experts worldwide, recruitment firms are expected to bridge the gap. Nearly 60 percent of working mothers in China don't want to have a second child, according to a report on the nation's career women.
It comes as Sunday marked the first Mother's Day following the relaxation of the four-decade family planning policy in January to allow all couples to have a second child.
Asked why they don't want to have a child, more than 56 percent of interviewees cited the cost.
More than 70 percent said they would not consider leaving their jobs to become mothers, while only 18.53 percent said they would take this into account. Wang Yixin, a senior consultant at Zhaopin, said most career women think it is impossible to live solely on their husbands' paychecks.
Peng Xi, 29, a marketing employee for a pharmaceutical company, has been married for two years and still hasn't decided whether to have a child. Peng is also worried about losing promotion opportunities, a concern shared by many women worldwide. Such cases taken up last year by Chinese embassies and consulates as well as the Foreign Ministry's Center for Consular Assistance and Protection reached nearly 87,000. They involved about 96,000 Chinese citizens and 1,928 deaths, the ministry said in a report, adding that the security situation for Chinese abroad is still "complicated and severe".
The figures show a significant increase from 2014, when about 60,000 cases were reported, involving some 73,000 Chinese. There was also an increase in the number of Chinese students abroad in such cases - with 6,000 involved last year, compared with just 932 in 2014. More than 523,000 Chinese studied abroad last year, an increase of about 14 percent year-on-year, according to the Ministry of Education. Ren Yuanzhe, associate professor in the Department of Diplomacy and Foreign Affairs Management at China Foreign Affairs University, said cases of Chinese students being deceived, injured or even killed abroad require such students to be vigilant over their safety, while Chinese embassies and consulates should provide better services for them. The Foreign Ministry said the safety of Chinese people in Africa needs to be watched, as more and more Chinese businesses are setting up there. Yang Guang, a researcher at the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences' Institute of West Asian and African Studies, said the number of Chinese doing business in Africa is growing fast, while the governance of some African countries is too weak to provide a safe environment.
Yang added that Chinese companies in Africa should develop relations with local communities by contributing to community development.
Asia contributed to more than half of the cases last year, with 37 percent of all the cases reported from Thailand, the Republic of Korea, Japan and Singapore - countries that have increasing numbers of Chinese tourists.
The largest proportion of cases involved those in which people were barred from entry or exit, followed by cases concerning security, and business and labor disputes.
Chinese mainland residents last year made a record 128 million visits abroad, the Foreign Ministry said. Ren said the increase in consular protection and assistance cases is a natural reflection of the rapid growth in Chinese going abroad and their stronger need for improved and diversified consular services. Kim emphasized that the DPRK will not resort to nuclear weapons first unless its sovereignty is encroached upon by hostile forces with nuclear arms, the report said. He made the remarks in a report delivered at a national congress of the ruling Workers' Party of Korea, the first in 36 years. Kim stressed that the Party has worked hard to implement the strategy of pushing forward economic growth and nuclear development at the same time. At a plenary meeting of the Party's Central Committee in March 2013, Kim put forward the "Line of Byungjin" (Line of Parallel Development) to simultaneously push forward economic growth and bolster nuclear capability.
The strategy is said to be a further development of concurrent growth of national defense and the economy, which was introduced by late leader Kim Il-sung, the younger Kim's grandfather. Kim also said, "We see the need to have dialogue and talks" between the military officials of the DPRK and the ROK.
The Republic of Korea on Sunday rejected the dialogue offer, saying the proposal is merely a propaganda drive with no authenticity as the DPRK continues to develop its nuclear program. Wang Junsheng, an assistant researcher at the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences' National Institute of International Strategy, said the ROK's reaction is "reasonable", but it is unrealistic to set denuclearization as a premise for talks. Yang Xiyu, a researcher at the China Institute of International Studies, said, "Compared to when the DPRK had been vowing a pre-emptive threat by nuclear weapons not long ago, Kim's statement is obviously a positive change. Many have imputed evil motives to Baidu, whose clients can pay to raise the visibility of products or services online.
If the doctors lied, or failed to inform Wei about the risks, or if the clinic billed him improperly or violated government regulations, then a serious breach of ethics was committed, and perhaps a crime.
Google has its little yellow "Ad" boxes to distinguish paid items from organic search results. A friend of mine at Google said company policy about identifying paid advertising is extremely strict, bordering on "religious zeal". More broadly, internet service providers in the US enjoy wide immunity from claims of false advertising or libel unless they played a direct role in the creation of the message or failed to exercise reasonable care. The stand sells more than 600 newspapers and periodicals every morning and is believed to be the first of its kind in the capital. China's newspapers are feeling the pressure of the market reforms they are more used to chronicling than confronting. In the digital era, newspapers are facing tough times, with a growing number of people turning to tablets or smartphones for information. The latest survey on reading habits from the Chinese Academy of Press and Publication showed 70 percent of adult respondents read online last year, while the proportion was less than 25 percent in 2009.
Feeling the chill, a lot of popular publications are reducing their printed pages and turning to internet tools such as developing news apps and promoting their own social media accounts on services like Sina Weibo, the Chinese Twitter-like site, to attract readers.
China's exports grew 4.1 percent on a year-on-year basis in April in yuan-dominated terms, indicating the country's new growth model has not been dragged down by the ongoing global economy's slowdown, trade experts said on Sunday. Lu Feng, a professor at the National School of Development of Peking University, said the government's policies, including export market-oriented reforms and middle- and long-term plans to develop new industries and products, have pushed Chinese companies, especially from the private sector, to ship more of their products to global markets in the past two months. China's largest trade fair - the China Import and Export Fair, known as the Canton Fair - concluded its 119th session in Guangdong province last week, with deals signed there adding to signs of improvement in Chinese exports.
Denis Depoux, vice-president of Roland Berger Strategy Consultants for Asia, said from a long-term perspective, made-in-China products in global markets would become less labor-intensive to make and easily serviceable, as well as having more sophisticated technical content.
Termination of the Chinese military's commercial activities will strongly lessen incentives for military-related corruption while consolidating the PLA's combat capability, military experts said. The closure of the PLA's businesses would focus all of its concentration on honing combat readiness, he said. On Saturday, the PLA and the Armed Police Force selected 17 units to be the first to close their commercial activities such as housing rentals, medical services and hospitality. The move came after the death of Wei Zexi, a young university student who received experimental cancer treatment at a military hospital in Beijing, triggering a huge public outcry. General Zhao Keshi, head of the Central Military Commission's Logistical Support Department, said on Saturday that the chosen units are tasked with exploring effective ways to shut down businesses. In March, the Central Military Commission ordered the PLA and the APF to end all commercial activities within three years. Gong said commercial activities usually exist in military hospitals, performance groups and publishing houses, major targets of the ongoing troop cuts announced by President Xi Jinping in September.
Armed Police Force officers help evacuate stranded local people in the wake of a massive landslide which trapped more than 40 people in Sanming, Fujian province, on Sunday.
The landslide occurred at about 5am on Sunday in Sanming, central Fujian, when 100,000 cubic meters of rocks and mud flowed downhill, burying a station office and the construction workers' dormitory at the site, according to Xinhua report.
A team that includes about 100 firefighters and professional rescuers, 60 medical personnel and more than 300 local officials and residents has been mobilized, and rescue and detection equipment is being used, local authorities said on Sunday afternoon. After the accident, President Xi Jinping urged local governments and departments to make all-out efforts to search for the buried and missing people, as well as requiring proper treatment for the injured and condolences for relatives.
Premier Li Keqiang issued written instructions that called for strengthening monitoring and safety checks against hidden perils in surrounding areas to prevent secondary disasters. The Ministry of Land and Resources dispatched a work team, joined by specialists from the State Flood Control and Drought Relief Headquarters, to Fujian to lead and instruct the rescue work. However, the continuing downpour, instability of mountain terrain and boulder obstacles are causing problems for the rescue efforts, said Guo Weihong, commissar of a municipal firefighting troop working on the site.
According to the CCTV report, an 86-member team from a local garrison of the armed forces, with heavy equipment, and two expert rescue crews from Beijing and nearby Anhui province were on their way to the site Sunday evening.
The heavy downpours, which unleashed 191.6 millimeters of rain in 24 hours starting on Saturday, contributed to the landslide, according to local officials. Heavy rain will continue to sweep South China in the next two days, the National Meteorological Center forecast on Sunday, saying torrential rain will hit the provinces of Guizhou, Hunan, Jiangxi, Fujian and Zhejiang as well as Guangxi Zhuang autonomous region. Parts of those regions were to see thunderstorms or hail from Sunday to Monday morning while the rain was to spread southward without signs of relenting, the center said.
Meteorologists warned the public to stay away from mountainous areas and river valleys as floods, mudslides and rock flows are possible. Chen Zhongwei, 60, the recently retired director of the executive department of stomatology (oral health) of Guangdong General Hospital, was attacked at home on Thursday by a patient he had treated 25 years ago.
The 47-year-old suspect surnamed Liu followed Chen home, attacked him and then committed suicide by jumping off a balcony at Chen's home, according to the police. Chen's colleagues told Beijing Times that the assailant stabbed the doctor more than 30 times.
In April, the attacker had stopped Chen at the entrance to the residential compound for the hospital's staff, demanding compensation for tooth discoloration after surgery Chen had conducted 25 years ago, according to a statement by the hospital. The provincial commission of health and family planning issued an urgent notice on Friday to strengthen security at hospitals and surrounding areas, especially at living quarters. The commission is requiring hospitals to immediately go through their lists of medical disputes and make a timely report to local health authorities and police of those in which complainants may have demonstrated an inclination toward attacking doctors. Hundreds of people spontaneously gathered at a plaza near Guangdong General Hospital on Saturday night to mourn Chen with candles and flowers.
A student pursuing a doctoral degree in clinical medicine who declined to give her name said the incident did make her worry about personal safety, though she said she is still passionate about working as a doctor to help those in need.
Take a look around any college lecture hall or company boardroom in China today and you'll see far more women than you would have 25 years ago.
Despite a growing number of Chinese women studying science disciplines at all academic levels, relatively few are actually going on to have careers in the field, let alone heading up major government-funded projects. Insiders say female scientists are still hindered by social and cultural factors that women in other fields have largely been able to overcome, with the biggest hurdles undoubtedly related to starting a family. This can in part be attributed to the fact that postgraduate degree holders don't start their career until their late 20s, which is about the time most Chinese women have their first child (the average age was 28 in the 2010 national census).
Funding for scientific research is often time-sensitive, so losing a team member can be a major blow if it delays a project.
Li, who was elected to the Chinese Academy of Sciences in December, has juggled her acclaimed scientific career with being a doting mother, but it has not been easy.
She says this is not because women are less competent or qualified, but because they tend to be more easily affected by social factors than men. The situation of potential discrimination could be further compounded by the government's decision to ease its decadeslong family planning policy and allow all couples to have two children, Li suggests. Li Na, an assistant professor of electrical engineering and applied mathematics at Harvard University, says Chinese women in many professions face a similar dilemma. She proposes that the authorities cut maternity leave to three months, as well as make it easier for certain parents to use childcare services by offering subsidies.
In October, the South African Academy of Science released a report on a survey of 69 national science academies - believed to be the first of its kind - that found only 12 percent of all members are women. Jin Feng, a researcher with the Shanghai Engineering Center for Microsatellites, says of the 70 people in her department, 20 are women. Yet the 32-year-old, who is a specialist in electromagnetic fields and microwave technology, says things have definitely improved over the years. She cites stories heard from female colleagues around in the 1970s and 1980s who told her that, back then, research facilities lacked even basic amenities for the few women there were.
As a result, women were usually not given senior posts that required a lot of traveling, as they were unable to share accommodation with men, which was inconvenient and ultimately pushed up costs. Most facilities have been updated to make it easier for female scientists, but Jin says some outdated attitudes have lingered. Women have proved they have the brains for any task: they have outnumbered men at China's universities since 2009 and at its graduate schools since 2010, according to data from the Education Ministry. Once almost entirely focused on the liberal arts, such as languages, in the early 2000s female students began to major in male-dominated fields like business administration, sciences, engineering and technology.
Today, women account for roughly 40 percent of the 70 million or so sci-tech workers in China, according to the China Women's Association for Science and Technology. However, compared with the business world, women in science still have a way to go to catch up with their male counterparts.
According to the 2016 survey of Chinese mainland companies by Grant Thornton, the multinational accounting firm, 30 percent of all senior executives are female, higher than the global average (24 percent). Academic studies suggest this could be down to women being given extra credit when they show leadership skills.
For one study, Klodiana Lanaj at the University of Florida's Warrington College of Business Administration and John R. The results proved a countervailing bias, showing that when women exhibited good organization, coordination and problem-solving skills they were rated higher than men who demonstrated the exact same qualities. Li at Tsinghua University argues, however, that such a trend has yet to reach the world of science. Behind the graceful demeanor of this award-winning scientist is someone who is recognized as one of the fiercest warriors in the laboratory. Chen, a professor at the Harbin Veterinary Research Institute in northeastern China, has had some high-profile victories.
In 2013, after the outbreak of H7N9, a deadly strain of avian flu, her team collected more than 1,000 samples from markets, water sources and poultry farms around Shanghai.
In March Chen was among the five winners of L'Oreal-UNESCO For Women in Science Award this year for "her outstanding research into the biology of the flu virus, leading to the development and use of an effective vaccine".
The award is given to the world's most influential female scientists and carries with it a $100,000 grant for each laureate. Earlier, she was also named among the "top 10 scientists who matter" by Nature magazine for her cutting-edge research in animal virology.
Her research team has now established a "complete bird flu vaccine development platform" that will make it easier to control any new strains, she says.
Chen, who heads China's National Avian Reference Laboratory, is also known for her experiments to engineer hybrid flu viruses, such as by mixing genes from the H5N1 and H1N1 strains to prove that mutations can spread through the air between guinea pigs. Since 2004, about 140 billion doses of flu vaccine have been given to poultry in China, as well as several other countries, she says. Elizabeth Blackburn, joint winner of the 2009 Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine and head of this year's For Women in Science Award jury, says Chen's achievements are an example of "science with the greatest quality and greatest importance" because "her research prevents epidemics". Jean-Paul Agon, CEO of L'Oreal, also spoke highly of Chen and her peers at the award ceremony in March. After such plaudits, it is strange to hear Chen say she was originally hesitant to enter the field of veterinary medicine - largely because a neighbor in her childhood home in the northwestern province of Gansu had told her "a veterinarian's main job is to castrate animals". Outside the laboratory, she is also a wife and mother of a son, although her time at home is limited. However, we can see that in leading positions, such as at the national academy level, only 5 percent are women. For a long time people tended to think females were not fit for scientific research because they are usually emotional and subjective, which does not suit the requirements for research.
An expert on feminist science history, Margaret Rossiter, said that the perception of female scientists, which is rooted in the 19th century, is paradoxical because scientists are assumed to be rational, serious, non-individual, unemotional and competitive, while women are considered to be the exact opposite. Becoming a scientist is masculine, so women in science face contradictory choices: Being a true woman means she is not scientific, and being a scientist means she is not female, so they have to make adjustments between these contradictory roles.
In this view, there is a conflict between females and science, so the number of female scientists in China and their development can show the progress in our society and culture, as well as help us better analyze the situation of gender equality.
In modern science, there are still disagreements over whether there are differences in the brains of men and women.
Even though there are differences, we cannot say these will bring advantages or disadvantages. Moreover, the great achievements of women such as Nobel laureate Tu Youyou have made society realize that female intelligence and their capabilities in scientific research are no less than those of a man. On the one hand, people are recognizing that there are few, if any, differences between the genders as the social culture develops. What is needed is to break down these invisible gender identifications in occupation; for example, nurses and secretaries are feminine positions, while architects and leaders are more masculine. Premier Li Keqiang checks employment data on Friday at the Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security in Beijing. Premier Li Keqiang vowed on Friday that the government will provide opportunities for steady employment to college graduates and migrant workers, even though the country is undergoing economic restructuring.
He made the remark while visiting the Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security as part of efforts to review the nation's employment situation.
The premier said employment opportunities must focus on key groups - college graduates and migrant workers - by helping them with training and other supportive policies. A record 7.65 million college students and about 5 million vocational school students will graduate this year, so more than 12 million young people will need to find jobs.
Migrant workers should learn new skills to work in the service sector or start their own businesses in their hometowns, Zheng said. He suggested that the government work out more favorable policies to create job opportunities in small cities or townships, where migrant workers can settle down with affordable housing and education for their children. Zheng also said universities should provide students with proper training that caters to market demands and should also find more ways to help graduates. China's top price regulator will soon launch "large-scale and systematic" anti-trust investigations into drug companies, both foreign and domestic, after it recently summoned them to collect data and information, a source close to the regulator said on Friday.
The National Development and Reform Commission may require more drug companies to provide information after Pfizer, a US pharmaceutical company, and a number of distribution companies and medical device manufacturers were summoned, according to the source, who requested anonymity due to lack of authorization to speak on the matter.
The commission, which is in charge of China's anti-trust affairs, is collecting evidence to see whether these companies might have violated regulations regarding competition, according to the source.
A spokesman for a foreign drug-making company, who declined to be identified, said the move led by the commission is "regular work" and that the company will work with the commission, if necessary.
The commission has prepared for a long time for the current move, which is intended to improve order in the drug market, the source said. As China has sought to improve its public healthcare system and make its medical products and services more affordable, the world's largest pharmaceutical companies and local competitors have felt pressure that has triggered a slowdown in sales growth, Bloomberg reported on Friday.
But analysts said China should put in place a more transparent and market-oriented pricing plan as the government emphasizes lowering drug prices and improving the public health system. Premier Li Keqiang said during an executive meeting of the State Council last month that healthcare reform has entered a crucial stage, with reducing drug prices listed among key tasks. Li stressed the importance of establishing a drug price tracing system to improve drug management, ensure the quality of drugs and make prices transparent. Early in January, the NDRC imposed total fines of 4 million yuan ($616,000) on five domestic pharmaceutical companies for acting in collusion to fix the prices of a common drug. The NDRC first levied fines on the pharmaceutical industry in 2011, when two companies were ordered to pay a total of 7 million yuan in fines. Troops of the South China Sea Fleet of the People's Liberation Army Navy conduct a drill on waters off the Xisha Islands on Thursday. The South China Sea arbitration case brought by the Philippines is nothing but a ruse in the guise of law, and China will neither accept nor acknowledge the forthcoming ruling, said Ouyang Yujing, head of the Foreign Ministry's Department of Boundary and Ocean Affairs. He said on Friday the arbitration case is ultimately about sovereignty and disputes over maritime delimitation, and the Philippines filed the case to try to distort the fact that it has illegally occupied China's territory.
The issue of sovereignty doesn't fall under the auspices of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, he said. China, in accordance with the convention, has declared that it doesn't accept compulsory dispute settlement procedures concerning maritime delimitation. Foreign Ministry spokesman Hong Lei made similar comments on Friday, saying that any expectations of forcing China to concede through arbitration are a "fantasy".
Fu Kuncheng, dean of the South China Sea Institute of Xiamen University, said the Philippines' move "will turn a good mechanism of solving disputes into one that creates disputes". He said territorial disputes will get further complicated through compulsory legal procedures. Ouyang reiterated that three international treaties - signed in 1898, 1900 and 1930 - have made it clear that the territory of the Philippines lies east of 118 degrees longitude, while China's Nansha Islands and Huangyan Island lie west of the longitude.
In the 1970s, the Philippines began to expand its territory west of the longitudinal line, and it has illegally occupied eight islands and reefs of China's Nansha Islands, according to Ouyang. Hong rejected accusations that China's reclamation work has damaged the coral reef in the South China Sea. He said China is determined to protect the maritime environment during the construction work on the islands and has insisted on a green approach. He added that China's capacity to protect the ecological environment of the area will be greatly improved after construction is completed. This led long-term US expats Charlie Erickson, Jay Thornhill and Tyler McNew to develop Baopals, an English-language website that helps foreigners in China to navigate and buy goods on Alibaba platforms Taobao and Tmall.
With an investment of about 500,000 yuan ($77,000), which included their own personal savings together with financial help from friends, the trio set up Baopals in Shanghai in February. Baopals constantly updates the flow of goods from Alibaba's platforms and automatically translates the product information, including customer reviews, into English. The website also reorganizes products into different categories to facilitate the item search for non-Chinese speakers, and it has a bilingual customer support team to help with questions. To make the shopping experience even more convenient, Baopals accepts Alipay, WeChat Wallet and China UnionPay as payment methods and is working on integrating Visa, Mastercard and Paypal into the system.
In the past two months, the website has sold 7,000 products and shipped them to 40 cities in China. For every transaction on the platform, Baopals charges a service fee of 5 percent of the item price, plus 8 yuan per item type.
Because the website is still in early stages of development, the company expects to secure more funding in the coming months to improve technology. Similar to the general shopping trends on Taobao, the biggest categories on Baopals are women's clothing, electronics and household goods. Abby McBride, a US expat living in Shanghai and a regular user of the website, said her purchases have ranged from home decor to charcoal for her grill.
A denial of the 1992 Consensus principle that Taiwan and the mainland are both parts of one China would change cross-Strait relations and cause the collapse of the political mutual trust and process of dialogue between the two sides, experts say. Tsai Ing-wen, chairwoman of Taiwan's Democratic Progressive Party, will assume the island's leadership on May 20 and deliver her inaugural speech.
In a front-page commentary on Thursday, People's Daily, the flagship newspaper of the Communist Party of China, stressed that not adhering to the 1992 Consensus constitutes sabotage of the common political foundation for cross-Straits ties.
According to the commentary, the development of cross-Straits relations in the past two decades has proved that the relations have a bright future with the endorsement of the Consensus.
Li said the mainland has reiterated the importance of the Consensus and the serious consequences of not adhering to the principle.
But the island's new leader has been trying to skirt around the issue, said Ni Yongjie, deputy director of Shanghai's Taiwan Research Institute. Zhu Songling, director of the Institute of Cross-Straits Relations at Beijing Union University, said the mainland has been unequivocal and has warned that further development of cross-Straits relations would be set back by its denial.
The special administrative region's political heavyweights have condemned advocacy of "Hong Kong independence", saying it is unpopular with the public and has no future. Speaking on a radio program, National People's Congress Standing Committee member Rita Fan Hsu Lai-tai said on Thursday that the more people talk about "Hong Kong independence", the more the central government will be concerned about national security.
Fan said that before Hong Kong returned to the nation in 1997, people on the mainland spoke very highly of Hong Kong and its people.
She added that this is also why candidates for the chief executive must be loyal both to Hong Kong and the nation. Fan made the remarks before high-ranking central government official Zhang Dejiang, chairman of the National People's Congress Standing Committee, begins a three-day visit to Hong Kong on May 17.
Zhang is slated to deliver a keynote speech at a Belt and Road Initiative summit to be held in Wan Chai.
Fan said she expected Zhang to discuss a range of issues - including politics, the economy, the financial situation and people's livelihoods - in his speech.
Like Fan, ex-security secretary Ambrose Lee Siu-kwong has also warned that talk of "Hong Kong independence" threatens mutual trust between Hong Kong and the central government.
Lee said the public should condemn people advocating it because it can only lead to a dead end. Lee, who is a Hong Kong deputy to the NPC, said there is no political or legal warrant for "Hong Kong independence". Recently, some opposition parties tried to include words of self-determination into their manifestos.
Under the Basic Law and the "One Country, Two Systems" principle, Hong Kong enjoys a high degree of autonomy. Patients and their family members crowd the Second Hospital of Beijing Armed Police Corps for hospital officials to answer questions about their treatment on Friday. A hospital in Beijing that came under scrutiny after the death of a college student it treated with immunotherapy failed on Friday to respond to dozens of other patients who received similar treatment in the hospital. According to media reports, the Second Hospital of Beijing Armed Police Corps - which is under investigation following the death on April 12 of cancer patient Wei Zexi, 21 - had promised to give patients an explanation on Friday on issues such as whether the therapy was legal and if the department providing it was a subcontracted private company. However, the hospital opened a center on Friday in a grocery store near its gate for immunotherapy patients or their families to register and later receive a response from the hospital. The hospital came under public scrutiny after Wei, a student at Xidian University in Xi'an, Shaanxi province, died after receiving immunotherapy at the hospital. China's top health authority, the National Health and Family Planning Commission, reiterated on Thursday that such treatment has not been approved in China and thus is permissible only in research, not for commercial clinical use. Media exposed that the hospital had outsourced its biological treatment center to a for-profit company, which is also against regulations. On Friday, the gate of the hospital was crowded with angry immunotherapy patients treated at the hospital or patients' family members.
Liu said she has registered as waiting for an explanation - giving her name, ID number, the dates she received the immunotherapy and her phone number.
Liu, a waitress in Beijing, said she had the immunotherapy at the hospital in November after she was found to have a sexually transmitted disease, but after the first round of therapy, which lasted four days and cost about 50,000 yuan, her condition was unimproved. She later went to another public hospital, and doctors there told her the disease was not serious and should not receive such an intensive treatment. Liu said the doctor in charge of her treatment in November refused to answer her questions afterward and later could not be contacted. A man who only gave his surname as Qian, said he was angry to find the hospital gate heavily guarded in the past few days and that he could not go inside to ask for an explanation from the doctors who treated his mother in January for kidney cancer. As part of its revamped disciplinary reinforcement and anti-corruption system, central inspection teams are being sent to all main parts of the Chinese military.
After a training session on Tuesday and Wednesday, 10 teams of the Central Military Commission's newly appointed inspectors are assuming their posts in all CMC departments and theater commands. This will be the first time the top military authority has established a standing anti-corruption force that will be directly under its control within its units, PLA Daily reported, adding that this will help reshape the military's disciplinary inspection system.
The move was planned by President Xi Jinping, who is also the CMC chairman, and is aimed at purifying the People's Liberation Army, a source close to the matter said. The inspection teams directly reporting to the CMC will be more effective in improving the behavior of officers at major general level and above, he said. There are 15 departments under the CMC and five theater commands, which means each inspection team will oversee two departments or commands on average. It was not known whether these CMC departments and theater commands, which were formed in January at the height of the unprecedented military reform guided by Xi, have their own anti-graft bodies. The former top PLA departments - general staff, political, logistics and armaments - as well as seven former regional commands had their own disciplinary inspection commissions.
The training session for inspectors was held by the CMC Disciplinary Inspection Commission. General Xu Qiliang, vice-chairman of the CMC, asked inspectors to take advantage of the CMC's authority and the fact that they will be close to the units they supervise to fulfill their missions. Ren Jianming, director of the Clean Governance Research Center at Beihang University in Beijing, said that sending disciplinary inspection teams to CMC departments and regional commands is part of the country's reform of its anti-corruption system. He said it will take some time for people to see whether the measure will eliminate the roots of corruption within the military, suggesting the PLA should continue to explore ways to achieve this goal.
In February, the Chinese military set up a hotline and a mailbox for people to report corruption and other misconduct. In late November, Xi vowed to give more independence and authority to disciplinary inspectors and auditors when he presided over a Central Military Commission meeting that officially unveiled the ongoing PLA reform. Over the past three years, nearly 50 senior officers of the PLA and the Armed Police Force have been convicted or investigated for corruption allegations. Shanghai Disneyland will strive to ensure "safe and pleasing service of high quality" to its guests in China, the CEO of Walt Disney Co promised President Xi Jinping on Thursday.
Robert Iger made the remark while meeting with Xi in Beijing, just before the start of the park's trial operation on Saturday.
The project, the first Disney park on the Chinese mainland, was approved when Xi was working as Shanghai's Party chief in 2007. He said that as China-US cooperation has a solid foundation, "it is important for both sides to expand new areas of cooperation and carry on cooperation in greater depth". He also expressed his wish to see a bilateral investment treaty with the United States signed at an early date.
Based on stylistic comparisons such as striations inside body contours and the presentation of horns in twisted perspective, several Paleolithic art experts, including the first curator of the Chauvet Cave, Jean Clottes, have accredited the Portuguese friezes to the early Solutrean of about 20,000 years ago3.
In Portugal, the government did the opposite a€“ plunging ahead with a project destined to destroy the nationa€™s oldest cultural heritage by completing a 300-million-dollar dam whose reservoir will flood a valley packed with dozens of art sites spread over at least 17 kilometers. Yet construction continues - even on holidays - and the water is about to rise another hundred meters. A male ibex with his head shown in two positions, as if he were turning to watch the female behind him. As we drove up to a sentry box perched on the lip of a road into the vast, unnatural gashing of mountains at Foz CA?a, it was hard to tell if the young guard blocking us in a crisp red and gray uniform represented a well-heeled security service or an elite military unit - but it was plain that bluff and sweet talk wouldn't get us far.
The next time the car eased over the knuckles of a road crisscrossed by up-ended strata, past empty huts built just of stacked slabs, and jostled between overhanging and plunging cliffs until an avalanche of tailings from an old quarry almost blocked the path. Here was one of the places of grandeur where our ancestors had first grasped visions and then concretized them by hewing - and sometimes painting - images into rock panels.
As I pushed forward and the river grew shallower, turtles became so numerous that their stacks toppled like circus acts from the brinks of submerged cliffs.
As a draftsman, I could feel empathy for the beast flowing into the hands that had etched her. This first frieze stood at a fitting point, practically where the reservoir yielded to the original rapids and long pools of the virgin river.
Far away across the moonscape of rutted ramps, knots of men stood before tunnels as fleets of dump trucks, made so tiny by distance that they only gave away their magnitude by over-sized wheels, eased to the brink of platforms, and added avalanches to tailings.
Above us, the titanium-white cleanliness of the cement plant's towers stood in bold contrast to the devastation, like a phalanx of gigantic chess-rooks bunched for the kill.
According to press articles, the dam-builders had recognized him as the true discoverer of Portugal's first reported Paleolithic engravings, at nearby Mazouco, even though the doctoral student's mentor, Professor Vitor Oliviera Jorge, had stolen his thunder.7 They had given Rebanda a job as their obligatory salvage archaeologist when the new doctor somehow couldn't get a position on a faculty.
In return, all he'd had to do was wait till their concrete curtain had gone up and its reservoir had risen into a sea so voluminous and costly that its drainage would have been unthinkable. My goateed interlocutor smirked as he told me I could try looking for the doctor at the complex built for the previous dam, 15A kilometers downstream.
But I'd hit pay dirt: the fact that I might hear Rebanda's mea culpa was more than Ia€™d hoped for.
Sebastian elected to wait outside and embarked on Jules Verne's Journey to the Center of the Earth as I knocked at the locked door.
Still, I complimented her on her English, sympathized with them for having to put up with this hierarchical bother, and kept spinning innocuous questions, while she kept waiting for me to go. When Rebanda's secretary came out again, to see if she could get either me a€“ or her boss - to give up as the wait grew embarrassingly long, I asked her what the round silos with tipped roofs on the hills had been used for.
But the next time, after they had gotten used to my rounds, I stepped inside and admired a sequence of two eight-foot-tall maps full of pins. Something was wrong: in addition to the constellations of pins extending for 17 kilometers upstream from the construction site, there were dozens downstream, along the reservoir behind the dam just outside! Finally, so many hours had passed, and she'd informed the doctor so many times that I was still hanging around, that I was forced by the sheer need for new scenery to vary my route, and drifted through empty rooms. The only thing the reports agreed on was that Rebanda had somehow discovered the flooded portion of Canada do Inferno by the previous autumn22 a€“ asking the EDP to lower the Pocinho reservoir by just 3 meters in November 1994 so he could study the engravings.23 a€?They told me it was too expensive,a€? Rebanda had told the New York Times. So who had shot these photographs, which looked like they had been taken when the sites were dry vegetated hillsides instead of among the muck and bare banks below a fallen waterline? I realized that the photos of the dry sites might have been taken before the Pocinho Dam, which had flooded them, had even been completed a€“ over 12 years before!
UNESCO had suggested Clottes, who, in an uncanny convergence of good and bad karma, was taken on a whirlwind tour of the tip of the iceberg at Canada do Inferno, then immediately whisked to a press conference in Vila Nova do Foz CA?a on Dec 16th, 199428 a€“ just two days before the discovery of the Chauvet Cave that catapulted him, as its first interpreter and protector, from the summit of the French archaeological establishment to world fame. But Clottesa€™ judgement was mixed, confirming that the art could be dated on stylistic grounds to the early Solutrean or even late Gravettian of twenty to twenty-four thousand years ago while suggesting that flooding the valley might be the best way of protecting it, since Portugal was ill-equipped to protect such widely dispersed panels from vandals!29 a€?There is no easy solution,a€? he told a reporter. What the press forgot to emphasize with quite as much fervor was the fact that Clottes had prefaced his Solomonic verdict by saying, a€?Whatever happens, the engravings must be preserved and not be damaged.a€? Clottes might have felt that he could safely pass the buck because no art conservationist could honestly guarantee the engravingsa€™ fate once they were subjected to currents carrying abrasives, burial under the petrifying alluvia that accumulates behind dams,33 and the worlda€™s most destructive solvent a€“ water, which would dissolve pigments and destabilize rock that had proven its resistance to aerial conditions over tens of millennia. While chatting up the gaunt fellow traveller at the construction site, Ia€™d pretended to make small talk by asking engineering questions, including one about the depth of the sediment that had accumulated behind the Pocinho dam. The irony of it was that Clottesa€™ efforts to be honest without irritating his hosts had been the spark that the French diplomats had dreaded.
Despite the fact that the great prehistoriana€™s reputation would remain largely intact, and with good reason, in much of the rest of the world,34 the Portuguese intelligentsia began to shun him. A€ propos of CA?a, two Portuguese rock art researchers, who couldna€™t stomach Clottes after his press conference, ironically echoed him by telling me, confidentially, that flooding the engravings could still be a blessing since it would save them from graffiti and those boogeymen of archaeologistsa€™ dreams, prowling collectors. My guess is that he was so beleaguered by advisers that he was just trying to get out of an awkward situation as quickly, judiciously and diplomatically as possible. I mentioned to Rebanda that I had just attended the lecture on Chauvet, that I even had a videotape of it right there in my camera.
So it's true, I thought, drowning the site was Rebanda's solution to the problem of ownership of photographic rights.
But then, what about Rebanda's self-serving talk of photo credits, not to mention the engravings already submerged by the dam at the doorstep a€“ and his belief that the engravings were doomed to be flooded?
Strangely enough, I could again see it being both ways, since the roots of tragedy are self-deception and entwined motives. He must have realized that I was rooting for him to pull himself out of his tailspin, because suddenly he decided.
Upon leaving, Sebastian asked to check out the Pocinho dam, so I drove round an interchange into an empty parking lot with planters. As the sun slanted over the plateau into the wilderness of the CA?a valley, I decided to sneak into a side-valley to the north of our campsite that Rebanda's map had cluttered with pins. Then, after breaching a wall of rushes, we broke to the reservoir's edge - and were met by a horned skull stuck on a stake. Suddenly, I remembered what Rebanda had said about the engravings' association with witchcraft. Being obstinate (or perhaps because of the prehistoric setting), I started whittling stone, knapping a microlithic surgeon's kit, and then bent single-mindedly to my task - failing till I was disgusted with myself and worried for my victim (which I had bizarrely associated with Rebanda). This time there were two guards behind an overhanging military fence crested by barbed wire. The guard who beckoned us in was rearing a guard-dog puppy, which scampered around, tumbling over ledges and using its chin to lever itself over steps.
Our guide was a decent young man who couldn't help feeling uneasy blocking access to these bold masterpieces at the source of all our arts. Still, these guards were actually tame as the locals poured down to catch a glimpse of the animals through the fence. After he'd hastened to take up his time-clock again, I wandered if there might not be even more testimonials of man's attraction to this classical Eden with its islets and fords in the flowery river, and browsed through a plowed orchard, along a contour which I judged would have been the valley floor half a million years ago. We knew the next dawn would be our last, so we broke camp in blue light to explore the teeming side-valley beyond the first auroch. Not Portugal's - OURS - because this art is so old, despite its elegance, that we share the blood and genius of those distant ancestors who awoke to the universe, whether our cavalcade of ancestors migrated around the Old World or came across the Bering Straits 14,000 years ago. Footnotes have been added to the internet version of the article to provide historical perspective and more detail about sources than the versions that were published & distributed in 1995. 1 The three discoverers of the Chauvet Cave were Eliette Brunel Deschamps, Christian Hillaire, and Jean-Marie Chauvet. 2 The IPPAR announced the existence of the valleya€™s engravings on November 19, 1994 but a video was made of them in 1993. 10 Bahn 1995 for a re-capitulation of the same accusations against the IPPAR & Rebanda. 33 Bednarik & Jaffe have been the most outspoken spokesmen about delusions concerning the protective qualities of reservoirs a€“ which not only inundate art panels with water but deep alluvial deposits that make their later recovery dangerous and impractical. 34 Interestingly, a few years after this appeal was written, Clottes came under fierce attack and even ridicule by many representatives of the French intelligentsia, including some of the countrya€™s most prominent prehistorians, after he and David Lewis-Williams published a€?The Shamans of Prehistory: Trance and magic in the painted cavesa€? in 1996. As soon as their results indicating that the art might be only 3,000 to 6,500 years old (if not even younger) were announced a€“ which actually made the engravings even more astonishing, potentially rewriting the history of rock art or even making Portugal the last bastion of the Paleolithic tradition a€“ the most important Portuguese right-wing weekly screamed that the direct-dating results proved that stylistic daters like Clottes had perpetrated a a€?FRAUDa€? (O Independente, 7 July 1995).
It should also be noted that the individuals who participated in the debate were often somewhat unwittingly drawn into playing secondary or tertiary roles in a struggle between the Portuguese Ministry of Culture and Ministry of Industry.
40 In November 1995 - six months after this call-toa€“arms was published and circulated to Prehistoric Art Emergencya€™s volunteers (who Ia€™m glad to report included a young actor, Yann Montelle, who went on to earn a doctorate in prehistory) - a book edited by Jorge called a€?Dossier CA?aa€? appeared with 20 contributions by him or his wife. 44 After writing this article in May 1995, it occurred to me that I might have missed one of the main reasons for eliminating Rebanda from Portugala€™s archaeological milieu a€“ the fact that he was so effective at finding rock art that drew international attention, first to Mazouco, then to CA?a. 49 When I wrote the article, I assumed that the two young men were Rebandaa€™s subordinates and referred to them as a€?draftsmena€?. 50 After initially denigrating both the art and the idea of extracting it, the EDP later adopted the idea as one of its three strategies for overcoming opposition to the dam project.
The following information has been compiled to help spread the good news with the hope of placing more people onA the path to greater health, relaxation and happiness.
Many Chinese relics and remains have been found there, including the remains of temples, the article said.
It is expected to create 600 jobs and generate $2 .7 billion in economic activity for the area in a decade.


That turned out to be one of the advantages that helped Corpus Christi secure the TPCO project. It will take scrap steel and metal and turn it into 500,000 metric tons of seamless pipe each year.
Now, more than 60 percent of our business has shifted to searching for international candidates for Chinese employers," said Xiao Lirong, director for Beijing and Shanghai at Spring Professional. State companies have traditionally relied on government agencies to introduce overseas talent. Now, Chinese companies increasingly need technical experts," Parkinson said, adding that this business will continue to grow. Last year alone, China manufactured 379,000 such vehicles, a fourfold increase year-on-year, which has demonstrated the shortage of overseas talent.
They fear that if they stop working, they will become isolated from a dynamic society and lose their career prospects," Wang said.
It is not just about maternity leave - a female employee might only get back to work three to five years after having her first child. Chinese embassies and consulates should improve their service, and companies should prepare themselves with emergency plans, so that they won't be caught off guard," he said.
I added that to illustrate a point about Chinese internet search giant Baidu and its connection to the death of 21-year-old student Wei Zexi, who had a rare form of cancer for which he desperately sought a cure.
Even an old-fashioned newspaper charges more for an advertisement on its front page than for Page 20. It might be helpful for China to clarify how its own strict laws apply to online search results. During President Xi Jinping's visit to People's Daily in February, he sent greetings for the Lantern Festival through its micro blog, WeChat accounts and app for portable devices.
The corruption case of Gu Junshan and those of other senior officers were closely connected to their involvement in businesses," said Senior Colonel Gong Fangbin, a political education researcher at PLA National Defense University, referring to Gu, former deputy head of the PLA's logistics authority, imprisoned in a embezzlement and bribery case. It told units to stop signing new contracts and to negotiate with civilian clients to try to cancel existing ones.
We are clearing the road to bring in more rescue forces while searching the site," he was quoted as saying by China Central Television on Sunday afternoon.
Plus, in China, employers are responsible for covering maternity pay, not social insurance, and there may not be enough surplus funds to hire a temporary replacement. According to estimates by Wang Zhizhen, a biophysicist and a fellow member of the CAS, women account for only 8 to 10 percent of China's science professors, and just 5 percent of principal investigators leading national-level research projects. This compares with 10 percent in Europe and the United States, although both have much smaller populations. Meanwhile, only 16 percent of enterprises did not have women in their top management layer, down from 25 percent a year earlier. Hollenbeck at Michigan State University's Eli Broad College of Business recruited 181 MBA students in the US, of which 28 percent were women.
The data not only proved the virus could spread from birds to humans, but was also used to create a vaccine that has prevented countless infections worldwide.
It means a lot," Chen told China Central Television, the state broadcaster, shortly after accepting her prize at a ceremony in Paris.
This work demonstrated the threats posed by emerging strains and led to her developing two new vaccines to prevent potential epidemics. For the past few years the ratio of women in the scientific research field generally has been increasing steadily. Scientific operation mechanisms were also under male authority for a long time, and even today women hold fewer than 10 percent of the top positions in the science world.
The increase in women in the field of scientific research, as well as the low number in leading positions, to some extent show China's social culture. On the other, in terms of long-term career development, the glass ceiling is still obviously there.
On the road to gender equality, we not only have to break through stereotypes, but also the outdated ideas of gender-specific occupations.
One of the major advantages of the website is being able to use WeChat Wallet, since Alibaba accepts only Alipay, she added. And without it, the peaceful development of the relations would be off course and could founder, it said. But without the Consensus, the status quo would not exist," he said, adding that Tsai could use the opportunity on May 20 to explicitly endorse the Consensus. However, the agitation for "Hong Kong independence" has disgusted many mainland compatriots, said Fan.
Fan, however, called the contention of self-determination for Hong Kong just another way of advocating for "Hong Kong independence". But it is impossible that the autonomy also covers national defense and foreign affairs, Fan said, adding that the fact Hong Kong is a part of China will remain unchanged after 2047.
Such treatments employ biological techniques to help the patient's immune system fight the illness.
His parents said they spent more than 200,000 yuan (about $31,000) for what the hospital called DC-CIK immunotherapy. Senior officials from the Communist Party of China Central Commission for Discipline Inspection were invited to share their experience during the training.
They included Guo Boxiong and Xu Caihou, both former vice-chairmen of the Central Military Commission.
It is a joint investment by Walt Disney Co and Shanghai Shendi Group Co, and revenue will be shared. I am particularly a supporter of the bilateral investment treaty." Jia Xiudong, a research fellow with the China Institute of International Studies, said the park is an example of win-win cooperation between the two nations. Not only were frescoes of rhinos, horses and lions over 30,000 years old found in a cave in the Ardeche on Dec. Although theya€™re probably right, ita€™s worth noting that these same specialists used similar criteria to ascribe the animals of Chauvet to the same period - until carbon 14 results pushed their age back over 10,000 years, shattering the notion that prehistoric art had evolved linearly, like technologies.
In France, the Ministry of Culture placed its new treasure under the most draconian protection, despite the fact that the country already has the lion's share of Paleolithic art. Standing right in front of some of the most spectacular engravings, the Secretary of State for Culture dismissed them as being nothing more than a€?childrena€™s doodlesa€? a€“ whereupon the students from Foz CA?aa€™s high school turned the official into a laughing-stock by presenting him with a schist slab covered with their own scribblings4. It's now or never, the author of the following article decided in April 1995, as he set out to evaluate the engravings, find out the truth, and propose solutions. My 13-year old son and I had flown to Porto in Portugal and driven far up the Douro valley into the northeastern mountains, prepared to maneuver around obstructions whether by negotiation or hiking through the back door. Still, here was our first encounter with the powers that be, so I took this opportunity to probe, and get a first step up the hierarchical ladder. So I explained how Sebastian and I had come so far to see the Paleolithic glories that Portugal would be displaying with pride, spoke of credentials, and placed us (and our pen) in his hands. Still, we had our bearings, and drove off into the late afternoon to penetrate the heart of the forbidden zone. We were getting closer, very close now, and could spy loops of a trail among the folds of a distant ridge. And here too was the arena where one of the greatest feuds between discoverers and custodians of the past had exploded since the conflict between Othniel Marsh and Edward Drinker Cope over the fossils of extinct giants in Sioux territory during Custer's battles.
With swifts swirling in up-drafts around our heads, we scrambled and picked our way among sheer precipices and ledges. Its tight horseshoe of cliffs and rubble made the perfect hiding place for our car and tent from the gray guards roaming the surrounding crests with binoculars. Sebastian snuggled tighter into his sleeping bag, so I set out to reconnoiter alone, systematically working quadrants and contours between our quarry at Fariseu and Piscos brook.
Somewhere among the jumble of a thousand rock faces would be an ancient image - perhaps masked by lichen or so faint one had to trace its parts before seeing it whole. The numbed waters suddenly spangled upstream with glitter and so many flowery white tresses of water plants that the currents looked like sudsy pastures. After all the noisy demonstrations against the dam in Lisbon, how were they to know how much clout a nosy prehistorian might have? Whatever was going to happen to him afterwards in the backwater of Portuguese archaeology had surely been inconsequential, since experience proved that nobody made much fuss over sites that were out-of-sight and out-of-mind - especially with archaeologists beholding to dam-builders and political appointees for access and records. According to the insinuations, he could have continued his documentation right up to the headwaters as his masters worked their way upstream step by step. I sensed that this crowd felt their doctor deserved to be the one to tell fellow archaeologists that they might as well ask to visit Atlantis.
Sure enough, there was the 12 year-old Pocinho dam sweeping the valley with a clean curtain.14 But the silos of this former construction site's cement plant were speckled with rust, the ranks of its offices and dormitories were deserted and almost every window was broken. Fortunately, Sebastian was becoming ever more engrossed in Verne's book, spelunking towards the planet's core, so I began to gravitate down halls for exercise and companionship, coming to the door of the room where the secretary was braiding the blind's cord while two laconic draftsmen labored over tracings of horses, ibexes and aurochs.
It has been insinuated that Rebanda probably discovered Rock 1 at Canada do Inferno as early as November 1991.18 In Dec. So, quixotically, he had proposed building a dry-dock around the outcropping, and, failing that, underwater exploration. If so, the power utility may have known of incredibly rich sites years before the first blueprint for the new dam! Clottes was the worlda€™s reigning prehistorian a€“ the man who had risen to the pinnacle of the French archaeological establishment and held the only keys to the holy grail of art caves - the unbelievably strong and ancient Grotte Chauvet.
After inspecting the 15% of the art that remained above water at the site in the rising dama€™s shadow, because the EDP had hardly felt it necessary to lower the water for the visit of the foreigner sent by the now antagonistic IPPAR, Clottes stepped before a highly polarized press corps. The dam-builders and their government backers felt vindicated while much of Portuguese public was crestfallen or furious.
The dam had become a poisonous political issue in a national election with the President and his fellow Socialists attacking the center-right Prime Minister for its willingness to sacrifice both the nationa€™s patrimony and vineyards to a flaky building scheme. As if the owners of villas built around the new lake would really allow it to be drained 100 meters to its bottom - where almost all of the known panels would soon be drowned a€“ once every decade! Suddenly, the Portuguese public felt that the dam-builders were not only destroying the nationa€™s most ancient claim to world grandeur and civilization, but that they were in league with a man who would never have been so cavalier with Paleolithic masterpieces in his own country! When I later asked Portuguese archaeologists if they were going to attend an up-coming conference organized by Clottes, they recoiled. First, because Clottesa€™ retinue of hosts, diplomats and reporters was rushing him and putting him in a bind a€“ even if his stature, pride, and role as UNESCOa€™s expert on rock art had led him into it. They even echoed his faith in getting dam operators to regularly empty the vast lake a€“ despite the glaring evidence of the EDPa€™s behavior at CA?a itself.
No sooner had Clottes triggered a public outcry, than he began to explain away his tepid defense of the CA?aa€™s importance by saying that he had not been shown enough art to form a true idea of the valleya€™s richness.35 But the truth is, he was shown Rebandaa€™s trove of drawings from submerged sections and sites upstream36 and could have been more demanding. After all it was a lot of money, the government was inflexible, the controversy had become a campaign issue a€“ which meant that his advice would seem like foreign meddling - and the elections were still far off.
When, in fact, the long-term rights for the cave in France would belong to its Ministry of Culture a€“ which was already attacking its discoverer, Chauvet, for the pittance hea€™d received for his pictures.
But I could hardly hold my tongue: why on earth had he invited people from this caste of academics back into his life - and the valley - when at least one of them had apparently abused him? The picture was compelling: SimAµes and her husband angelically insisting that the world must be told, while the hireling screamed demonically over the fire, accusing university archaeologists of trying to hog the credit yet again. If Rebanda had known SimAµes and Jaffe were going to paint him into a corner, wouldn't he have raced for the exit? Both Rebanda and SimAµes de Abreu could have been traitors and saviors at once, and as long as I was with this archaeologist, I felt bound to encourage the savior in him. It must have seemed like an insult to him after all his efforts, so with an anarchic gesture, he announced, what the hell, he'd photocopy their fax when it came, so we could enter a second. Huge black derricks hulked atop the dam beside a row of gate-lifting pistons that looked like Big Berthas.
We bagged the warning or omen, caught and released a giant water beetle - the kind that injects deliquescing enzymes into living frogs, then sucks out their juice - and worked our way along what was actually the upper tier of a disappearing cliff. When art panels are located in the CA?aa€™s side valleys, they are apparently concentrated on northern slopes. I was a willing guide as we skewered corn kernels on hooks, lashed lines around a log and threw the lethal leashes into the dark.
They were a hundred yards apart, making perpetual rounds as they kept time clocks happy by cranking them every few paces with keys chained to the fence. It was probably his first job after military service, but he was intelligent enough to realize that hea€™d been hired as a pawn in a vast conspiracy to keep Portugal's greatest cultural wonders out of sight and out of mind, till they could be obliterated. One, because any plan to remove the friezes not only meant assigning a value to them, but keeping the controversy alive.
The mountainous dirt road forked, meandered and even skirted an imposing castle,51 but several classes of children were making the long dusty pilgrimage on foot while carloads of adults in their Sunday best made the excursion to see the only engravings to have escaped the censors - either because the site at Penascosa was so far from Lima Montiero's spyglass or because the valley was gentler here and had always been farmed.
I hadn't passed the first olive tree when I happened upon a well-knapped hand-axe, and then another!
On-line commentary entitled a€?Some corrections about the CA?a petroglyphsa€? in TRACCE no.
While Chauveta€™s name was given to the cave itself, the names of his co-discoverers were given to two of its large chambers. Mila SimAµes de Abreu and Ludwig Jaffe were the founders of the APAAR (AssociaA§ao Portuguesa de Arte e Arqueologia Rupestre), which has been a member of IFRAO (International Federation of Rock Art Organisations) since Sept.
In an on-line commentary, Jaffe denounced what he perceived as a continuation of the scandal under new management: a€?In December 1994 IPPAR passed the responsibility for the rock art in the Coa valley to Mario Varela Gomes and Antonio Martinho Baptista. Their critics often subscribe to the doctrine that modern ethnographic evidence cannot be used to interpret ancient cultures.
Although Bednarik was one of the earliest crusaders for CA?a - calling for the EDP to stop building the dam in Nov. The leftist press and Portuguese archaeological milieu reacted with just as much reflection, ignoring both Bednarika€™s qualifiers and his pioneering role in organizing the world campaign to fight for the whole valleya€™s salvation (see Dossier CA?a p. Of the 66 contributions written by individuals, not one is by Nelson Rebanda, whose ghost a€“ to anyone interested in intellectual property a€“ haunts every line.
After the CA?a scandal served its purpose as an electoral issue that helped the Socialists to win power, the new government kept its campaign promise by protecting the CA?a Valley but used the goodwill engendered by the decision to blunt criticism while flooding other huge assemblages of rock art.
3; Catherine Vincent, writing in Le Monde on March 11, 1995, goes into much more detail about one particular vineyard, Ervamoira, that would have been lost, along with its exceptional Port wine. The first was to prove that the engravings were not Paleolithic a€“ an effort that entrapped researchers who wanted to apply experimental direct-dating techniques.
Area economic development officials said they hope the facility will bring in additional Chinese and foreign investment to the area. Ground breaking for the facility, which is located in the town of Gregory outside of Corpus Christi, occurred in 2011. Training programs were set up at the nearby Del Mar Community College and the Craft Training Center for the Coastal Bend.
Other concerns included career risks, the pain of childbirth and little faith in their marriages.
I looked at the menu and talked to the cook, who promised he could prepare the world's ultimate burrito. That triggered a frenzy of innuendo in the media recently, implying that Wei's death was somehow Baidu's fault. He found the clinic in a Baidu search, but then he consulted a doctor who persuaded him to undergo an experimental procedure. After that, single women, especially those with advanced degrees and higher incomes, can struggle to find partners. They were organized into teams of five, including at least one woman, and after six weeks were asked to rate each other in terms of leadership.
At present, there are more than 20 million female scientists, accounting for about 40 percent of the total, which represents huge progress. The reason I pay special attention to the field of scientific research is because it offers a typical example of how cultural development can influence individuals and groups. With this in mind, the term "female scientists" ran counter to the masculinity of science and the male authority system.
In fact, more and more research proves that the differences between gender are fewer than we thought.
The gender ratio in China's universities and graduate schools is quite balanced, which has helped increase the number of female scientific researchers.
18th1, but Europea€™s biggest open-air gallery of Paleolithic animals was reported just a month earlier in the CA?a Valley of northeastern Portugal2. Regardless of how old the CA?aa€™s art turns out to be, it is unique in its richness above ground and astonishing in its illustrations of movement - with animals tossing their heads with the same stop-action dynamism found at Chauvet and only millennia later in photography and Futurist painting. The Chauvet Cavea€™s prehistoric bestiary was proudly splashed across magazines around the world.
Soon, the guard turned into a regular lad, wrote down the chief engineer's name and pointed beyond the ramp-laced moonscape - into the wilderness. In this walled garden, the conflicting passions of archaeologists had exploded around a campfire, set a president and prime minister against each other, and cowed the emissaries of UNESCO. Lizards skidded into fissures, a rusty blade wedged in a nook beside a sliver of cliff garden spoke of an emigrant who had never returned, but the walls seemed barren.
Over and over again, the scene seemed set, the rock stretched, but its lines were just fractals. I yanked myself up to a platform less than a step wide and a ten-foot long cow - an auroch! By holding the animal's form and movement vividly in mind, the maker had poured himself into its body and experienced a power beyond abstraction, beyond even tool-making, to thrill to the new power of passing through the looking-glass into another being.
A stream, running pure as its springs over crisp cresses between alternating bull rushes and crags, almost made it to the river unaltered, but met it just below the threshold and sank into an estuary.
We had arrived at Pandemonium and would try to insinuate ourselves into an audience with the Chief Engineer himself. Only one was so spotless and redolent of perks, though, with its rolled lawn incongruous in the desert, that we knew right where to head among forking roads. I was hardly surprised when these well-fed pros passed the buck to the only gaunt and partially toothless fellow traveler among them. So they decided to play it safe by dumping me on their pet nemesis, the organizationa€™s own archaeological a€?hirelinga€?, Dr. He could have added to his hoard of exclusive photos and measurements, imposed interpretations, and generally lorded it over his peers - for who could have naysayed him with his treasures locked a hundred meters deep in so many great watery safes?10 And to think that all the dam-builders' pet archaeologist and his accommodating superiors at the Portuguese Institute for Architectural and Archaeological Heritage (IPPAR)11 in Lisbon - to whom Rebanda had reported his discoveries at least twice12 - had had to do to pull off this economically patriotic (not to say mutually beneficial) stunt was keep their mouths shut!
After having suffered at the hands of his mentor, Professor Jorge, why had Rebanda put himself at the mercy of two similar academics and representatives of an international body to boot - Mila SimAµes de Abreu and her archaeologist husband, Ludwig Jaffe, who represented the International Federation of Rock Art Organizations (IFRAO)?
At least such nuisances would keep him from getting up to more mischief by turning up new discoveries. But, finally, a secretary answered my summons and let me into a vestibule empty except for a display of postcard-sized photographs of some of the engravings, and a cartoon caricaturing the scandal - which I reckoned had been knowingly posted to co-opt criticism. I couldn't quite make out the man's features through the crack, but it was obvious he was gushing recriminations - and no wonder: the entire archaeological profession had ganged up on the pariah. We all knew I had crossed a threshold, but, after all, I had paid my dues, and in any case, I padded off to the foyer again. Yet they'd prattled to the press that they had found the art a year ago, and then more like two years ago, and now, word had it, a€?onlya€? three years ago25 - when it was always somehow too late to stop the process leading up to construction, which had only started in September a€™94.26 The gall!
Instantly, I whipped out paper and scribbled the fastest copy of the main map that my hand could draw.
After SimAµes de Abreu and Jaffe had unleashed the scandal by revealing the conspiracy to flood Europea€™s richest assemblage of open-air Paleolithic art, the IPPAR and Portuguese Ministry of Culture had scrambled to get their own expert witness a€“ and, in a further twist, had asked UNESCO to recommend an expert to challenge the power companya€™s growing efforts to prove the art wasna€™t Paleolithic but recent27 a€“ in which case, the EDP seemed to think that the public would drop the subject as being the relatively recent work of peasants drawing their cows. For all their heightened sensitivity to having CA?aa€™s fate evaluated by a foreigner, the Portuguese press viewed Clottes as a referee and expected a verdict. Then, as fate would have it, Clottes was back in the headlines within the week, announcing drastic measures to protect Francea€™s new crown jewel, Chauvet. And as if anyone could even find new art during the two weeks a lake might be emptied (every hundred years) while everything was coated with algae and grime!
Opposition editorialists had a field day with Clottesa€™ apparent hypocrisy and dismissiveness towards Portugal - and demonstrators flooded the streets. Two, because people are often driven to produce their greatest work and worst mistakes by similar drives.
Rebanda was even fooling himself on this score, I thought - after all, the Foz CA?a photographs would probably end up belonging to Portugala€™s own ministry or even the EDP. Scientists - like lawyers - ply an adversarial trade, but the chance to put Portugal into the archaeological heavens a€“ and to boost their own reputations with it - had given many researchers more ulterior motives than usual.
Personally, I couldn't see anybody bedding down for the night and traipsing out the next morning with people who had announced that they were going to expose him. In essence, my heart a€“ if not my mind - had taken his side for the moment; he was the underdog, on the verge of a nervous breakdown, and I was concerned that he might even attempt suicide. If I didn't mind coming back at 9 the next morning, he apologized, the approval should be there.
But basically the dam was a streamlined machine without much need for local intervention or maintenance.
My unequivocal certification of their global importance only made him uneasier, as he didn't know whether to feel flattered or upset. We peered into a dovecot, a squat white tower lined inside with empty compartments like a city after a plague. Suddenly, a deeply hammered auroch on the rock stood out boldly as a road sign - alerting us to an entire herd.
The geology, erosion, & silica skins protecting engravings all seem similar on both slopes, so I theorize that this positioning is not simply a taphonomic illusion created by the disappearance of engravings on the southern slopes. I wasn't expecting anything when I ambled down at dawn, but there it was: a big mound under the bank! From what I could tell, even his draftsmen had decided to take the day off 49, once they realized the coast was clear. By God, I thought, if the flooders don't save them, I hope the townspeople storm the valley! If the guards hadn't been under strict orders not to sell admissions, they'd have made a killing; but then any financial association with the art is anathema to the dammers: the next thing they knew, they'd have a revolt on their hands! And like the first guard, when he realized that I had somehow gotten authorization despite my evident opposition to the reservoir, he let out his pent-up indignation - for we were insiders. As we passed the threshold between the deadened depths and virgin current with its billowing water-foliage, we had to skirt and climb over a sheer wall blocking the side-valleya€™s entrance. The intertwined couple, spanning the length of a single real horse, was still necking in Eden after twenty millennia. Rock Art and the CA?a Valley Archaeological Park: A case study in the preservation of Portugal's prehistoric parietal heritage. Although it is true that one must be extremely circumspect about doing so, such evidence often opens new perspectives that have more in common with the subsistence systems of ancient cultures than does our own, and the two authors showed considerable originality and courage in exploring it. 1994 - most Portuguese archaeologists with access to the CA?a sites now shun him as thoroughly as they do Clottes and Rebanda.
539, for a resolution, written in defense of CA?a, by Bednarik, in a book filled with vitriole against him).
These retractions confirmed that some of ZilhA?oa€™s criticisms of the direct dating attempts were well founded, but dona€™t necessarily reflect on other matters raised in his disputes with Bednarik and Jaffe. In the English sections, Jorge generously credits numerous associates and generations of Portuguese prehistorians by full name, while studiously avoiding any mention of Rebanda except where it is unavoidable, and then only with his last name between brackets. The second was to make casts of panels for a museum a€“ which may have damaged some panels. Using a far infrared sauna can help strengthen the bodya€™s immune system by stimulating increased production of white blood cells by the bone marrow and killer T-cells by the thymus.A 2. While the paintings in the French cave, which became known as the Grotte Chauvet, often have engraved contours, the Portuguese menagerie may also have been painted, but, being outdoors, their pigments have usually weathered away. As shadows welled from the valley, we turned from the scarps and trundled downwards into the cleavage, till the road turned into a path to the water through a profusion of poppies.
Finally, I discerned a flock ambling down through dry brush, then a shirt flashed a white dot, and we converged within hailing distance on opposite banks.
Even ideal panels on either side of a fig tree bulging titanically from a small cave were barren.
A stand of poplar trees crackled like Chinese New Year with small birds, abundant as leaves.
It was a good thing we had his name, Lima Monteiro, because the Securitas guard on this side meant business. Our compact car slid in among Mercedes and I stepped into glare, drawing cool stares from fleshy faces.
My interlocutor explained that the Chief Engineer was powerless to help me, so he couldn't be bothered to give me an audience. Of course, the stories went, the honorable witnesses had refused to become accomplices and had immediately denounced the whole plot a€“ writing open letters to the Portuguese President, Vice President and Director of IPPAR - with carbon copies for the press.13 If only his employers had known that Rebanda was so naive! She announced that it was no use disturbing the doctor, who I could see through a jarred door talking to someone over the phone with peevish vehemence.
Finally, I suggested that she didn't need to keep me company while I waited for the good doctor to get off the phone. That's strange, I thought as I wandered off again, mulling over a mental photograph of the site distribution.
And here were others, even closer to the construction site, at "RA?go de Vide", which had been submerged by the same old dam!
Still, she caught me; whereupon I went on elaborating it, asking questions, and then padded back to the foyer again to continue my vigil. After all, the archaeologists and reporters had allowed the Tagus petrogylphs to be drowned with hardly a whimper. Not only did the contrast with his actions in Portugal now smack of a double standard, but there was a piquant irony. With stakes this high, both parties unleashed their opinion-making machines, making hash of Clottesa€™ carefully weighed words as quickly as theya€™d vilified Rebanda. Clottesa€™ words may have been earnest, but with stakes this high and politicized they were about as reasonable as Pontius Pilatea€™s attempts to keep the peace.
I prefer to think the latter, and that his only mistake was thinking that people on both sides were lucid and reflective enough to interpret his verdict correctly.
In Rebanda's place, I'd have calmed down and let the traitors fall to sleep, but then I'd have snuck away - trekking fast through the dark, picking myself up when I fell, but getting out - bloody knees and all - and calling that alarm first! Furthermore, I had no doubt - whatever pacts he'd struck - that he would make up for them if only approached constructively. After we'd faxed it, I was sorry to see him having to still recall and refax, as he nudged the request repeatedly through the unyielding bureaucracy. Sebastian and I scrambled and tacked among the carious cliffs, till there was nothing left but rock overhanging the water itself.
But a huge horse, leaning over the depths, was both more graceful and cryptic, for someone had wedged a rusty horseshoe into a crack between its hooves. No sooner had I chipped the thin device and steadily shoved each curve straight, than the hook slipped smoothly free. Only Rebanda's long-suffering secretary had to keep her post and occupied herself by taking up the relay of calling and faxing. These red and gray devices were not only customized to match the guards' uniforms, but showed off the latest in high-tech materials and molding. As we wound our way down towards the reservoir among towering red cliffs, he took quiet pride in pointing out the hidden elements of scattered engravings.
But then Piscos Brook ran between trees, pastures and cane-groves, with cliffs full of shelters and stone panels at each bend. La Pintura, The Official Newsletter of the American Rock Art Research Association (Member of IFRAO) Volume 21, Number 3, Winter.
In the same book, which Jorge compiled to record the campaign he was spear-heading to save CA?a a€“ a laudatory effort, if there ever was one, that made Jorge synonymous with yet another of Rebandaa€™s finds - Bednarik is repeatedly dismissed as a a€?charlatana€? (pp. Jaffe accused the trio, who had taken over responsibility for the archaeological resources of the valley, of endangering art panels and refusing to allow qualified foreign researchers or even Dr. Whatever the case may be, the problem of rock art conservation is still as far from resolution in Portugal as it is in most other places in the world.
Far infrared rays improve blood circulation, stimulate endorphins, lower lactic acid, kill certain bacteria and parasites, and burn calories. All that remains, where jagged outcroppings of schist jut from brushy slopes - exposing terminal facets perfect for murals - are hauntingly sinuous outlines of deer, horses, ibexes, and wild cattle called aurochs. The first flurry of press articles had mentioned that many of the engravings were already submerged by the cofferdam holding the river back for the more monstrous wall rising downstream from it. I sent greetings and the shepherd expostulated and gestured animatedly upstream towards towering slabs. For me, all of mankind's later accomplishments, all our later experience of good and evil only become possible after such art. The irrelevant exchange had sparked sympathy as we both waited - and waited, in similar irrelevance to someone too consumed to give us heed. I would have to go to Lisbon, and no, it wouldn't do any good for him to fax; he didn't have an iota of authority. Despite all the insinuations about Rebanda and IPPAR, they were actually the first to try blocking the philistines with the clout of an institution as important as UNESCO. About thirty years before, Francea€™s equivalent to the EDP had taken the entire Ardeche Gorge, where the Chauvet Cave had just been found, from its entrance at Sauze to a rainbow-huge, natural arch - Vallon Pont da€™Arc, next to Chauvet - by eminent domain, to build a dam.
These conscientious people know that theya€™re barely tolerated by the forces of Mammon - scraping crumbs from the tables of vast enterprises armed with dynamite and bulldozers - and make compacts all the time with them, telling themselves, for instance, that the alluvial strata that cement plants exploit are always too tumbled to contain intact Acheulian hearths. If only he'd announced the discovery, co-opted his employers, and splashed masterpieces across magazine covers while the art's existence was still fresh, he might have won honor, fame, a very small fortune (and maybe even kept his job).
Within weeks, local academics had begun signing their names to Rebandaa€™s discoveries, tracings, and interpretations while forgetting to cite him. I'd have been the one to announce the existence of the largest gathering of open-air Paleolithic engravings in Europe to the world.
Slate slabs, thoughtfully laid into a wall as steps, led down through a canopy of fig trees into a cavernous wallow between cliffs.
I woke Sebastian in time to see the beast lumber over the bank and glide away, and then it was high time we checked out our other line at the doctor's office. Noon passed as we still waited together like an old couple, talking about the doctor's misery, Australian rock art, translations; whatever. The guards stiffened as Sebastian and I had the gumption to breach a forbidden zone and stride blithely forward. There were so many warblers piping and whistling, there must have been a dozen species with overlapping territories.
Botha€? - Baptista and Gomes a€“ a€?were closely involved in the rationale to submerge the rock art (to 'protect it from vandals'); in fact, on 8 November Baptista spoke of how sedimentation behind dams should protect rock arta€? - my italics. After our departure, Bednarik and three other researchers (Alan Watchman from Canada, plus Fred Phillips and Ronald Dorn from the USA), who believed that they had found ways to date rock art directly, studied some of the CA?aa€™s engravings during separate visits.
1995 that was led by Mounir Bouchenaki, the IPPAR formed a scientific committee consisting of Antonio BeltrA?n, Emmanuel Anati and Jean Clottes, who came back for a second round. Proponents of hyperthermia, also known as fever therapy, maintain that using far infrared energy to therapeutically induce higher body temperatures helps fight infections and even cancer.
And so, forgive me, but in comparison to these ancient windows, cathedrals seem to have anti-climatic and overwrought power.
Except for the absence now of bigger species, this was how Solutreans had experienced the world - with whistling, mooing, barking, roaring and trumpeting not just on the Serengeti, but to the frozen north!
So much will go unrecorded because of all this fuss.a€? a€“ So, Rebanda is resigned to the inevitability of the flooding, I thought. If the dam had been built, a dozen known art caves would have been flooded or affected by rising water tables. So rather than condemn Clottes, perhaps the Portuguese should simply admit his diplomacy opened the debate, even if one might wish that hea€™d been a crusader. From Chauveta€™s pinnacle, its gatekeeper was probably right to dismiss the scratchings, which I too thought could have been the kneading of bears, but the contrast between the levels of encouragement was striking.
Although they granted him the discovery of Hella€™s Canyon (in footnotes), other sites that Rebanda had already noted were soon claimed by competitors as Rebanda was effectively silenced. And Vitor and his wife, Susanaa€? - was it my imagination or did her name stick in his craw?
Their stingy hypocrisy and philistinism revolted me: they wouldn't spend a penny on protecting such discoveries, but they'd drown the world up to its headwaters to keep driving Mercedes. Goldfinches sparked into the air, a crested hoopoo flashed orange and black, and the shaggy canes were a tumult of avian chatter. Jaffe was also the IFRAO representative of the SocietA  Cooperativa Archaeologica, Le Orme della€™Uomo, Italy (Bednarik 1994). But not before signing controversial non-disclosure agreements with the EDP, which was hoping that their techniques would yield dates so recent that they could be used to ridicule stylistic daters who had identified the engravings as Paleolithic (Baptista & Fernandes 2007, p. Their argument is supported by the human body itself, which radiates infrared energy for the benefits of warmth and tissue repair.A 3. Intermittent splashes smacked echoes off the walls, a frog croaked and some beast keened a cry we had never heard.
When I asked if they could intercede on our behalf, she said one had to apply in person, in Lisbon, and have connections.
In fact, paw prints indicated that we had missed cornering another feral dog or fox in its lair. Surgically, it was a nightmare: I'd have to pry its head out, keep its neck extended, wedge open its powerful beak and finally thrust the treble barbs down its throat, so as to carefully extract their burr, without snagging them again!
Finally, they agreed that one of them would walk parallel to us, down the fence-line, to let us in the distant gate. At our feet, frogs skipped like pebbles and painted turtles rowed earnestly in tangled water blossoms - all for the taking. Unless you and I and all of us together add our voices to those of the Portuguese citizenry trekking down for a last look, and reclaim what is OURS!
The story of the denunciation is from Bednarik (1994) and Simons in the New York Times (1994). But I know enough about chemistry to know that a chemical by itself may be poisonous but not poisonous when in a compound with other chemicals.
Even the Chauvet Cave, which was unknown, might have been threatened by the changing water table!
Unfortunately, Bednarik, who is one of the worlda€™s most encyclopedically informed, accomplished, and bold prehistorians, walked right into the trap.
Jorgea€™s utter dismissal of Bednarik was clearly motivated by the lattera€™s implicit condemnation of the way that Jorge had appropriated Rebandaa€™s earlier discovery at Mazouco, instigating Rebandaa€™s secrecy that was one component of the CA?a a€?cover-upa€? (Bednarik 1994, p. This is the heat you feel penetrate your skin when you stand in the sun and miss when you walk into the shade. Later, Bednarik spear-headed another campaign to save a Portuguese rock-art assemblage from inundation a€“ this time behind a dam in the Guadiana Valley - and noted that a€?None of this helps the rock art of the Guadiana, condemned to inundation under billions of tonnes of lake sediment as the reservoir silts up over the next 70 yearsa€? a€“ again, my italics. Do you think I'm such a fool as to invite the man who deprived me of the credit for my first discovery, to come see my greatest wonders if it wasn't because I needed all the allies I could get; if it wasn't because I even needed the universities to help save them.
Ironically, the mandarin in Porto would come out smelling like roses for his campaign while the roles of several well-meaning prehistorians, if I may insist upon the word, were simplified so as to make them better scapegoats.
When people do not receive adequate amounts of far infrared heat, they often can become ill or depressed.A 4.
First, because his dating system, which was based on determining the degree of micro-erosion undergone by a rock face, had been developed in Australia, where climate and geological conditions are different from Portugala€™s. Far infrared saunas are recognized by health practitioners worldwide as perhaps the most effective method of removing both chemical and heavy metal toxins from the body. Far infrared saunas are thought to be 7 times more effective at detoxifying heavy metals such as mercury, aluminium, and other environmental toxins than conventional heat or steam saunas. This odd statement flies in the face of Bednarika€™s consistent defense of both the CA?aa€™s art and other assemblages, suggesting that it was a ploy to get the EDP to allow them to test their methods. For many chronically ill patients as well as people who are well and wish to stay that way by reducing their toxic burden, the far infrared sauna is the detox method of choice.A 6. Even though both men concluded that their observations proved that the art was no older than the Neolithic, Bednarik did not repeat the notion, when announcing his results, that a relatively recent vintage diminished the arta€™s importance or the need to protect it a€“ quite the contrary. Bathing in a far infrared sauna in the early stages of a cold or flu has been known to stop the disease before symptoms occur.A 7.
Far infrared heat can penetrate into the skin about an inch and a half to two inches deep and can have therapeutic benefits, such as helping to dissolve fat deposits under the skin. Since toxins may be stored in the fat, the deep penetrating heat of a far infrared sauna can help eliminate them, especially toxins such as heavy metals and acidic compounds.A 8. The radiant heat of a far infrared sauna is efficient because it warms the sauna bather directly.
The body absorbs as much as 93 percent of the heat, causing perspiration and producing a vast array of health benefits.A 9. Far infrared saunas can help clear cellulite, the gel-like lumps of fat, water and debris trapped in pockets beneath the skin.
European beauty specialists routinely incorporate daily far infrared sauna baths in programs to reduce cellulite.A 10. Generally speaking, far infrared saunas are less expensive, easier to install, and require less maintenance than traditional saunas. They come in many sizes and are often quite portable, making them a great choice when limited space is available.A 11. But you should be aware that the story of Chicken Little is notA  a "fable character." While he did say "The sky is falling" quite a bit, this was only because he had difficulty making contact the his agent provocateur whose actual physical appearance had changed over the years. Far infrared radiant heat provides all the healthy benefits of natural sunlight without any of the dangerous effects of solar radiation.A 12. Far infrared saunas are more cleansing than conventional saunas because they are designed to generate more than two to three times the amount of perspiration. Unlike in traditional saunas where temperatures range from 140 to 220 degrees Fahrenheit (60 to 105 degrees Celsius), the temperatures of far infrared saunas typically range from 100 to 140 degrees Fahrenheit (38 to 60 degrees Celsius).A 14. This allows a person to perspire faster and to tolerate a longer period of time inside the sauna. Typical sessions in a far infrared sauna last 20 to 30 minutes and can be repeated to maximize the benefits.A 15. The video faculty includes Eric Hulsizer, a former Channel 8 cameramanA who photographed "Channel 8 On Your Side," and Lisa Inserra of Cox Media (the company that owns Valpack) who is active in producing television commercials for her company's clients.az?i»? In my program, I've studied drawing, camera operation, scripting, digital imaging, programming basics, copyright law, video editing, website design, sound production and editing. The lower heat range of far infrared saunas is safer for people with cardiovascular risk factors or fragile health because lower temperatures dona€™t dramatically elevate heart rate and blood pressure.A 16. One of myA professors says the program is the best of its kind in the Tampa Bay area and I think he's right.az?i»?i»? Please, please, put the word out to others so that this fine program will be better known. Far infrared saunas have been used to treat sprains, bursitis, rheumatism, muscle spasms, neuralgia and hemorrhoids.
It doesn't matter what your heritage is or whether you are still in high school or old enough for Medicare. The effects of toxin, chemical and pesticide poisoning can be greatly reduced by the far infrared saunaa€™s detoxification action.
People who work with chemicals, as well as home gardeners who frequently use fertilizers and pesticides, are advised to use far infrared saunas on a regular basis.A 18.
Far infrared radiant heat is a form of naturally occurring energy that heats objects by direct light conversion. Direct light conversion warms only the object and does not raise the temperature of the surrounding free air.A 19.
Petersburg Collede digital arts program is filled with both talented professors and students. Far infrared sauna use can help promote rebuilding of injured tissue by having a positive effect on the fibroblasts, the connective tissue cells necessary for the repair of injury.
It also can help increase growth of cells, DNA syntheses, and protein synthesis, all of which is necessary during tissue repair and regeneration.A 21.
In the electromagnetic spectrum, far infrared wavelengths measure between 5.6 and 1,000 microns. Wavelengths of between 6 and 14 microns are believed to be the most beneficial to humans and other living things on Earth.A  The human palm emits far infrared wavelengths of between 8 and 12 microns. The energy output from far infrared saunas so closely match the human bodya€™s radiant energy that nearly 93 percent of the saunaa€™s far infrared waves reach the skin.A 22.
Far infrared sauna therapy has helped people with cardiovascular conditions such as congestive heart failure and angina.
In your story on stadium horns, you called them vuvuzwelas, what is that funny looking symbol after the photo credits. It enhances endothelial nitric oxide, lowering blood pressure and improving cardiovascular function.A 23. The radiant heat of far infrared saunas has been shown to be especially beneficial to people with sports injuries, fibromyalgia, arthritis, and other chronic pain conditions.A 24. There are some definite advantages to using far infrared sauna thermal heaters, such as no high heat claustrophobic reaction and better air circulation.
Far infrared heaters heat the body, not the air, so a bather is more comfortable and cooler. Far infrared saunas require 90 percent less electrical energy than conventional saunas, and no plumbing is required for a far infrared sauna.A 26. A 20 to 30-minute session in a far infrared sauna has been touted to burn as many calories as a six-mile run.A 27.
Far infrared saunas are now used in health facilities for a range of health problems such as menopause, ulcers, insomnia, asthma, bronchitis, ear infections, and allergies.A 28.
The image can be used freely, subject to some restrictive terms in the license, including crediting the photographer.
You dona€™t have to worry about setting the sauna up on a waterproof floor or near plumbing, and you dona€™t have to worry about mildew.A 29. Unlike a traditional sauna, which requires a closed atmosphere to maintain heat levels required for therapeutic results, a far infrared sauna can be used with its door or window completely open if far infrared penetration is the only objective.A 30.
Far infrared saunas benefit all your organs of elimination, from your lungs to your liver to your kidneys to your skin.A 31. Infrared light lies between the visible and microwave portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Infrared light has a range of wavelengths, just like visible light has wavelengths that range from red light to violet.


Near infrared light is closest in wavelength to visible light, and far infrared light is closer to the microwave region of the electromagnetic spectrum. It looks to me like he called on Curtis LeMay, Colonel Clearwater - and then realizing he had made a mistake - schluffed it into Colonel Kilgore. A far infrared sauna is usually warm within 10 or 15 minutes, whereas a conventional sauna can take more than an hour to reach optimal temperatures.A 33.
Another option, although quite costly, is to use far infrared bulbs, which can provide warming and stimulating color therapy.A 34. In addition to hemlock, wood choices for far infrared sauna construction include basswood, birch, oak, poplar, spruce and western red cedar. When a wood type is stated to be hypoallergenic, it means that the wood contains minimal allergens and is therefore less likely to cause an allergic reaction. When far infrared heat penetrates a bathera€™s body, he or she can experience a refreshed mind, relaxed mood, reduction of aches and pains, improved metabolism, and systemic regularity leading to an overall feeling of wellness.A 37. Hemlock is a very strong wood that is quite able to withstand the heat of a far infrared sauna. It is also abundantly available, which means the end cost to the consumer is less than it might be for another wood type.A 38.
Far infrared radiation is believed to be the only antidote to excessive ultraviolet radiation.A 39. Certain alternative healing practices such as palm healing, a practice with some 3,000 years of tradition behind it in China, rely on the human bodya€™s ability to emit far infrared radiant energy.A 40. And weight gain, muscle loss, decreased libido, wrinkles in our skin, and a growing number of aches and pains are probably other distressing concerns.A Some people try to defy nature by undergoing cosmetic surgery, utilizing every a€?anti-aginga€? skin care product available, taking stress management or meditation courses, or relocating to less polluted areas. These actions may have merits worthy of consideration, but the fact remains that no one, no matter how determined he or she may be, can slow down the passage of time. We start aging even before we are born, and the process does not stop until the day we die.A While our efforts may not influence time itself, they can, however, affect how our bodies respond to and endure it.
Qualified health professionals agree, for example, that regular exercise and good nutrition can have a long-term positive impact on a persona€™s quality of life.
As well, avoiding the dangerous ultraviolet rays of the sun is universally regarded as an effective way to help maintain healthy, youthful skin.
And leta€™s not forget how quitting smoking has been shown to improve respiratory health and reduce the risk of cancer in many vital bodily organs. A One activity that has been proven to be of great benefit to the lungs, heart, skin and other organs is far infrared sauna bathing. The rays from a far infrared sauna can help improve cardiovascular functioning, strengthen the bodya€™s immune system, reduce fat and cellulite, revitalize skin cells, improve muscle tone and strength, improve nutrition and production of brain chemicals, and much more.A Far infrared sauna bathing also helps to flush toxic chemicals, heavy metals and other destructive agents from our bodies. Exposure to this highly toxic substance can reportedly increase blood pressure and cause fertility problems, nerve disorders, muscle and joint pain, and memory or concentration difficulties. Researchers have also linked lead exposure to Alzheimera€™s disease, a debilitating condition akin to dementia that most people associate with aging.A Various sources likewise suggest a connection between Alzheimera€™s disease and mercury, the most toxic non-radioactive element on Earth. By definition, red is the color with the longest wavelengths of visible light, and violet is the color with the shortest wavelengths of visible light. Among the types of invisible light or electromagnetic radiation that reside outside of the optical spectrum are infrared radiation (IR) and ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Translated from Latin, a€?infraa€? and a€?ultraa€? mean a€?belowa€? and a€?beyond,a€? respectively, so infrared radiation, or infrared light, is literally a€?below red,a€? and ultraviolet light is a€?beyond violet.a€?The German-born astronomer William Herschel discovered infrared light while living in England in 1800, about 20 years after his historic first sighting of the planet Uranus. Measuring the heat from the optical spectrum, Herschel observed that the temperature in the colors increased as he went from violet to red.
He also noticed that the temperature continued to increase beyond the color red, into a region of invisible light that Herschel named a€?infrared.a€?Infrared light is divided into three distinct segments with precise ranges of wavelength measured by microns. Far infrared light is sometimes called thermal radiation or thermal light, and its wavelengths measure between 5.6 and 1,000 microns.
The light or energy from sunlight and fire that we perceive as heat is far infrared.The far infrared radiation (FIR) emitted by the sun should not be confused with its deleterious ultraviolet radiation. Chief among the consumer products utilizing the technology is the far infrared sauna or heat therapy room. A key attribute of far infrared light is its ability to heat an object directly without elevating the temperature of the air surrounding the object. This is called direct light conversion.A Direct light conversion is perhaps best demonstrated when youa€™re outside on a summer day and a big cloud moves in front of the sun.
In the shade, you dona€™t feel as warm as when you were basking in the direct path of the suna€™s energy. Yet, by positioning itself between you and the sun, the cloud has blocked the suna€™s far infrared rays from reaching you. Thata€™s the reason you feel cooler even though the temperature of the air around you has not changed.A The value of far infrared light to human health and wellness must not be underestimated. Penetrating as deeply as three inches into our bodies, far infrared rays improve blood circulation, stimulate endorphins, destroy certain bacteria and parasites, lower lactic acid, and burn calories.Advocates of hyperthermia, also known as fever therapy, contend that employing such deep-penetrating far infrared energy to therapeutically induce higher body temperatures helps combat infections and even cancer. Here's a photo of American school children using the original Bellamy salute:A I think the photo speaks for itself.
Their assertion is supported by the human body itself, which emits infrared energy for purposes of warmth and tissue repair.A Saunas have long been a tried, tested and true source of health benefits. Colonel Clearwater Dear Colonel Clearwater: What do you think about the Egyptian revolution? For centuries, traditional saunas have helped to improve cardiovascular function, promote body detoxification, maintain general health, and foster greater relaxation in sauna bathers around the world. For many sauna enthusiasts, the traditional hot sauna a€“ the Finnish sauna a€“ remains the preferred route to renewed health and a rejuvenated spirit.A Sometimes called radiant heat saunas, soft heat saunas or heat therapy rooms, far infrared saunas offer most of the same benefits that traditional Finnish saunas do, but they do so at lower, more tolerable temperatures. While the air temperature in a typical Finnish sauna bath ranges from 170 to 200 degrees Fahrenheit (77 to 93 degrees Celsius), such temperatures arena€™t required in a far infrared sauna to induce optimal bather perspiration.A By penetrating the bathera€™s body and effecting a deep, satisfying heat of just 100 to 130 degrees Fahrenheit (38 to 55 degrees Celsius), the far infrared rays can create an enjoyably cleansing, detoxifying and revitalizing experience for the bather. Fundamentalists, in any religion, are usually a reaction to what the followers perceive as injustice. In fact, many sources claim that the volume of sweat produced during a far infrared sauna bath can be as much as three times greater than in a Finnish sauna bath. The higher volume of sweat means a faster, more thorough, and thus more beneficial flushing of toxic chemicals and harmful heavy metals from the body.A Far infrared rays are a fundamental, indispensable part of life on Earth. This doesn't mean Egyptian society and culture will necessarily change; it is still their culture and values. But in the long run any thing they make of it will be for their benefit (and not the benefit of the United States).
And now, with far infrared heat therapy rooms and other infrared applications becoming increasingly common, we humans are wisely taking action to benefit from those rays and improve the quality of our own lives.A Benefits of Far Infrared Sauna UseThere are many benefits to be derived from proper and regular use of a far infrared sauna.
Far infrared sauna bathing can improve autonomic functions of the nervous system.Further Applications of Far Infrared EnergyFar infrared saunas are just one example of the application of infrared energy in contemporary society.
Other uses of infrared energy have resulted in infrared hair dryers, infrared foot massagers, infrared pillows, infrared underwear, and even infrared leg wraps for horses. There are far infrared ray-emitting paints and wallpaper that combat mold as well as fast-cooking far infrared ovens that reportedly kill E.
Far infrared rays are being utilized to purify polluted air, promote growth in plants, keep newborn babies warm in hospitals, treat injured athletes, and even encourage new hair growth.Far Infrared Is Essential to LifeFar infrared rays are a fundamental, indispensable part of life on Earth.
Not by rampeling down the side of the building like Tom Cruise, but by sliding in with a tourist visa when it was not open to tourists. And now, with far infrared saunas and other infrared applications becoming increasingly common, we humans are astutely taking steps to benefit from those remarkable rays and improve the quality of our own lives. Similarly, you may not pay much attention to far infrared saunas, but these fantastic devices offer health benefits that you may not be able to afford to ignore any longer.A As time progresses, it seems that the world is becoming an increasingly dangerous place. We live in an age of terrorist activities, nuclear weapons, dictatorships and religious fanaticism. Costly international conflicts show no sign of abating, and just about everyone feels more insecure and vulnerable than they did a decade ago. Clearwater: Republicans are betting that your readers don't care - that after all you did to beat them in 2006 and 2008, you're going to sit this one out. Even in our local neighborhoods, many of us worry about rising crime rates and growing threats to our personal safety.A And, as if those problems were not enough for us to worry about, many of us have major health issues with which we have no choice but to contend. So they're whipping up their base by blocking help to unemployed workers, blocking summer jobs for teens, apologizing to the big companies that gave us the spill in the Gulf, and doing anything else they can do to stop progress. Not helping matters are all the poisons and contaminants that have found their way into our environment and into our bodies. Fortunately, though, we are not powerless against these mighty and malicious microscopic menaces.
In fact, we can start doing something about them right now - we can start fighting back with far infrared sauna detoxification therapy.A Far infrared saunas are revered by scientists and health professionals around the world for their ability to help flush out many of the toxic chemicals, heavy metals and other destructive agents that have accumulated deep within the bloodstream, skin and other vital organs of people from all walks of life. For individuals affected by mercury toxicity, lead poisoning, and other life-threatening exposures, the far infrared sauna is often viewed as an essential component of detoxification therapy.A If you think that only people in high-risk occupations qualify for far infrared sauna detoxification therapy, youa€™re wrong.
Yes, that Rand Paul, who says freedom means a private business can discriminate against African-Americans, and that President Obama holding polluters accountable for the mess in the Gulf is "un-American." And he's not alone.
Exogenous toxins, which can be absorbed through the skin, respiratory tract and gastrointestinal tract, are those not produced by the body itself, and examples include mercury, lead, zinc and cadmium. One candidate calls Social Security "horrible policy," while another has said that Americans will turn to "Second Amendment remedies" against Democrats. Sylver writes that a€?this category consists of waste produced by the body in the course of normal metabolic functioning and also pathogens (viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites) and the waste they excrete.
Also known as chronic fatigue and immune dysfunction syndrome (CFIDS), CFS was once commonly referred to as the a€?yuppie flua€? after about 200 people, most of whom were white, wealthy, young females, come down with a strange illness in 1984.
In New Hampshire, Paul Hodes is running neck-and-neck with his Republican opponent to take this seat for the Democrats.
National Institutes of Health claim that, for some people, chronic fatigue syndrome can first appear after a cold, bronchitis, hepatitis or an intestinal bug; for others, it can follow a bout of glandular fever. We've just started to turn our country around, passing healthcare reform, working to hold the big banks accountable for the Wall Street meltdown, pushing legislation to address climate change and end our addiction to oil.
The GOP is betting big that saying "no" and blocking progress is a path to success in November.What bet will you make?
CDC and CFIDS Association of America announced in 2001 that stress may exacerbate but most likely does not cause the disorder.A On the polemical subject of CFS prevalence, Dr. I think the Republicans should adopt as their emblem the condom because it more clearly reflects the party's political stance. Buist asserts that toxins can impede muscle metabolism, causing the pain and fatigability of muscles felt by many fatigued people.A Addressing the Well Mind Association in Seattle, WA, Dr.
A condom stands for inflation, halts production, destroys the next generation, protects a bunch of pricks, and gives one a sense of security while screwing others. The affected persona€™s detoxification system is clogged up or destroyed, they get a backlog of chemicals, and their immune system goes down.a€?A Dr.
Colonel ClearwaterDear Colonel Clearwater, Last week, my friend and colleague, Congressman Anthony Weiner, did something very good, and very gutsy. Edelson and Deborah Mitchell, authors of What Your Doctor May Not Tell You About Autoimmune Disorders, put it like this: a€?The hallmark of CFIDS is overwhelming, persistent, incapacitating fatigue that leaves those afflicted unable to carry on their normal physical functions.
Weiner's report showed that this firm, which sells gold coins, rips off its customers while benefiting directly from Beck's Chicken Little lunacy about the economy. Every time Beck screams that there is an impending Obama-led government takeover of the economy and your savings aren't safe, he's making a sales pitch for this sleazy advertiser.
You see, Beck's ratings have recently crashed, and most of his reputable advertisers have deserted him. Schmidt writes, a€?Researchers at Uppsala University Medical School in Sweden reported that patients with chronic fatigue contain abnormal levels of mercury within their cells.
Now that he's been exposed, Beck has spent the last week using his big media platform to attack and undermine Weiner - he even set up an attack website designed to damage Weiner's political standing.
Of patients with chronic fatigue, 45 percent showed mercury hypersensitivity and 49 percent showed lead hypersensitivity.
When the metal burden was removed from the body (in many cases, by removing mercury-containing silver dental fillings), 77 percent of patients reported improved health.a€?A If these conclusions are correct, how can sufferers retaliate after the damage of toxic build-up has manifested itself as chronic fatigue syndrome? This collusion between big media, conservative commentators, and quack economics is a scam, but it is powerful if it remains unopposed. And we need to support people like Weiner, who have the guts to go after right-wing lunacy at the source. Lyon recommend far infrared sauna therapy.A a€?For the chronic fatigue patient, a consistent program of infrared sauna therapy will assist the problem of autonomic dysregulation, which is common to the condition,a€? states Dr. These symptoms are reduced, as regular sauna therapy induces normal autonomic functioning.A a€?Through extensive research, it has been shown that saunas greatly assist in the elimination of accumulated toxins,a€? Lyon adds. Consider his statement: "I beg you, look for the words 'social justice' or 'economic justice' on your church Web site.
It has become well known that people who take regular saunas (2-3 per week) reduce their incidence of colds and influenza by over 65% (a study by the British Medical Association). While many people use saunas primarily for relaxation and stress reduction, the other health benefits are increasing the popularity of saunas.
That oil disaster must be stopped, and a way must be found."I am not the original author of that sensible thought, but it has been my favorite definition of faith for a while. While we have no way of certainty for moving past them, working to find a pathway that takes us beyond our doubts is the best option in my view.
An often agonizing muscle disorder in which the thin film or tissue holding muscle together becomes thickened or tightened, fibromyalgia is characterized by widespread musculoskeletal aches, pains and stiffness, soft tissue tenderness, mild to incapacitating fatigue, and disturbed sleep.A The pain of fibromyalgia is typically felt in the neck, back, shoulders and hands, but it is not exclusive to those areas. Based on criteria set in 1990 by the American College of Rheumatology (ACR), a diagnosis of fibromyalgia requires a patient to have experienced widespread pain for a minimum of three months in 11 of 18 tender muscle sites. Among those 18 sites are the hips, knees and rib cage.A Other symptoms of fibromyalgia include allergies, anxiety, carpal tunnel syndrome, depression, dizziness, headaches, irritable bowel symptoms, numbness, and tender skin.
Most sufferers of fibromyalgia are women of childbearing age, but it has also been known to strike men, children and the elderly.As for what causes fibromyalgia, many theories exist. The Alternative Medicine Guide to Chronic Fatigue, Fibromyalgia and Environmental Illness states that a€?post-traumatic fibromyalgia is believed to develop after a fall, whiplash or back strain, whereas primary fibromyalgia has an uncertain origin.a€? However, in her book Detoxify or Die, Dr. Nenah Sylver extols the sauna for its ability to increase cardiovascular activity and white blood cell, enzyme, and norepinephrine, beta-endorphin and possibly thyroxin production. As they, in turn, help to enhance circulation, increase waste removal and nutrient absorption, raise metabolism, and promote the elimination of toxins, foreign proteins and microbes, Dr.
Sylver deems the aforementioned benefits of proper sauna use crucial in helping people with fibromyalgia.
She notes a€?there are actually very few health problems that cannot be helped (or would become worse) with sauna therapya€? but advises patients nevertheless to consult with their health providers before beginning sauna therapy.A Dr. Rogers and other health professionals insist that the far infrared sauna, radiant heat sauna or heat therapy room is of greater benefit to fibromyalgia sufferers than the traditional hot Finnish sauna because of a fundamental difference between the two styles of sauna. Rogers calls the far infrared sauna a€?infinitely more tolerable,a€? particularly for people with fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome or multiple sclerosis, because it can function effectively at a much lower temperature than a conventional Finnish sauna.A a€?Ia€™m convinced that the far infrared sauna is something that everyone should do to restore health,a€? declares Dr. That such an effective detoxification tool exists should be welcome news to anyone suffering the ill effects of excessive lead, mercury, cadmium, arsenic or aluminium in his or her body.
A Not everyone may believe they have sufficient reason to worry about heavy metal and chemical toxicity, but many experts are urging the skeptics to think again. Lead is a highly toxic substance, exposure to which can produce a wide range of adverse health effects. In adults, lead can reportedly increase blood pressure and cause fertility problems, nerve disorders, muscle and joint pain, irritability, and memory or concentration problems.
A Because their brains and central nervous systems are still being formed, young children under the age of six are especially vulnerable to leada€™s harmful health effects. Then how come Congress starts each session with a prayer and the president is sworn in on a Bible? National Safety Council (NSC), a€?Even very low levels of exposure can result in reduced IQ, learning disabilities, attention deficit disorders, behavioral problems, stunted growth, impaired hearing, and kidney damage.
Wants to KnowDear Wants to Know, As I said in an earlier reply, our countrys laws and structure are not based on the God of the Bible and the Ten Commandments, as Sarah Palin and others claim. Lead can also be found in automobile exhaust, pesticides, hair dye, ink, and some glazed dishware.Mercury, a ubiquitous environmental pollutant that can be found in tuna and swordfish, latex paint, dental amalgams, vaccines, cosmetics, contact lens solution, fabric softener and tap water, has also been classified by researchers as posing a grave threat to human health.
In fact, the World Health Organization (WHO) has declared that no level of mercury can be considered to be safe, as it is the most toxic non-radioactive element on Earth.A In their book What Your Doctor May Not Be Telling You About Autoimmune Disorders, Dr. So most of us do not work on Sunday and some businesses are not open for business on Sunday. Like so many other heavy metals, cadmium can be found in air, water, soil and food.A Noting that the highest contributor to cadmium toxicity is cigarette smoke, the Center for Environmental and Integrative Medicine (CEIM) in Knoxville, TN, states that a€?cadmium can weaken the immune system and allow bacteria, viruses, yeast and parasites to proliferate. Cadmium may also promote skeletal demineralization and increase bone fragility and fracture risk. Department of Health and Human Servicesa€™ Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). So we have a religious custom of not working on Sunday and a secular custom of watching football on Sunday.
Eating food or drinking water with very high cadmium levels severely irritates the stomach, leading to vomiting and diarrhea, and sometimes death. Breathing air with lower levels of cadmium, or eating lower levels of cadmium, over long periods of time can result in a build-up of cadmium in the kidneys. The Constitution states that the president must take an oath, but it does not mention anything about a Bible. This has been seen mostly in workers exposed to arsenic at smelters, mines, and chemical factories, but also in residents living near smelters and arsenical chemical factories.
Colonel ClearwaterDear Colonel Clearwater, I understand you answer, but you say customs and traditions. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) have all classified inorganic arsenic as a known human carcinogen.A Since arsenic is found naturally in the environment, humans risk exposure to it when they eat food, drink water, breathe air, or come in contact with contaminated soil or water.
The same can be said for aluminium compounds.A People may also be exposing themselves to aluminium compounds when they ingest medicinal products like certain antacids, laxatives and buffered aspirin or have skin contact with aluminium metal, antiperspirants, or other substances that contain aluminium or aluminium compounds. Wants to Know MoreDear Wants to Know More, It is important to realize the difference between a custom and a tradition. Mercola asserts that aluminium has been linked to serious illnesses such as osteoporosis, extreme nervousness, anemia, headache, decreased liver and kidney function, speech disturbances, and memory loss. He also contends that people who have died from Alzheimera€™s disease have been found to have up to four times the average amount of aluminium accumulated in the braina€™s nerve cells.A Offering its view on the subject, the ATSDR states that exposure to aluminium is usually not harmful but notes that some people who have kidney disease store a lot of aluminium in their bodies. It is a custom at my house that every year we watch football on Thanksgiving Day after we eat.
A tradition is a ceremony invented for the purpose of commemorating some historical event or to develop a sense of binding in a community or religious group.
Thanksgiving Day is a tradition in America that serves the purpose of reminding us of what we have from God for which to be thankful and is loosely based on the first harvest feast of the Pilgrims to celebrate their first year of survival in the New World. In these children, the bone damage is caused by aluminium in the stomach preventing the absorption of phosphate, (which is) required for healthy bones.a€?Lead, mercury, cadmium, arsenic and aluminium are just five of an intimidating number of toxins capable of severely compromising your health. It is a tradition; a ceremony we use to create a common bond among Americans by commemorating our heritage.
Among the other heavy metals most often found at unacceptable levels in the body, according to Edelson and Mitchell, are nickel and tin. Sherry Rogers writes, a€?The lungs, urine, stool and sweat are the main vehicles the body has for getting rid of nasty chemicals, but by far sweat is the most efficacious. And Mayo Clinic studies show that (utilizing) far infrared energy is the safest way to induce healing sweata€¦ Far infrared sauna technology is the only proven, most efficacious way of getting rid of stored environmental chemicals.a€?A A far infrared sauna has been cited as the best place to sweat because, whereas bathing in a conventional hot air sauna produces perspiration that is composed of approximately 97 percent water and three percent toxins, soaking in a far infrared sauna has been shown to produce sweat composed of about 80 percent water and 20 percent toxins.
When Congress meets, the first thing that happens is that the designated speaker calls the group together.
As well, far infrared saunas can produce up to three times the sweat volume of a conventional hot air sauna while operating at a considerably cooler air temperature range of 110 to 130 degrees versus 180 to 235 degrees for hot air saunas.
Ita€™s worthwhile to also note that, according to author and sauna historian Mikkel Aaland, a 15-minute far infrared sauna session can execute the same heavy metal excretion that would take the kidneys 24 working hours. In other words, sweating in a far infrared sauna can be a very efficient method of detoxification.A Even though sweating is a natural function of the human body, many people do not perspire properly because their skin has been damaged or deactivated by, among other culprits, chemicals in bath water, lotions, soaps and deodorants. Fortunately for these people, far infrared sauna therapy can greatly help to restore the skina€™s eliminative powers.
Ita€™s just one more way far infrared saunas work to heal bodies compromised by harmful chemicals.A If you are concerned about how harmful chemicals and heavy metals can affect your health, consider the many benefits of owning a far infrared sauna. Most people have a casual understanding of each of those three, but it is the mercury included in the periodic table of elements that demands greater public contemplation. For if contemporary society placed more of an emphasis on the pernicious effects of mercury exposure, perhaps fewer people would be victimized by related illnesses and diseases.A Mercury is the most toxic non-radioactive element on Earth, and the World Health Organization (WHO) has proclaimed that no level of mercury can be regarded as being safe. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announced in a 2001 study that one in every 10 American women of childbearing age is at risk for having a baby born with neurological problems due to mercury exposure.A There are three principal types of mercury, and each type presents a serious health hazard to humans. The first type, elemental mercury, is a liquid that gives off mercury vapor at room temperature. Elemental mercury can also enter the bloodstream by permeating the skin.A Inorganic mercury compounds, the second type, can also be inhaled as well as pass through the skin. Unlike elemental mercury, though, inorganic mercury compounds can also be absorbed through the stomach if swallowed.
Colonel ClearwaterDear Colonel Clearwater, I have just seen a video about an organization called the Council on Foreign Relations. Elemental mercury, if swallowed, is not absorbed and usually exits the body without causing any harm. This organization has members who were past Presidents and past Secretary of States of the United States, plus leaders in the fields of finance, industry, and other important positions in society.
Many inorganic mercury compounds are irritating or corrosive to the skin, eyes and mucus membranes.A The third type of mercury, organic mercury compounds, can enter the body by way of all three routes a€“ lungs, skin and stomach. The spokesman on the video has concluded that this organization must be a part of world conspiracy to take over the world and put the entire world under a one-world socialist government and I agree with him. Exposure to any form of mercury on a repeated basis, or even a very high single dose, can lead to chronic mercury poisoning.
According to the New Jersey State Department of Health, chronic mercury poisoning is characterized by three major symptoms:Gum problems. The Council on Foreign Relations (CFR) is an organization of foreign policy experts, people concerned with international trade, prominent historians and writers, as well as others who are involved with foreign policy and international affairs. People with chronic mercury poisoning frequently experience wide mood swings, becoming irritable, frightened, excited or depressed very quickly for no apparent reason.
The CFR hold speaking events with question-and-answer periods which are usually televised on CSpan or other cable stations.
Some people may become extremely upset at any criticism, lose all self-confidence, and become apathetic. The speakers are usually world leaders, historians, writers, or others involved in international affairs.
Memory loss, hallucinations, and inability to concentrate can also occur.Nervous system impairment. Some of the speakers have included such figures as Nelson Mandela, George Soros, Thomas Friedman, Mikhail Gorbachev, and Ronald Reagan. The earliest and most frequent symptom of chronic mercury poisoning is a fine tremor of the hand. The journal, which I have subscribed to and read for over 25 years (plus you can buy it at the newsstands in Borders or Barnes and Noble) provides a forum for contrasting views and opinions regarding issues affecting foreign policy. A person with chronic mercury poisoning may also experience difficulty balancing and walking.A In What Your Doctor May Not Be Telling You About Autoimmune Disorders, authors Dr. Some people have made a nice living scarring others with conspiracy theories about the CFR. My advice to you is to go to the store, buy and read their journal, watch their events on CSpan, and be wary of people who wish to sell you on the idea that other people are out to get you. Colonel Clearwater________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Dear Colonel Clearwater: Cancel my subscription to your liberal rage. Research has demonstrated that the bodya€™s tissues, especially in the brain, kidneys, jaw, lungs, gastrointestinal tract, and liver, absorb and store mercury.a€?A With such research findings having caught the publica€™s attention, some people have begun insisting that their dentists use composite fillings, also known as a€?white fillings,a€? as a non-toxic alternative to amalgam fillings. And no matter how great the obstacles may seem, we must never stop our efforts to reduce the weapons of war.
As well, some dental patients are demanding that their existing amalgam fillings be removed and replaced with composite fillings.A In her book Detoxify or Die, Dr. We must never stop at all until we see the day when nuclear arms have been banished from the face of this earth." Ronald Wilson Reagan, 1984 Colonel ClearwaterDear Colonel Clearwater: Liberals? Rogers writes, a€?Autoimmune disease, heart disease, high cholesterol and triglycerides, chemical sensitivity, allergies, antibiotic-resistant infections, depression, schizophrenia, multiple sclerosis, leukemia and just about any symptom you can think of have improved once sufficient accumulated mercury was removed from the teeth and body.a€?Going a step further, Dr.
Daniel Royal, member of the Nevada State Board of Homeopathic Medical Examiners, states, a€?While removal of amalgam fillings stops further poisoning from mercury fillings, you still need to detoxify the body to eliminate the residual effect from mercury that remains behind in the body. I realize that there is collateral damage in war, but this is no less than cold-blooded genocide.
Royal calls the sauna a useful adjunct to safe mercury removal because it induces profuse sweating.
One reason is that far infrared saunas, also known as radiant heat saunas or soft heat saunas, can effectively function at temperatures lower than those characteristic of traditional hot Finnish saunas. The findings of this study make a strong case that far infrared saunas are simply better detoxification devices than conventional hot saunas.A Before you begin a sauna detoxification program, or if you suspect that you suffer from mercury poisoning, you should discuss your plans or share your suspicions with a qualified health professional.
And if you decide to purchase a far infrared sauna for any of its many therapeutic properties, be sure to research your choices thoroughly, as satisfied sauna buyers are typically well-informed sauna buyers.A Opening the Sauna Door to Better Healthby Pertti Olavi Jalasjaa You may think of a home sauna as being little more than a luxury, an object that offers pleasure and comfort but is ultimately inessential to your well-being. However, the results of decades of research may just convince you of what sauna enthusiasts have believed for centuries a€“ that regular sauna bathing offers significant, perhaps even life-saving, health benefits.A A chief objective of any sauna bath is to make you perspire, and perspiration is a natural, necessary function of the human body. Ita€™s a means by which the body can rid itself of extra heat and water and eliminate harmful toxins that have, over time, built up inside it. Included among these toxins are mercury, lead, cadmium and aluminium.A The health benefits of sauna bathing, however, go beyond aiding detoxification. As your body increases sweat production to cool itself during a hot sauna bath, your heart increases blood circulation.
Heart rate, cardiac output and metabolic rate all increase, while diastolic blood pressure decreases, helping to improve overall cardiovascular fitness.A Sauna bathing may also contribute to healthy weight loss.
A letter in a 1981 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association asserted that a€?a moderately conditioned person can easily a€?sweat offa€™ 500 grams in a sauna, consuming nearly 300 calories, the equivalent of running two to three miles.
A heat-conditioned person can easily sweat off 600 to 800 calories with no adverse effects.
While the weight of the water lost can be regained by rehydration with water, the calories consumed will not be.a€?A Most irrefutable are the claims that regular sauna bathing helps to relieve stress and promote relaxation. It has been demonstrated time and time again that spending just a few minutes in a hot sauna bath can reduce anxiety levels, sooth nerves and warm tight muscles. Not only has sauna bathing been shown to encourage deeper, more restful sleep, far infrared sauna therapy has proved effective in alleviating pain associated with arthritis, backache, bursitis, fibromyalgia, headache, sprains, strains and other muscular and skeletal ailments.A a€?I am convinced that the far infrared sauna is something that everyone should do to restore health,a€? contends Dr.
And while the condition known as Raynauda€™s disease has perhaps not received as much attention as those previously mentioned, credible sources suggest that sauna bathing can benefit its sufferers as well.A Raynauda€™s disease is a condition that causes some areas of your body, such as your fingers, toes, ears, cheeks, tongue, and the tip of your nose, to feel numb and cool in response to cold temperatures or stress.
Named after Maurice Raynaud, the French physician who first described it in 1862, it is a disorder of the blood vessels that supply blood to your skin. They were shooting at insurgents who, upon later investigation, turned out to be civilians. During a Raynauda€™s attack, these arteries narrow, limiting blood flow to affected areas.A Accurately discussing Raynauda€™s can be challenging for some people, as two types of it exist, and each type has two names. By saying the soldiers were shooting civilans implies that they knew they were shooting civiliansj. What most laymen generically call Raynauda€™s disease could be either primary Raynauda€™s or secondary Raynauda€™s.A Primary Raynauda€™s, the most common form of the disorder, is what physicians and medical textbooks correctly refer to as Raynauda€™s disease. The real guilty party are those who convinced the American public that this war was necessary and just.
Although anyone can develop the condition, primary Raynauda€™s mainly affects women between the ages of 15 and 40.
Ita€™s also more common in people who live in colder climates.A Secondary Raynauda€™s, also known as Raynauda€™s phenomenon, is caused by an underlying problem like scleroderma, Sjogrena€™s syndrome (both connective tissue diseases), lupus (an autoimmune disease), rheumatoid arthritis (an inflammatory disease), hypothyroidism (an underactive thyroid gland), diseases of the arteries (such as atherosclerosis and Buergera€™s disease), carpal tunnel syndrome, nerve damage, or chemical exposure. As well, people in certain occupations, such as those who operate vibrating tools, may be more vulnerable to secondary Raynauda€™s.A Most typically, cold temperatures provoke Raynauda€™s attacks. Just taking an item out of your freezer, putting your hands in cold water, or exposing yourself to cold air could trigger one.
For some people, however, cold is not even necessary; emotional stress is enough to instigate an episode. In both cases, the body seems to exaggerate its natural response of trying to preserve its core temperature by slowing blood supply to its extremities.
Can you tell me how the "Smallest of the World's Leading Newspapers" managed to scoop "Florida's Best Newspaper?" Pedro TechadorDear Pedro, Always nice to hear from one of the Techadors.This was a WikiLeak scoop.
During an attack, which can last from less than a minute to several hours, affected areas of your skin usually first turn white.
As your blood circulation improves, the affected areas may turn red, throb, tingle or swell. Raynauda€™s attacks may grow more severe over time.A If the condition becomes severe, blood circulation to your extremities could permanently diminish, resulting in deformities in affected areas like your fingers or toes. Also, skin ulcers or gangrene could develop if an artery to an affected area becomes completely blocked.A Depending on the cause and severity of symptoms, treatment can take many forms. Medications may include alpha blockers, calcium channel blockers, or vasodilators, all of which help relax blood vessels. For example, during a session in either type of sauna, the bathera€™s heart responds to the sauna heat by increasing blood flow and perspiration production to cool the bathera€™s body.
In this way, sauna bathing is a form of cardiovascular exercise.A Perspiring in a sauna, especially a far infrared sauna, also helps the body rid itself of harmful toxins that have built up over time. With experts having already drawn the connection between nicotine, secondhand smoke and Raynauda€™s, this benefit is certainly noteworthy.A As anyone who has stepped into a sauna seeking relief from muscle aches, sports injuries or ailments such as arthritis or fibromyalgia should already know, sauna bathing also offers a proven way to alleviate pain.
A clinical study conducted at Sunnybrook and Womena€™s College Health Science Centers at the University of Toronto confirmed that far infrared therapy can bring about significant improvements in both subjective measures of pain and discomfort associated with Raynauda€™s disease.A Lastly, sauna bathing fosters relaxation and stress relief.
To those Raynauda€™s sufferers whose attacks are caused by emotional stress, as well as to the innumerable Raynauda€™s sufferers whose emotional stress is understandably caused by their attacks, this news is likely very welcome.A If you think you may be suffering from Raynauda€™s disease or Raynauda€™s phenomenon, be sure to discuss your concerns with a qualified health professional. Meanwhile, youa€™d be wise to investigate the many ways a home sauna, be it a traditional Finnish sauna or a far infrared sauna, can improve your health and happiness.A Insomnia and the Far Infrared Saunaby Pertti Olavi JalasjaaYoua€™ve wisely avoided sleeping pills, but it seems as if youa€™ve tried almost everything else to get a better nighta€™s sleep. The comforting heat of a sauna works to induce healthy perspiration, assist respiratory function, benefit blood pressure, stimulate endorphins, cleanse skin, and relieve sore, tired muscles. By raising your body temperature in a sauna bath right before bedtime, you compel it to normalize itself afterwards, and ita€™s this temperature readjustment following the sauna bath that helps to improve the quality of your sleep.A Of course, other effects of the heat bath can certainly contribute to improvements in your sleep.
Regular sauna bathers routinely report that soaking in a hot sauna helps them rid their minds of the anxieties, frustrations and worries that may have been plaguing them prior to bathing. And by helping to alleviate any existing physical pain like headaches, muscle strain or joint stiffness, a sauna bath can effectively disarm many of the aggravations that might have impeded truly restful sleep.A Home saunas are available in many styles and sizes. Palin:Your statement reminds me of what Republican Congressman, Devin Nunes said during the health care vote. Around the globe, doctors, researchers and other professionals have discovered the tremendous value of using sauna heat to help increase the human bodya€™s white blood cell count, stimulate its immune system, facilitate detoxification, and produce a state of general relaxation that is vital to the healing process.A In many countries, experts continue to research the therapeutic properties of the sauna.
And now you are bringing the ghosts back into this chamber." There is no polite way to get around this. Chuwa Tei, professor of medicine and chair of the department of internal medicine at Japana€™s Kagoshima University, and his colleagues have demonstrated saunasa€™ usefulness in treating heart patients.A In one study, Tei and his colleagues compared 25 men with at least one risk factor for heart disease, such as diabetes, high blood pressure, high cholesterol or smoking, with a group of 10 healthy men. Tea Party Patriots are morons when it comes to history, economics, and how to run a society. Each study participant spent 15 minutes in a 140-degree Fahrenheit (60-degree Celsius) dry sauna, followed by 30 minutes in a bed covered with blankets, once a day for two weeks.
The researchers then measured how well the participantsa€™ blood vessels expanded and contracted, a sign of the health of the vessels.
The researchers also found that the sauna therapy lowered participantsa€™ blood pressure slightly. The results of the study should be encouraging to anyone concerned about blood vessel diseases like atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries) and erectile dysfunction.In earlier studies, Tei and his colleagues demonstrated that sauna therapy improved the blood vessel function in hamsters with chronic heart failure.
The hamsters that received sauna therapy also lived about three weeks longer than those that didna€™t receive sauna therapy.A German researchers recently studied 22 kindergarten children who took weekly sauna baths and compared them to a group of children that did not take any sauna baths. Both groups were followed for 18 months and closely monitored for any occurrence of ear infections, colds, or upper respiratory problems. The researchers found that the children who did not take the weekly sauna baths took twice as many sick days as their counterparts.A Other findings suggest that it may be more than the heat of a sauna that is so advantageous to human health.
Tests have indicated that the practice of tossing or splashing water on heated rocks in a traditional Finnish sauna produces a high quantity of negative ions in the air.
Much like the resurgence of the Ku Klux Klan after World War I, the Tea Party Patriots are people who believe they have lost their privileged status in American society and wish to thwart others hopes for the American dream. Research has concluded that air abundant with negative ions offers great benefits, while a lack of negative ions or a higher ration of positive to negative ions in the air we breathe can cause physical harm.And while a June 2001 edition of The St.
Unfortunately, or fortunately (depending on which editor yells loudest) President Obama considers Wall Street, the banks, the Republicans in congress, and those with tea party policies as necessary players in the solution when they are, in fact, part of the problem.
Lying above the 60th parallel, the southern boundary of the Arctic Circle, northernmost Finland receives little sunlight during the winter, which typically begins in November and lasts at least until May.
Throughout all of Finland, winter days are remarkably short, with the sun low on the horizon even at midday. In the far north, the period known as a€?kaamosa€? or polar night, during which the sun never rises above the horizon, is nearly two months long.A Light deprivation is a serious concern during Finnish winters, particularly in areas where continuous darkness stretches several weeks. Many experts believe it could explain why Finland has one of the worlda€™s highest suicide rates. Each year, 14 percent of northern populations reportedly experience the a€?winter blues,a€? and another six percent suffer from the more serious Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD), a type of clinical depression that, by definition, afflicts people only at certain times of the year.
Both the Senior Citizens' Right to Work Act and the Family Medical Leave Act were passed this way. A In addition to depression, common symptoms of SAD include anxiety, fatigue and low energy, irritability, increased sleeping, difficulty concentrating, and changes in appetite, most notably carbohydrate cravings.A For many people, Seasonal Affective Disorder is a seriously disabling illness that prevents them from functioning normally without continuous medical treatment. For others, it is a mild but debilitating condition that causes discomfort but not severe suffering. This milder form of SAD, called Subsyndromal Seasonal Affective Disorder, is what most people perceive to be the aforementioned winter blues.A Yet another form of SAD is Reverse Seasonal Affective Disorder (RSAD), and it typically strikes during the late spring or early summer and lasts throughout the warmer months. Also known as summer depression, RSAD is characterized by decreased sleep, weight loss, poor appetite, and other symptoms. Because treatment options can differ for SAD and RSAD, ita€™s important to note that the information in the following paragraphs pertains specifically to SAD a€“ in other words, winter depression.A According to the American Academy of Family Physicians, treatments for Seasonal Affective Disorder include monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOs), psychotherapy, and light therapy.
Certain sources claim that, in addition to being used to treat SAD, insomnia and jet lag, light therapy can also be beneficial for people suffering from skin conditions such as acne, eczema, psoriasis and vitiglio.A For treating Seasonal Affective Disorder, the most commonly used phototherapy equipment is a portable lighting device known as a light box. The patient sits in front of the box for a prescribed period of time that can be as brief as 15 minutes or as long as several hours.
The duration and frequency of light therapy sessions often depend on the patienta€™s physical needs and lifestyle. As one might surmise, light therapy sessions for SAD typically begin in the autumn months and continue throughout the winter, sometimes even into the early spring.A The light box may be mounted upright to a wall or slanted downwards and set on a table.
The light from a slanted light box is designed to focus on the table upon which it sits, so patients may look down to read or enjoy other sedentary activities during their phototherapy sessions. Patients using an upright light box must face the light box, although they dona€™t need to look directly into the light. As for the brightness of the light utilized, the light sources in these light boxes typically range from 2,500 to 10,000 lux (units of illumination). In comparison, average indoor lighting typically ranges from 300 to 500 lux, and a sunny summer day is roughly 100,000 lux.A Before undergoing any light therapy treatments for Seasonal Affective Disorder, be sure to discuss your concerns and options with a qualified health professional. If you believe that you suffer from SAD, it is vital that you receive a proper diagnosis from a physician experienced in treating mood disorders. As well, certain risks (like potential eye strain, hypomania and headache, among others) are associated with phototherapy, especially for people who are photosensitive, so consulting with your doctor and an ophthalmologist could prevent additional problems from arising during or after your treatments. If you decide to pursue light therapy treatments without the assistance of a qualified health professional, be aware that different companies hold decidedly different stances on exactly what constitutes light therapy. A Among the health-related companies that are now making light therapy part of their business are manufacturers and retailers of home saunas. It is a logical development since far infrared sauna therapy has repeatedly been proven to be an effective form of light therapy. The light found in a far infrared sauna is, of course, far infrared light, a type of invisible light located below the optical color red in the electromagnetic spectrum.A An indispensable part of life on Earth, far infrared light has long been used by humans to purify polluted air, keep newborn babies warm in hospitals, promote growth in plants, and more. Little did the early sauna bathers of Finland realize centuries ago that their beloved heat baths might someday become a source of hope and healing, not just for the people of their own country but for everyone who finds the dark days of winter hard to weather.A Sweat and Far Infrared Saunas- Here's the Skinnyby Pertti Olavi Jalasjaa For whatever reason, most people feel uncomfortable talking about perspiration.
For example, ita€™s not unusual to hear someone remark that he or she a€?sweateda€? over an academic assignment, a€?worked up a sweata€? on the tennis courts, or a€?lost a pint of sweata€? while awaiting an important decision.
But these are simply colloquial expressions that many of us utilize to make a point about our mental or physical stress or exertion related to a particular undertaking or event.
After all, to do so, polite society decrees, would be in poor taste.A And yet much could be gained if people felt free to discuss the natural biological process of perspiration without fear of judgment or reproach. When we perspire in a far infrared sauna, we help our bodies rid themselves of the countless toxins like mercury, lead, cadmium and other contaminants that have accumulated within us over time. As well, by intensely sweating in a far infrared sauna we benefit our hearts, lungs, kidneys and other organs that are essential to our survival. Far infrared sauna bathing has also been proven to promote pain relief, muscle relaxation, and emotional tranquility.A For people suffering from certain skin diseases, far infrared sauna bathing can be particularly therapeutic. As the far infrared heat induces an increase in blood circulation to the skin, the bodya€™s defence against chronic skin conditions like acne, eczema and psoriasis is considerably bolstered.
As well, thorough sweating helps unclog the skin of whatever unhealthy remnants of soap, lotions, deodorants or makeup may be unnecessarily lodged in its pores. Dead skin cells are also effectively flushed away by a good sweat in a far infrared sauna.A Increased blood flow and decreased toxins and foreign material in our skin mean more natural nutrients and fewer reasons for irritations and disease.
Elasticity, texture, tone and color can all noticeably improve after just a few sessions in a far infrared sauna. These benefits are available even if your skin has suffered harsh damage from excessive exposure to the sun.A You dona€™t have to talk about perspiration if you dona€™t want to. If you live a mostly sedentary lifestyle and therefore dona€™t perspire much on a regular basis, you must take action for the sake of the health of your heart, lungs, skin and other vital organs. People face stress at home, at work, at school a€“ anywhere opportunities to react to internal or external stimulation exist.A That stimulation can come from a disagreement with a spouse, a conflict with a co-worker, criticism from a teacher, bad news from a doctor, and so on. And the stimulation need not be negative; people often become stressed when they start new jobs or enter into new relationships. Even a big, surprise win at the casino can cause stress.A A little stress isna€™t necessarily a bad thing. Stress during a job interview can help you give the best answers to the people asking the tough questions. These hormones are not harmful in moderate amounts, but cortisol is secreted excessively in response to chronic stress and is extremely toxic in these larger amounts.A a€?Cortisol actually kills and disables your brain cells,a€? says Dr. Chronic exposure to cortisol causes the mental haziness, forgetfulness and confusion that is associated with aging.a€?A People under stress may also be at higher risk of developing coronary heart disease. Stress causes arteries to constrict and blood to become stickier, increase the probability of an artery-clogging blood clot. As well, people who regularly experience sudden increases in blood pressure caused by stress may, over time, develop injuries in the inner lining of their blood vessels.A Studies suggest that chronic stress may increase a persona€™s chances for developing infections, having strokes, experiencing flare ups of multiple sclerosis, and suffering gastrointestinal problems like peptic ulcers, irritable bowel syndrome, and inflammatory bowel disease.
Chronic stress has also been linked to the development of insulin resistance, a key factor in diabetes.
And ask anybody who has ever suffered from headaches, insomnia, skin disorders or sexual dysfunction if they believe that stress was at least partly to blame for their woes, and then construct your own conclusions about how damaging stress can be to onea€™s health and well being.A If you think you have a serious condition that has been caused or made worse by certain stressors in your life, you should discuss your concerns with a qualified physician. If, however, youa€™d like to improve the quality of your life by learning how to better cope with stress, many options exist. Perhaps your first focus should be on discovering the remarkable benefits of relaxation.Relaxation decreases blood pressure, respiration and pulse rates, releases muscle tension, and eases emotional strains. In their quests for greater relaxation, some people choose biofeedback while others opt for massage therapy. Studies indicate that soaking in a hot sauna bath can help improve respiratory function, increase cardiovascular strength, reduce and remove body toxins, strengthen the bodya€™s immune system, relieve headaches, and cleanse and beautify skin. Sauna bathing can also increase blood circulation, relaxing tight, tired or aching muscles by providing them with more oxygen.A If youa€™re searching for a healthy way to alleviate the stress in your life, consider purchasing a home sauna. Residential saunas are available in a range of styles and sizes, from pre-cut Finnish sauna kits to outdoor barrel saunas and far infrared heat therapy rooms. Seemingly ubiquitous advertisements and TV commercials for antiperspirants continue to convince generations of consumers that perspiration is an undesirable, offensive bodily function.
While no one would dispute that sweat can be quite unwelcome in important social and business situations, it would be imprudent not to acknowledge the necessity of perspiration and understand the critical role it plays in human health.A Sweating is an essential function of the human body, as essential as eating, breathing and sleeping.
Skin is sometimes called a€?the third kidneya€? for this very reason.A Your body eliminates various toxins through a variety of metabolic processes, one being urination and another being perspiration.
The kidneys filter waste materials from the blood and excrete them, along with water, as urine. The temperature in a traditional Finnish sauna is usually between 180 and 200 degrees Fahrenheit (80 and 95 degrees Celsius).
The two types of sauna operate differently, but, at their respective temperature ranges, working up a sufficient sweat in either type should be achievable for even the most inexperienced sauna bather.A Using high heat to induce perspiration has a great number of benefits.
In addition to decreasing the amount of toxins and heavy metals, such as cadmium, lead, mercury, nickel and zinc, in your body, an intense sweat bath in a sauna can help cleanse it of other impurities like cholesterol, nicotine, sodium, and sulfuric acid. By improving blood circulation, regular sauna bathing can help draw the skina€™s own natural nutrients to the surface, leading to better tone, texture and elasticity. Thata€™s why sauna bathing is being increasingly included in high-intensity treatment programs for skin ailments like acne, eczema and psoriasis.
Some beauty specialists in Europe even claim the sauna can be quite a powerful weapon in the war against cellulite.A As beneficial and therapeutic as sweating in a soothing hot sauna may be, however, it is imperative that bathers not allow the experience to dehydrate them.
As well, be sure to discuss your plans and expectations with your personal physician before you take to the sauna for the first time, as he or she should know of any existing conditions or limitations that pertain specifically to your health and might impact your sauna use.A As for all those advertisements and TV commercials that say sweating is bad, forget about them, and start doing what you know is best for your health.



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Comments

  • ALINDA, 09.03.2016 at 13:12:30

    Boyfriend of 3 and a half years and I broke up back in December because he came badboyness, she'll suppose he isn't.
  • RASIM, 09.03.2016 at 14:57:37

    You're behaving all needy and.