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DESCRIPTION: This 'atlas' was the work of a family of Catalonian Jews who worked in Majorca at the end of the 14th century and was commissioned by Charles V of France at a time when the reputation of the Catalan chart makers was at its peak. The title of the Atlas shows clearly the spirit in which it was executed and its content: Mappamundi, that is to say, image of the world and of the regions which are on the earth and of the various kinds of peoples which inhabit it. Today the original Catalan Atlas can be found in the Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris, and has now assumed the form of seven loose wooden panels of which five inside ones bear one half of a sheet of the Atlas on each side, while the two outer ones consist of one side that bears a half sheet of the Atlas and one half of the binding on the other side.a€?The first of the two preliminary sheets deals with the days of the month from the first to the thirtieth.
The Catalan Atlas is actually a world map built up around a portolan chart, thus combining aspects of the nautical chart by employing loxodromes and coastal detail with the medieval mappaemundi exemplified by its legends and illustrations. We know in unusual detail the circumstances in which the Catalan Atlas of 1375 (the date of the calendar which accompanies it) was produced and the career of the cartographer who compiled it.
The patrons of Cresques, King Peter III of Aragon and his son, in addition to their scientific interests, were keenly interested in reports of Eastern lands, in relation to their forward economic policy, and were at special pains to secure manuscript copies of Marco Polo's Description of the World, the travels of Odoric of Pordenone Description of Eastern Regions and, what may surprise the modern reader, the Voiage of Sir John Mandeville.
In the interior the position, extent, chief divisions, towns and rivers of China and the Mongol Empire are approximately represented. On the southern portion of the Cathay coast, the general uniformity of the coast is broken by three bays, and it is significant that these are associated with three great ports, Zayton [near Changchow], Cansay [Hangchow, better known in medieval records as Quinsay ] and Cincolam [Canton].
Quite a number of harbors are indicated on the eastern coast of India, a few of them still identifiable, while a sailing junk testifies to trading activity, especially with the island of Iana (?), which is here associated with the legendary isle of the Amazons (regio femarum [sic]) and symbolized by its queen. In mainland India, King Stephen has been represented: the text beside him indicates that this Christian ruler is a€?looking towards the town of Butifilis,a€? Marco Polo's kingdom of Mutifilis. The people of Gog and Magog following their monarch, bearing banners with the emblem of the devil, detail of the map of Asia.
Sources other than those embodied in Polo have also been used for the portion of the Indian Ocean included in the map.
If the map is stripped of its legends and drawings of the older tradition, it is apparent that the main interest of the compiler is concentrated in a central strip across Asia.
In the west is the Organci [Oxus] river shown, as on most contemporary maps, flowing into the Caspian, and alongside it the early stages of the traditionally used overland route, from Urganj [the medieval Khiva] through Bokhara and Samarcand to the sources of the river in the mountains of Amol, on the eastern limits of Persia. This description, with several omissions, was in outline the route followed by Maffeo and Nicolo Polo (Marco Polo's father and uncle) on their journey to the Great Khan's court.
Scarcely less valuable, and certainly of special interest for the student of geographical theory, are the Catalan speculations concerning the unexplored territories of the earth.
Hardly any place on the west coast of Africa is identified only one name, perhaps a mythical spot, is found south of Cape Bojador in the former Spanish Sahara, but we are told that Africa, land of ivory, starts at this point and that by traveling due south one reaches Ethiopia.
East of the Sultan of Mali appears the King of Organa, in turban and blue dress, holding an oriental sword and a shield. In northeast Africa, a knowledge of the Nile valley as far south as Dongala, where there was a Catholic mission early in the 14th century, is apparent.
On one matter, however, the mapmaker Cresques could hardly refrain from speculating, for the following reason: land exploration had, for a long time now, outrun oceanic discovery, and so, concerning Africa, much more was known of the Sudan by the end of the 14th century than was known of the oceanic fringe area in the same latitudes. In Asia the Red Sea stands out, being shown as red, a characteristic that derives, we are told less from the color of the water than from that of the sea bed.
Moslem traders from cities along the Barbary Coast of North Africa began to cross the Sahara in the Middle Ages in an effort to bring back gold, rumored to be in great supply in the Sudan. Within the means of cartographic representations on this Atlas there appears to be no specialities, those symbols and other graphics used by Cresques correspond to those commonly used in the Middle Ages.
The compiler of the prototype used by Cresques for the Catalan Atlas had recourse to different, sometimes even contradictory sources. In summary, the merit of the Catalan Atlas lay in the skill with which Cresques employed the best available contemporary sources to modify the traditional world picture, never proceeding further than the evidence warranted.
Today the original Catalan Atlas can be found in the Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris, and has now assumed the form of seven loose wooden panels of which five inside ones bear one half of a sheet of the Atlas on each side, while the two outer ones consist of one side that bears a half sheet of the Atlas and one half of the binding on the other side.The first of the two preliminary sheets deals with the days of the month from the first to the thirtieth. As a response to this interest, Cresques extended his chart to include all that was then known of Asia, notably from Marco Polo's narrative. This town [Beijing] has an extent of 24 miles, is surrounded by a very thick outer wall and has a square ground plan. The description emphasizes the richness and urbanity of the Chinese capital at the edge of the civilized world. To the north is Catayo, the Great Khan and his capital of Chanbaleth; to the south Manji, with its great cities of Zayton and Cansay. Here are some botanical, mineral, and metal alchemical components that were used in our new "Black Mummy Curse Of Anubis" spells, with diverse Angelic signatures that may also be used in the actual spell, at the discretion of the caster. We only work with the best, most pure advanced high magickal alchemies for every spell that we cast.
Advanced magickal alchemies can include natural stones, metals, minerals, and organic botanical alchemies. Here are many different types of alchemies that we used in our "Advanced Black Curse Of Anubis" Spell.
Some of the alchemical components here on our altar are lead, silver, dragon's blood resin incense, spanish moss,black onyx, volcanic stone, sulphur, different types of imported stones and crystals. Mixing and carefully blending high magickal alchemical components is a very delicate procedure,and must be done correctly the first time, with the correct type of tool to blend and mix them. After meticulous mixing of the alchemies, High Enchantress Jan adds specifically mixed precious imported oils, then gently blends them together. After High Enchantress Jan has mixed and blended the alchemical components, Master Wizard James gently and very carefully places them into a black bowl that has been consecrated and prepared for the specific ritual itself. Inside these specially prepared coffins are the mummy dolls that have been made by Master Wizard James and High Enchantress Jan for our "Black Curse Of Anubis" spell. Very carefully, High Enchantress Jan takes the prepared advanced high alchemical mixture and sprinkles them into the coffins all around the mummy dolls. This is an extremely volatile mixture from an ancient formulae and must be mixed with great caution.
This alchemical mixture formulae has been passed down to Master Wizard James from generations long ago from his blood line and is used as a final touch for many types of dark curses right before a casting takes place.
The mixture contains several components that when concocted into a boiling hot bubbling liquid, prepares the spell for a powerful activation during the actual casting. The mummy dolls inside their coffins are carefully placed inside the Egyptian pyramid and prepared for the consecrated spell fires. The pyramid with the mummy dolls contained and sealed inside their coffins are placed right on top of the sacred spell fires and all the written parts of the spell as well are offered to the High Angelic Host. Development assistance for Africa from traditional partners has mostly focused on how to best use the continent's natural resources. Carlos Lopes says Africa faces some serious problems and may need to lean on China's friendship and goodwill to complete the leap to industrialization. But with China having become Africa's leading trading partner, an opportunity has arisen for a new model.
China's journey to industrialization was often used as a reference point during a recent, weeklong forum on domestic resource mobilization that brought African planning and finance ministers and analysts to Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Still, Lopes says Africa is facing some serious problems and may need to lean on China's friendship and goodwill to complete the leap to industrialization.
Second, China has addressed much of its infrastructure needs and it will soon reach overcapacity. Third, rising labor costs in China will force out factories that are still in the lower value-addition level, making it necessary for them to move.
Africa is by no means the only option open for China, as other Asian countries offer similar options. The companies sometimes fail to deliver on time because of power cuts and a poor transport network that makes cross-border trade expensive. Africa overall continues to record slow growth despite harboring industrialization ambitions.
Progress can be determined through the degree to which African countries are diversifying their economies from a dependency on minerals. Lopes blames this on government inertia in prudently using the rich proceeds that have come from commodity markets in recent years to build other sectors. He says that's why narratives such as "the African Renaissance" were coined and now are in doubt because they were based on the beliefs of others and the fragility of the global market.
It's clear that China's waning appetite for Africa's commodities has had an impact on Africa's export sectors. Agenda 2063, agreed to by African heads of state, aims to optimize resources for the benefit of the continent's people. It is a comprehensive strategic plan for the socioeconomic transformation of the continent over the next 50 years. UNECA released several reports during the one-week forum in Ethiopia, providing empirical data to enable leaders and foreign investors to make informed decisions. But when the financial crisis and the subsequent economic recession hit his coal business, he decided it was time for another change and he fixed his mind on making wine. He named the vineyard Rongzi Chateau after a local woman who it is said to have made the first wine in China about 2,700 years ago.
The soil and climate in Xiangning are all favorable for grape growing, but to ensure the success of his vineyard, Zhang invited Kong Qingshan, a top grape planting scientist at the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, and Jean-Claude Berrouet, a world-renowned French winemaker to be consultants, and he imported advanced wine making and storage equipment from France, the United States, Australia, Italy and Hungary.
The chateau includes a temple memorializing Rongzi and her son, a wine museum, a business school, a school of Chinese studies, a hotel and several exquisite parks. He has also donated about 62 million yuan in recent years to assist more than 300 college students from poor families and build agricultural water conservancy projects, roads and schools in local poverty-stricken villages. After his wines started wining some prizes in Europe three years ago, Zhang began receiving orders from the US, Thailand, Macao and Hong Kong, and his sales revenue was 20 million yuan in the second half of 2014, when Rongzi wines were first launched. According to Vinexpo, an international wine and spirits exhibition established in 1981 in Bordeaux, France, wine consumption started rising markedly in China in 2005. A vineyard of Rongzi Chateau in Shanxi province, North China, where their roots can grow meters deep into the soil on the loess plateau. When talking about his more than 20 years working as a coronary artery and carotid artery surgeon, Liu Peng, 55, said that he felt sorry for his family as he seldom has any time to be with them due to his schedule of five or six operations a day. Having studied cardiovascular operations in Japan and carotid artery operations in the United States, Liu said that the workload of Chinese surgeons is about 10 or even 20 times that of their foreign counterparts, but they are paid much less.
As far as the relationship between doctors and patients is concerned, Liu said that thorough communication is a necessity between the two parties. It happened five years ago, when he had a patient who was suffering from Marfan Syndrome and needed to be operated on for a chance to survive.
With an increasing number of disputes between doctors and patients occurring and medical workers usually turning out to be the disadvantaged party, very few top senior high school students are choosing to take up medicine nowadays.
Liu will not allow his assistant to do an operation on his own until he has assisted at a minimum of 50 operations for fear that a slip of error by his assistant may possibly get him involved in a dispute with a patient. The 36-year-old harvested 400,000 Chinese cabbages from his 100 greenhouses in late March, bringing in a fortune of more than 2 million yuan (about $307,000).
This year, An plans to add six hectares of farmland by renting land from local farmers at the price of 15,000 yuan per hectare to his current 13.8 hectares. With repeating tests, An created a planting model - planting garlic sprouts, Chinese spring cabbage and watermelons in turn in a year. An went to markets to do research and found Chinese cabbages weighing between 2 kg and 2.5 kg are most popular among buyers. An's desk is packed with books and papers on rural economy, ecological agriculture, laws and rural policies.
He registered his land as a family farm in 2013 and began using a quick response code last year.
Wang said a professional farmer has to have not only planting skills, but also the ability to manage a rural business.
The country needs a new-type of professional farmers who can integrate modern elements such as science and technology and machinery into agricultural development to farm the large expanse of land left by rural laborers who poured into cities, as was cited by Minister of Agriculture Han Changfu on March 5 at a national meeting. Shandong, a major agricultural province in China, will be able to cultivate 500,000 professional farmers by 2020, according to Shandong agricultural bureau. An will open a company that provides services such as packaging in the second half of this year. Professional farmer An Liang (right), inspects his cabbages with a local official at his greenhouses near Jinan earlier this year.
Once a daily sight on every British street, a dwindling but resilient band of milkmen still go out at the crack of dawn to deliver bottles of fresh milk to the nation's doorsteps. The overwhelming majority of milk used to be sold at the front door until the supermarket revolution all but wiped out this very British institution. But by selling more than milk and embracing the Internet, the few thousand remaining milkmen, including Neil Garner, have breathed new life into the cherished tradition. The 57-year-old has driven his milk float - an electrified, open-sided delivery van - through towns and villages in the dead of night since 1994, placing glass pint (half-litre) bottles of milk on the doorstep ready for when customers wake for their morning cereal and cups of tea.
It's not just breakfast staples like tea bags, bread, butter, eggs and bacon that Garner now has on the back of his float.
In 1980, 89 percent of all the milk bought in Britain was delivered to the door, according to trade association Dairy UK. At the depot in nearby Watford, milkmen load up crates, containing 20 one-pint bottles each, before heading into the cold at around 2 am. Garner's no-frills electric milk float is slow and exposed to the elements, but the brisk walker likes the ease of hopping on and off for his 200 to 250 deliveries. The early drops are in pitch darkness, Garner needing a torch to find his way up the garden paths. Some customers leave rolled-up notes with instructions such as "no milk today" or "one extra pint, please", but most now go online. A pint of milk, typically 50 pence ($0.70, 65 euro cents) at a supermarket, costs 81 pence.
He relies on the few other people around to check his timing, including a man he sees getting on his bicycle each morning. The last delivery is done at 7:30 am, before Garner returns through rush-hour traffic to unload his empties at the depot. Not Eddie Platt, a British expatriate who single-handedly took on the scourge in Marseille, the southern French city where he took up residence in 2010. The idea is simple, if not particularly sexy: Participants post selfies on a social network - Facebook, Instagram or Twitter - each time they pick up a piece of litter and put it in the rubbish bin.
Ten tonnes of rescued rubbish later, the effort has cyber fans around the world from Buenos Aires to New York, and TV and newspapers are hounding Platt for interviews.
In fact Platt shot his founding litter-binning selfie in Leeds' sprawling Roundhay Park, one of Europe's biggest city parks.
The Yorkshireman says he does not self-identify as green but simply as a concerned citizen. One Sunday Platt - who has only an approximate mastery of French - led some 350 Marseillais on a climb up the city's tallest hill, topped by the imposing basilica Our Lady of the Guard, for a clean-up operation. Platt is hard to miss with his infectious smile, greying beard and backwards baseball cap, not to mention his towering height - he is six foot three (1.90 meters). Legre, who says he is "100 percent Marseillais", specializes in "viral marketing" and set Platt up with his social networking tools. Platt has had a varied career, working as a restaurant manager in England for "about 10 years, to make some money", then as a sales rep for a high-tech firm, before training to teach English abroad.
When it comes to growing its investment in China, what Mark Wiseman, president and chief executive of the Canada Pension Plan Investment Board, has in mind is China's share of the global gross domestic product. Wiseman, who manages one of the world's largest pension funds with total assets worth $215.7 billion at of the end of 2015, intends to match the fund's presence in China with the share of the Chinese economy in the world, which will represent somewhat between 25 to 30 percent of the global GDP by 2040. The CPPIB has deployed about $10 billion investment in China so far, which accounts for about 4.3 percent of the fund's total assets globally, he said. He said he intends to grow the fund's investment in China significantly in the coming years by tapping into the rise of consumer demand and building up cross-asset portfolios that cover sectors including real estate, logistics, infrastructure and private and public equities market.
One of its recent moves in China is the $500 million cornerstone investment in Postal Savings Bank of China Co, which is planning an initial public offering.
The CPPIB also manages an investment quota of $1.2 billion in the Chinese equities market under the Qualified Foreign Institutional Investor program. What is your assessment of the Chinese economy and how will the economic transformation in the country affect your investment strategy? We are looking at the big trends, including what is happening to the demographics and to the rise of consumer demand and how is the economy shifting away from inefficient State-owned industries to having a larger proportion of economic growth coming from more highly productive service sector.
What sectors in China do you want to increase the fund's exposure to and what sectors do you plan to exit? How do you see the volatilities of the Chinese stock market and the way the government stepped in to stem the market rout?
Is there any Canadian experience on the pension fund reform that you think China can learn from? We are very lucky in Canada that in 1997 there was a fundamental reform of the national pension scheme, which was led by then finance minister Paul Martin who tried to put in place a system that will be sustainable for generations. I think it is better to start earlier to look at the structure of the pension system and understand that you want to be in the position to support the retirees for a long period of time. The good news is that China has time given its economic growth and the profile of the population.
What is the difference between managing a pension fund and managing a regular investment firm? In many respects, we operate like an investment company because we have one client that is the national pension system. We know very clearly our job is to make risk-adjusted return in order to pay the pensions of the 19 million people. Germany's ranks of small and medium-sized enterprises, especially so-called hidden champions, have been key to drawing more Chinese investment, and the trend shows no signs of abating, according to Hermann Simon, one of the country's most influential business thinkers. Hidden champions are often market leaders, either worldwide or within the continent they are based in, with revenues below 5 billion euros ($5.55 billion).
Simon, chairman of Simon-Kucher & Partners, a global consultancy firm founded in Bonn, says Chinese investors, unlike some US firms, see acquisitions in Germany as long-term strategic investments. An Ernst & Young report in February shows Germany was the most attractive destination in Europe for Chinese investment last year, with 36 acquisitions. Simon, 69, believes this trend will continue thanks to Germany's many hidden champions, a term he coined to describe relatively unknown SMEs that are the backbone of a nation's economy and have for many years sustained Germany's leading position in exports. Many German SMEs are leading niche markets globally and are valued below several billion euros, he says, which makes them natural targets as the majority of Chinese acquisitions in Europe are limited in size, and Chinese industrial companies have a strong sense of affinity or preference for German SMEs. China is one of few nations with so many entrepreneurs that understand the concept of hidden champions, Simon says.
One prominent example he cites is a Chinese chemical products owner whom he met during a recent visit to Shandong province.
On another occasion, when Simon was giving a presentation in Shanghai, he noticed the hidden champions concept was met with great interest. There is a largely positive attitude in German business circles toward Chinese investors, according to Simon, who says that, unlike some US companies that acquired European enterprises and focused on maximizing short-term gains before looking to offload them again, Chinese buyers tend to see such purchases as strategic investments. The Chinese investment in Germany is less aggressive compared with the Americans, he says, adding that Chinese buyers in Germany behave in a moderate and reasonable way. Simon acknowledges there is concern in Germany about more Chinese investment pouring into the country, but says: "When General Motors took over Opel in 1929, or Ford built a huge automobile plant in Cologne in 1930, people said we would be dominated and conquered by the Americans, and that we would be a colony of the US. He believes Chinese investment can bring advantages for both sides and refutes the notion that Chinese companies are simply trying to extract know-how from Germany to transfer to China. In addition, he says, Chinese investment means German SMEs can gain a "stronger capital base" and access to the Chinese market.
Simon, who in an online poll by Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung newspaper was named the second-most influential management thinker in German-speaking countries, says German SMEs are in general becoming more open due to internationalization.
Although he believes Germany's hidden champions can be excellent role models for Chinese companies, Simon says most would still prefer to avoid a takeover if possible.
They combine specialties in products and know-how with global sales and marketing, and serve the target markets through subsidies. They are massive innovators, and the effectiveness of their R&D beats that of large companies by a factor of five. Their greatest strength is their closeness to customers, while their strategies are value oriented, not price oriented. According to Zhai, one of the reasons is that "China soon will become the largest source of travelers" for France outside Europe.
Outside Europe, China was France's second biggest tourist market in 2013 after the United States, with 1.7 million visitors and $681 million of revenue, Xinhua News Agency reported.
Currently the major museums in Paris provide instructions in Chinese, and Zhai said the conditions are still being improved. French Foreign Affairs Minister Laurent Fabius said in August last year that "the goal we have set with our Chinese officials is to quickly reach 5 million (Chinese tourists)".
Zhai noted that the French side has responded proactively by offering more convenience to Chinese tourists. Welcoming 84.1 million tourists in 2014, France confirmed its position as the world's most visited country. Zhai noted that in the past, the United States and Japan accounted for a major portion of the travelers, while the number of Chinese tourist has surged rapidly in recent years. The ambassador said that the country faced great security challenges last year, including two deadly terrorist attacks that shocked the world.
Last year, Beijing worked closely with Paris to make the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Paris a success.
Zhai said he was impressed last November by the unbeaten French spirit and the country's commitment to hosting such an event after a deadly terrorist attack that killed more than 100.
Although the number of Chinese tourists going to France dropped after the attacks, it was a minor dip compared with other countries, Zhai said.
The ambassador said the services provided by France for Chinese travelers have been improving, while "public security remains an issue" as cases of theft and robbery targeting Chinese travelers have been reported frequently. Due to the large number of Chinese tourists, the number of such cases is daunting and this indicates "a demanding task for the consular protection staff of our embassy and consulates", Zhai said.
Zhai noted that the French have made progress in boosting public security, including increasing cameras to monitor downtown areas and strengthening police patrols. But he thinks major improvement will not be achieved overnight because of the quickly rising number of Chinese tourists. Cao believes respect can be earned, and families will remember the good service, which is the result of years of practice. His workplace, Changshu Crematory, employs 10 cremators and cremates about 10,000 bodies each year.
He is also satisfied with his salary, saying that the pay, more than 100,000 yuan ($15,300) each year is "above average in Changshu". Charmed by a painting of Hong Kong's Victoria Harbor on the wall of his parents' sitting room in Dublin, Ireland, young Goff didn't know he would later be in charge of the place that gained China a spot in the Lonely Planet's list of world's greatest bookshops. He is talking quickly in the Beijing Bookworm, boxed in a building with notable pink walls outside, while inside red lanterns hang high from the ceiling and great music floats in the air. Hailed as one of the most beautiful bookstores in the world by many international media, it has been a "home away from home" to many.
Goff's efforts not only include being hospitable to customers and partners, and being passionate about books, he has to "be innovative" as he's managing brick-and-mortar bookshops in the digital age. The community-based Bookworm has year-round programs, and an annual literary festival that just wrapped up on Sunday. This year's Bookworm Literary Festival featured 180 writers and thinkers from 30 countries in 300 events. In the past decade, Goff has witnessed China become "more accessible than ever before" and with an increasingly attractive publishing market.
Calling China "one of those major countries an international writer can't miss to visit", he advised writers to come in with open eyes and open ears, taking in as much as they can. Goff was born in 1968 in Dublin into a family that "had no connection with China" besides that painting in the sitting room. After graduation with a degree in journalism from Rathmines College in 1992, he worked for several newspapers that brought him to Africa and central Europe.
He then arrived in Beijing "with no friends and no relatives here", stationed somewhere in the Haidian district where he studied Chinese and got an apartment before looking for a job.
Beginning in 2002, he and Alexandra Pearson, daughter of a British diplomat, started to manage a big English language book collection that became the foundation of the current Bookworm.
Goff went to Chengdu, Sichuan province, to develop a Bookworm branch in 2006, and later another one in Suzhou, Jiangsu province, in 2007. Goff took over part of Pearson's responsibility as she left for home in 2013, and since then has been based mostly in Beijing. And though he doesn't travel as much as previously, he still chooses to go to literary festivals around the world, including his top holiday destinations of Toronto, London and Jaipur. I'm looking for people who write stories that are based in today and really reflect young Chinese writers' experiences of the society they're living in.


People around world still have more historical views of the country-based on the movies and books they have experienced. I always come in at lunchtime at the Bookworm, and in the afternoon, do some organizational work with the team.
Investment is a personal and lonely experience, but becoming a startup entrepreneur can be even lonelier. Wei Min, founder and CEO of Yunhuo Technology, says people tend to overestimate their ability when they have a successful career path in a big company. The one thing I don't like about it is the fact that I seldom have the time or money to enjoy things. I live in a seaside villa in Hong Kong and I own a yacht, so it's not that I don't have the money for five-star hotels. Also, most people who enjoy a good start to their business tend to underestimate the difficulties that lay ahead. I was born into a fairly ordinary family in Dalian, which is on the northeast coast in Liaoning province. So far, I've invested about 10 million yuan in the initial development of the app, and I expect to spend another 30 million yuan on marketing. Our app is a platform that brings together job seekers and local employers looking to fill part-time positions.
Although this life is much harder than just going sailing on my yacht, becoming an entrepreneur is a lifestyle full of challenges, charm and growth opportunities. Zhuo Qiang has been involved in wildlife conservation in Kenya for five years, but he says he still gets odd looks from locals and tourists when they see him reinforcing bomas, which are predator-proof cowsheds used in the Maasai Mara's Ol Kinyei Conservancy. Zhuo, who started the fund in 2011 using his savings and donations from friends, says that view has remained largely unchanged despite the visible contributions in recent years by Chinese to conservation across the continent. In China, celebrities have gone a long way to raising awareness about wildlife protection in Africa. Yao Ming, the retired basketball star, visited Kenya in 2013 and appeared in the documentary, End of the Wild, which captured the threat posed by poachers to elephant populations. The former NBA All-Star is expected to return to the country for a star-studded summit to promote the issue in Nairobi on April 29, joining Hollywood stars Leonardo DiCaprio and Nicole Kidman, musician Elton John, US business leaders George Soros and Howard Buffett, and several heads of governments in Africa. Celebrities help to increase the visibility of a campaign, says Edwin Wanyonyi, chief strategist at Kenya Wildlife Services. This certainly appears to have been the case in China: When the Zimbabwean government announced in September that poachers had killed 85 elephants in a wildlife sanctuary by putting cyanide in their watering holes, many Chinese took to the Internet to condemn the act and call for tough penalties for the perpetrators. According to WildAid, a US-based NGO, poaching has fallen by 80 percent in recent years thanks to the work of governments and wildlife groups.
Wanyonyi says China has made significant contributions to elephant conservation in the country. During a three-day visit to Nairobi in 2014, Premier Li Keqiang pledged $10 million to support African wildlife protection. China and Kenya have also made significant progress in tightening surveillance of entry points for illegal ivory, he says. Moreover, the Chinese government's ban on the import of illegal ivory has been a major step.
Mara Conservation Fund founder Zhou, who is known locally as "Simba", has commended his country's government for participating in Kenya's conservation efforts. However, he adds, "For wildlife conservation to be successful more Chinese NGOs need to be established to champion the cause.
He says more investigations are needed globally to understand and effectively curb the illegal trade of ivory and rhino horn, and admits he has reservations about the forthcoming CITES meeting in South Africa that will discuss proposals to legalize the trade.
Zhuo says a strong international mechanism independent from political divisions, along with a clear consensus on law and enforcement, would boost efforts to halt the trade.
Those who criticize China's involvement in Africa's development would do well to keep in mind how the partnerships already have helped African nations achieve some of their key medium-term goals, says the man running Kenya's long-term development plan. A number of years ago, as the old millennium became a new one, many countries were facing basic challenges and needed to accelerate progress. Wainaina says he thinks Kenya would have fallen short in meeting such targets if traditional funding sources alone had been involved.
Alluding to critics who call China a neocolonial power in Africa, Wainaina says: "China is a true friend and partner.
More opportunities were presented when the Chinese government announced a $60 billion fund during the Forum on China Africa Cooperation in December in Johannesburg, South Africa. President Xi Jinping said in Johannesburg: "China has decided to provide a total of $60 billion of funding support.
Wainaina says this partnership can be sustainable if projects have contracts that emphasize Africa's needs. He believes that history has buoyed Kenya's confidence in Chinese firms, including heavy Chinese involvement in such projects as the $3.2 billion Nairobi-Mombasa Standard Gauge Railway to be completed this year, the $26 billion Lamu Port-South Sudan-Ethiopia Transport corridor, expansion of Jomo Kenyatta International Airport, and modernization of Mombasa port.
Such projects have converged well with the Belt and Road Initiative spearheaded by China that, among other things, earmarks the port of Mombasa as a key African hub. While noting that the Chinese firms have a leg-up in clinching government contracts, he discounts the notion that the Asian giant steers Africa's development agenda. To achieve mutual and sustainable growth, he advises African countries to conceive goals that are achievable and then engage China as a partner. When Liu Xianfa, the Chinese ambassador to Kenya, addressed the Vision 2030 board on China and the implementation of the development plan, an important lesson taken away from the meeting is the need to translate the roadmap "into Chinese", Wainaina says.
Wainaina adds, however, that the relationship is complex, with many levels, and at times there are disagreements.
But being a strong believer in the free market, he says laws should not be used to protect local content at the expense of quality. He applauds Ethiopia for enforcing high taxes on imports while encouraging quality manufacturing of leather goods, and believes other African countries could use this example. He says he thinks the partnership between Kenya and China will continue to be government-led. China is increasingly providing mutually beneficial growth opportunities for less-developed countries and economies hit by the current debt crisis, according to veteran diplomat Zhou Xiaoming. Such opportunities, he says, are being created via multinational institutions such as the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank and the New Development Bank (formerly BRICS Bank), and organizations like the United Nations. Veteran diplomat Zhou Xiaoming says China's experience, resources and technology can be shared with other developing countries. China is participating in long-term development programs at the UN, especially to help realize the Sustainable Development Goals adopted last year, following the country's major contribution to the Millennium Development Goals, which led to tremendous global growth between 2000 and 2015, he says. China showed its support for the new goals when President Xi Jinping attended the UN General Assembly that launched them in September and announced a number of major initiatives, including a South-South Cooperation Fund with an initial pledge of $2 billion to help developing countries implement a sweeping sustainable development agenda over the next 15 years. Between 1990 and 2015, more than 470 million people in China were lifted out of extreme poverty, according to data from the UN Development Programme. As the Sustainable Development Goals aims to lift another 1 billion worldwide out of poverty by 2030, China's experience, resources and technology can be shared with other developing countries, Zhou says. He says China's contribution toward poverty reduction is twofold: "We still have about 100 million people in China living below the poverty line, so we need to eliminate poverty domestically. China's support of a UN resolution for debt-burdened developing countries last year helped in restructuring their debt in a way that allowed their economies to grow in a sustainable way, Zhou says.
Such a clause is beneficial when considered within the context of the Argentinean debt crisis, which has for the past decade seen the country battle a small group of hedge funds that refused to join a deal it had agreed with more than 90 percent of creditors.
The deal would have allowed Argentina to pay back its debt at huge discounts, but the hedge funds refused and took the matter to court in New York, consequently prompting a new default by the country. The UN resolution, passed with 136 supporting votes, including that of China, was met with opposition from creditor nations such as the United States, Germany and the United Kingdom, and the European Union abstained as a whole. China, while still a developing nation, has become a global player in the world economy and a major international lender. In addition to supporting the UN resolution, China is also exempting the debt of outstanding intergovernmental interest-free loans due by the end of 2015 owed by the least-developed countries, landlocked developing countries and small island developing countries, as announced by Xi at the UN assembly meeting last year. Zhou, who served as minister counselor in the economic and commercial office at the Chinese embassy in London before taking up his post in Geneva last year, has seen China's rapid emergence onto the world stage through his extensive career as a diplomat.
In particular, over the past five years, he says there has been tremendous growth in UK-China relations, especially in financial services, property, high-technology manufacturing, creative industries, energy and infrastructure. He attributes the growth to the UK economy being open to foreign businesses, and China's enhanced capability to meet the UK's financing needs. Looking ahead, Zhou believes China will become further integrated in the world economy as it takes a leadership role in reviving global growth.
Please note that this love spell is white magic and ita€™s only for a person who is single and would like to meet the love of their life. Once the spell is completed continue to have faith and picture yourself with your soul mate. Let the visions of good return fast to me and once they start to return let positivity spark and light up within me.
You can repeat this spell chant for motivation as many times as needed but just remember to always think positive about your situation and see yourself being motivated to get things done on time. Sometimes it can be hard waiting for that opportunity to come around that we need and other times we might not get it at all.
Concentrate on opportunities that might be available to you and write your name down on your poppet. Please guide me with your hand thata€™s so gentle for I am just as worthy as these grains of sand.
Take your bowl of sand and let it trickle through your fingers so it signifies you touching earth. You can use this white magic spell for a few reasons such as getting a job, starting a brand new business and it can even help you with becoming successful in the business you are currently in. Tip: The list of ingredients might seem overwhelming but you can find most of them online or at you local store. When performing this spell you will need to dress in white and you will also need to purify yourself first.
Think positive after doing this spell and continue to see yourself prosperous and successful.
Dona€™t forget that you will want to repeat this spell every 13 days so that way it is consistent.
When you say the spell drip only one drop of the blessed water on the forehead of your pet. The candles represent the conscious of what is going on in regards to the conservation issues thata€™s in your animal. Take your white candle and light it because it represents the animal that is concerned or that you want to protect. To finish the spell give the treats to your pet or either scatter them outside for other animals to enjoy having. Sometimes you need to do a protection animal spell but you might not have any items to do the spell.
After you do the spells or affirmations think positive about your pet and know now that your pet is safe from all harm. There are times when we might need to do something extra to help with bringing abundance in our life and one great way is with doing a spell. Take your pen and write the word abundance on one side of the palm then write the word prosperity on the other side. When doing this spell it is important to not worry about any troubles you might have with money at this time.
Shut your eyes then visualize abundance flowing in an unlimited way directly into your hands.
Repeat this as many times as you would like: a€?I magnetize both abundance and prosperity daily in my life. Throughout the day say positive affirmations that will help you whenever you start to feel down. There are lots of health supplements available for weight loss and even weight loss tea but one way to lose weight and thata€™s extremely easy to do is with doing a Wicca weight loss spell. You will also need a pen and a paper and ideally, the pen can be one of the colors listed above. A crystal or stone charm and again, any of the colors listed above or you can opt in for a rose quartz or a red stone.
Make sure that you touch the areas of your body with the charm that you want to lose weight with and picture all of those things mentioned. If you find yourself still eating unhealthy foods then recast the spell and say positive affirmations. There are times that a spell is the best way to help your health and build up your immune system. King Charles requested this map from Peter of Aragon, patron of the best Majorcan mapmaker of the time: Abraham Cresques.
Originally the Catalan Atlas consisted of six large wooden panels that were covered with parchment on one side. To the right, from top to bottom, is a diagram of the tides; another lists the movable feasts, and a third drawing represents a blood-letting figure.
The result is that the Atlas represents a transitionary step towards the world maps developed later during the Renaissance, especially by its extensive application of contemporary geographical knowledge and ambitious scope. Although the sailors were used to plainer charts whose importance lay principally in their utility and accuracy, even ordinary marine charts begin to follow the Catalan tradition with regards to their use of standardized color patterns. When in 1381 the envoy of the French king asked King Peter of Aragon for a copy of the latest world map (proof in itself that the reputation of the Catalan school had been widely recognized) he was given this example, which has been preserved in Paris ever since.
For the first time in medieval cartography this continent assumed a recognizable form, with one or two notable exceptions. From west to east, the main divisions of the Mongol territory include the Empire of Sarra [the Kipchak Khanate], the Empire of Medeia [the Chagtai Khanate of the middle], and the suzerain empire of the Great Khan, Catayo [China]. Each side has a length of six miles, the wall is 20 paces high and lo paces thick, has 12 gateways and a large tower, in which hangs a great bell, which rings at the hour of first sleep or earlier.
The vertical waterway is the Grand Canal built by Kublai from Manji to Cambulac; below are the 7548 islands, rich in all manner of spicery, placed by Marco in the Sea of Chin. Of these, Canton is not mentioned by Marco Polo; it was, however, much frequented by Arab navigators and traders, upon whose reports the compiler was probably drawing.
Yule points out that Kao-li was the name given for Korea, and he therefore considers that the island Cresques depicts here represents confused notions about both the Korean peninsula and Japan; otherwise there is no obvious graphic reference or hint of Zipangu [Japan].
The first is difficult to explain; to make up for it the cartographer has inserted a great island of Jana [Java], which however was probably intended for Sumatra.
The notion that there were Christian rulers east of the Islamic world stems largely from the legend of Prester John; also important, however, were the real Christian minorities in India and the fact that the tomb of Saint Thomas was thought to be in Mailapore, a suburb of Madras, the Mirapore of the map. And it sometimes happens though rarely, that the widow of the dead man throws herself into the flames,a€? a practice that recalls widow-burning (sutti) of India. There we are told that Satan came to his aid and helped him to imprison the Tartars Gog and Magog. The Persian Gulf, extending almost due west, has an outline similar to that on the Dulcert map, but is otherwise superior to any earlier map. Herein lies a succession of physical features: mountains, rivers, lakes and towns with corrupt but recognizable forms of their medieval names as given in the narratives of the great travelers of the 13th century. It is also possible to discern traces of their second journey, accompanied by Marco, in which they employed the 'south road' of the silk route, and, except for a detour through Ormis at the bottom of the Persian Gulf, ran from Trebizond through Eri [Herat], Badakshan, and along the southern edge of the Tarim basin from Khotan to the city of Lop. Unlike many classical and fellow medieval scholars, the draftsman of Majorca showed praiseworthy restraint in this respect.
For here, as is often the case in other maps of the period, the cartographer compensated for the dearth of known geographical points by including historical facts. The delineation of the Nile river system is vitiated, however, by the conception that it flowed from a great lake in the Guinea region, Lacus Nili.
As previously mentioned, the early draftsmen insisted upon cutting the continent short just beyond the limit of coastal knowledge, that is, in the vicinity of Cape Bojador. It is cut in two by a land passage, a conventional allusion to Moses' miraculous crossing (Exodus, 14:2122). Between the Persian Gulf and the Caspian Sea appears the King of Tauris [Tabriz] and north of him Jani-Beg, ruler of the kingdom of the Golden Horde, who died in 1357. Stories reached 14th century Europe of the splendor of Mansa Musa, ruler of the Mali and lord of Guinea, one of the reputed richest of the 'Negro Kingdoms' of the Sudan, whose pilgrimage to Mecca created a sensation in 1324. However, there are great differences to be observed between what is labeled by some the a€?portolano sectiona€? (sheets 3 and 4, Europe and North Africa) and the rest of the map sheets.
The legendary Insula de Brazil, for example, which is found on various medieval maps of the North Atlantic and later gave its name to Brazil, is shown here twice, once west of Ireland and a second time farther south.
Elsewhere, however, the weight of received opinion is still felt, as, for example, in the various islands with fabulous names; they cannot represent the Madeiran group, as these islands were discovered only in 1418-1419.
In the same spirit he removed from the map many of the traditional fables which had been accepted for centuries, and preferred to omit the northern and southern regions entirely, or to leave southern Africa blank rather than fill it with the anthropagi and other monsters which adorn the bulk of medieval maps. This contrasts strongly with the people of the islands farther east who are described as savages living naked, eating raw fish, and drinking sea water. Needless to say, things have yet to look up," says Carlos Lopes, 56, an economist from the small West African nation of Guinea-Bissau who is executive secretary of the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa.
First, China is betting on Africa's demographic growth, which presents a consumer base and sizeable labor force predicted to surpass China's in 50 years.
The Asian country is its top trading partner, and a remarkable transformation is already taking place as Chinese investment is directed toward industrialization, which is creating employment for local people.
Apprehension is rife over the ability of several countries to sustain their economic growth in the face of tumbling oil and commodity prices. But Lopes is quick to note that President Xi Jinping's $60 billion announcement during the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation summit in South Africa last year gave the continent a boost. It seeks to accelerate development of vibrant and inclusive economies that are integrated and connected through transport networks, internet telecommunications and common markets that promote free movement of people and goods. He spent more than 600 million yuan ($92 million) to create a 400-hectare vineyard and a 30-hectare park with chateau in the county. Rongzi's son became the Jin Kingdom's king during the Warring States Period (475 BC - 221 BC) and wine-making became popular in the region. About 200 local residents work at the chateau, and more than 3,000 farmers from 22 villages work in the vineyard. It more than doubled to 50 million yuan last year, and Zhang predicts the figure will hit 80 million yuan this year, as wine grows more popular in the country.
For patients who have problems with their coronary arteries and carotid arteries at the same time, Liu tries to perform the two operations at a single sitting, which can reduce the risks of heart failure. It took him five hours to successfully do both during a single operation on a patient in 2014, and he has done such double operations together on more than 70 patients since. Back in 2003 when Beijing was struck by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, the Sino-Japanese Friendship Hospital was designated as special medical facility for receiving SARS patients and Liu was appointed director of the Intensive Care Unit. However, a medical material needed for the operation was not available at the hospital then. Whether the development of the overall healthcare provision in the country will see progress in the future and whether medical science will have bright prospects or not, is cause for concern.
Although caution is never too much when it comes to the safety of an operation, it is equally important for young surgeons to accumulate experience by performing operations on their own with the guidance of their teachers.
A company based in Hainan has signed a contract with An to buy all of the melons he grows at a favorable price. After years of hard work in the city, An found life in the city not as good as he dreamed of. The future's looking bright," said Garner, the customer-nominated Milkman of the Year at Milk and More, the country's biggest doorstep delivery firm.
He talks about his idea all the time, and he's really into social networking," says his friend Georges-Edouard Legre. But as he was hitchhiking in the general direction he blew in to Marseille, and it was love at first sight. Some of its high-profile deals include the $314.5 million investment in China's e-commerce giant Alibaba Group Holding Ltd since 2011 as well as the joint venture it formed last year with China's largest residential developer Vanke Co Ltd to invest a total of $250 million in the Chinese real estate market. Instead of looking at the short-term movements in the equities and foreign exchange markets, the fund focuses on the larger trends, including the shift of the Chinese economy away from the inefficient industries to the more productive private and service sectors, he said. By 2040, the expectation is that China will represent somewhere between 25 to 30 percent of the global GDP. Anything that is essentially attached to the Chinese consumers, directly or indirectly, is of interest for us. So the more long-term institutional investors with deep experience that are able to participate freely in the market, the less volatility and the greater degree of rationality that will be in the market. It is because as investors are coming in and out, selling and buying, we keep our eyes focused on the horizon, which will allow us to find deep value. I think in many respects, we have an easier time managing our portfolio than either a private asset management firm that has many different clients with many different needs or a sovereign wealth fund where it is often not clear who the client is. To focus on his core business, the Chinese entrepreneur gave up a couple of businesses and as a result is now the world leader in three chemical compounds. The hosting efforts continued and more attention was paid to anti-terror and other affairs," he said. Many Chinese prefer holding high-end bags in their hands after purchasing them," he said, adding that another bad habit is carrying large amounts of money to pay by cash. Where we're trying to develop is through the community, where lots of events are organized," he said. Goff has also tried launching a magazine, plus holding a literary award and running a press. In previous sessions, Peter Hessler, Benjamin Zephaniah, Howard Goldblatt as well as home authors Mo Yan, Yan Lianke and Bi Feiyu were festival speakers.
He said many of the writers from outside of China have arrived "with their own educational purposes". They are engaging in wider discussions over the years with topics like environmental awareness, a sense of self, of belonging and of social justice," he added. At that time he "caught the China bug", and was "struck by how dynamic China was as it was going through a period of such frenetic change" he wrote in a column in China Daily in 2015.
A social community platform where people would come in, listen to music, eat nice food, just hang out and meet people from all around the world," he said.
He developed a "hot and spicy" tooth there, and loves to take international writers to hot pot dinners even when they are in Beijing. He carried on the quake relief efforts until 2015, when he and the team handed over a school to the local authorities. I love its atmosphere, and bought a house there that I call my second home after Dublin," he said. And there's all those issues they're dealing with: all the issues of urbanization, job pressure, relationship pressure, family pressure, environmental pressures, that all those different things coming together and all being seen on a daily basis. It's important that those new things get out, not to ignore the great historical materials, but also have with that, contemporary material, contemporary writers who are young, energetic, charming, smart people.
The biggest threat to our existence every month is how to pay rent, how to raise money to pay for those flights for so many authors. The people we invited to this year's Bookworm festival are some of my favorite writers: A Yi, Han Song, Yi Sha. Yet there are so many unexpected difficulties that need to be conquered, and it can be a miserable life. To save cash, I fly economy and stay in cheap chain hotels that cost no more than 200 yuan ($30; 27 euros) a night. I quit that job to start my own oil-trading fund, which in four years saw profits soar 480 percent. I set up two personal wealth management companies in 2012, but I eventually had to shut both down because I couldn't find the right talent. People tend to overestimate their ability when they have a successful career path in a big company. After its launch in mid-March, the number of the active customers hit about 10,000 within a week, which is a good start for a startup like us.
He is the first Chinese national to found a wildlife conservation not-for-profit organization in Kenya.
The government of Kenya confirms that just 57 elephants and 5 rhinos were killed in Kenya in 2015. And shortly after President Xi Jinping's visit to Zimbabwe in December last year, China donated vehicles and equipment to anti-poaching forces there, too.
He is CEO of China House, an organization in Nairobi that helps Chinese companies with social projects in Kenya, including wildlife conservation. During a recent presentation in Nairobi, he said: "There's just no tangible data that can be used to support this idea.


This, he believes, will require key contributions from the United Nations Environment Program, the United States, China and the European Union. This was achieved and the (Kenyan) economy recorded 7 percent growth in 2007," says Gituro Wainaina, acting director-general of Kenya Vision 2030 Delivery Secretariat. Africa started witnessing true and sustainable growth after China's entry because they are working cohesively with African governments," he says. The initiative would connect China with Europe, Africa and other areas by means of investment and infrastructure along the traditional Silk Road routes. Audits should be carried out often to revise goals while re-engaging China in the areas of need.
By that he means designing the language and tone of the program to be easily understood by Chinese investors.
He says there has been some controversy about the involvement of Chinese entrepreneurs in small businesses.
Internationally, we can contribute in many ways: trade expansion, economic aid, productive capacity building, and infrastructure development. Loans from the China Development Bank and the Export-Import Bank of China to investment in African countries have, for example, outnumbered the lending of the World Bank. In addition, the UK's expertise in building a knowledge economy is also helpful to China as the country experiences a structural transition from a growth model fueled by manufacturing to one led by services and consumption. After you cast your circle take the yellow candles and put them in a triangle that is in front of you. Maybe you might even just have problems with getting motivated to wake up and get a move on. I invoke the Higher Power among the obstacles these hours to help with awakening the motivation that is in my heart. However, having a white candle or several white candles might help with motivation and could even speed up the process.
This spell is to help push you towards the right direction with creating the opportunity that you need.
Soon you will start seeing many doors being opened and find yourself trying to decide what opportunity might be the best one for you to take. The spell is white magic but it does require a few special magical ingredients to help with making it work properly. Wash your hands and once you have washed your hands apply a few drops of the essential oil but mix it with a carrier oil like almond oil because a lot of oils might irritate your skin when you put them directly on your hand.
In order to do this take your green candles and put them at each of the cardinal points, then put the white candle directly in front of you. Rub the sides down with oil and use a tissue or either gloves to help with rubbing it so your skin wona€™t become irritated.
However, if you end up missing a day you will need to start again the next time there is a waxing moon.
Sometimes these abundance spells work fast and other times the spells work slow but always think positive when you do the spell regardless as to how long it might take for them to work. There are lots of reasons as to why a person might want to even lose weight but often times ita€™s to help with getting in those pair of jeans that you couldna€™t fit into last year but other times it might even be related to health problems.
When you are in the process of doing this picture yourself with the goal you have in mind and losing weight. Put your paper in a place that is safe and try your best to keep the charm in a safe place with you at all times. You should try and take care of your health throughout the year but sometimes it can be difficult and thata€™s why doing a Wicca health spell can greatly help you. However, you still might want to consider other ways to help with boosting up your immune system such as eating healthy vegetables and fruit plus getting enough rest to ensure that this potion works properly. This form later was transformed into a block-book, in which each sheet formed a double page, the parchment itself serving as a hinge between each of the two wooden panels. The latter is accompanied by a long text describing the world; it deals with its creation, the four elements of which it is composed, its shape, dimensions, and divisions.
Though the Catalan Atlas is the earliest complete example of its kind which has survived, it was undoubtedly preceded by other similar attempts at extending the range of the portolan chart. Thus, pilots knew at a glance, for instance, that any port lettered in red offered revictualing and a safe harbor; dots and crosses, on the other hand, indicated underwater hazards. Continental interiors are filled with detail, compass lines drawn, and decorative items are added to enhance the nearly up-to-date picture. Its capital at Cambalucr or Chanbaleth [Beijing], the city of the Great Khan which so intrigued the chroniclers of the 14th century, receives due prominence, with a long legend describing its magnitude and grandeurs.
When it has finished ringing, no one may pass through the town, and at each gate a thousand men are on guard, not out of fear but in honor of the sovereign. The attempt at representing the configuration of the coast suggests at least that his informants were interested from a maritime point of view. Altogether, as mentioned above, we are told there are 7,548 islands in the Indian Ocean; they are rich in gold, silver, spices, and precious stones, so much so that a€?great ships of many different nationsa€? trade in their waters. Farther north is the realm of Kebek Khan, a historical figure who reigned from 1309 to 1326: a€?Here reigns King Chabeh, ruler of the Kingdom of the Middle Horde.
Here the text contains information from Marco Polo's account of how in the province of Malabar the death of criminals, who are compelled to commit suicide, is celebrated by their relatives with his observation on the custom of widows immolating themselves on the pyres of their dead husbands, mentioned a few lines later.
In the Gulf, the island of Ormis [Hormuz] is shown, opposite the former settlement of the same name on the mainland. These are jumbled together in a manner sometimes difficult to understand, but with the help of Marco Polo's narrative, it is possible to disentangle the itineraries which the map was evidently intended to set out. East of this lies the lake, Yssikol [Issik Kul], and Emalech the seat of the Khan, the Armalec of other travelers, in the Kuldja region. The compiler, however, perhaps because he confused this desert area with the Gobi, has transferred this stretch to the north of the Issik Kul. In addition to Asia, the narratives of contemporary travelers were also extensively used by Cresques in Africa. We are told, for example, that merchants bound for Guinea pass the Atlas mountain range, shown here in its typical form of a bird's leg with three claws at its eastern end, at Val de Durcha.
This rare speculation on the part of Cresques contained at least some partial truth because the Lacus Nili, the Pactolus of Strabo, and the Palolus of later maps, which in the Catalan Atlas and subsequent works is located in the neighborhood of Timbuktu, may reasonably be identified with the flood region of the Niger.
By so doing, however, they found themselves reducing the vast extent of the Sahara almost to a vanishing point. The port of Quseir is clearly marked, and the accompanying text specifies that it is here that spices are taken on land and sent to Cairo and Alexandria. The importance of Baghdad as a center of the spice trade is emphasized; from there, precious wares from India are sent throughout the Syrian land and especially to Damascus. This African prince appears in the Catalan Atlas in a stately fashion with crown, orb, and scepter, with the inscription: The richest and noblest King in the world. In this section the coastlines are greatly differentiated and the abundance of names is in great contrast with the quantity of information, literally and graphically, supplied in sheets 5 and 6 (Asia). Nor can they be the Azores, which are first mentioned in 1427, or the Cape Verde Islands discovered only in 1455-1456. They are obviously to be identified with the Ichthyophagi, one of the fabulous races traditionally placed in Asia or in Africa.
Already, Ethiopia and Rwanda are beneficiaries of light factories dealing in leather and textiles. The grant is a lot of money and for it to be spent in three years, the absorptive capacity needs to be thoroughly worked on.
The great number of patients they treat provides Chinese doctors, those in big hospitals in particular, with more than enough opportunities to accumulate clinical experience, but China is not the right place for doctors wanting to make a lot of money, Liu said.
To save the life of the patient, Liu proposed that the family directly contact the producer to get the material and they did so. He needs to train someone who is as skillful as he is and as dedicated to the work as he is to take over from him. We look at opportunities in sectors related to the growing middle class and the growing consumer demand driven by the private sector as opposed to the State-owned sector. We want to make sure that we understand the risks and we are able to get compensated appropriately. But you also have a population in terms of structure that is going to be disproportionally old as a result of the one-child policy.
It's an honor in many ways, because China is a wonderful country with an incredible past and a really exciting future. I don't mind, whatever way works for a bookshop to keep still open, I'm very happy to do that.
It's about this generation of Chinese youth, where they're going to, what problems they are facing, how they are moving out into the world.
I've become much more mature and gained a lot of valuable business management experience from my two failures. When I saw the news in 2014 about Chinese e-commerce company Alibaba listing in the United States, I was amazed by its achievements.
It pushed us to rein in the tide as we were considered the source, transit and destination countries. The international community should recognize this, as China can become a leader in global wildlife conservation," he says. Vision 2030 outlines development of key infrastructure to move the economy into the middle-income bracket. He emphasizes the need for strong domestic policies and regulations to defuse such conflicts by encouraging partnerships. This motivation spell chant is a simple one but yet at the same time it is also very strong. When you put a protection spell around them then you will feel much more at ease about whatever they do because you know they are safe and protected because of your spell. This type of spell should only be used if you are overweight or need to lose several pounds.
Red stands for energy and health, orange stands for great success, green is for health and beauty and yellow is for great mental power. Picture yourself enjoying healthy food and hating junk food, picture yourself liking exercise and staying committed to your weight loss goal.
This type of spell is best done right before you have your breakfast because you will need to brew up a potion. This arrangement led to the folds of the precious sheets becoming worn through with use, so that these sheets were divided into 12 half-sheets, mounted on boards to fold like a screen. Then come geographical accounts of countries, continents, oceans, and tides, as well as astronomical and meteorological information.
Abraham Cresques, a Jew of Palma on the island of Majorca, for many years was 'master of mappaemundi and compasses', i.e. From the Mar del Sarra [Caspian Sea] in the west, with a fairly accurate outline in the style of the portolan charts, the Mongol domains stretch away eastwards to the coasts of Catayo [China]. Some of the islands off Quinsay may stand for the Chusan archipelago, and further to the south is the large island of Caynam, [Hainan]. The kingdoms of India as enumerated by Polo are absent from the map, and there are significant differences in the towns appearing in the two documents. The reference is to the gate that Alexander is supposed to have built in the Caspian Mountains to exclude Gog and Magog, who are here equated with various Central Asian tribes. The Southern Arabian coast has names differing from those given by Polo, and in one of them, Adramant, we may recognize the modern Hadhramaut. The delineation is then confused by the repetition of the Badakshan uplands, the mountains of Baldassia, a mistake that probably arose from confusion over the river system of southern Asia. In fact the section illustrated by #235B is thought to represent Nicolo and Maffeo Polo, with their Mongol envoys, crossing the Tien Shan mountains on their way through what is now China's Sinkiang Province, to Beijing (south is at the top). Here the special feature of interest on the Catalan Atlas is the inscription and picture of the vessel recording the departure of the Catalan, Jacome Ferrer, on a voyage to the 'river of gold' southwest of the new Finisterre of Bojador in 1346.
More geographical information is given on the Maghreb, which, after all, is part of the Mediterranean.
Thanks to their notorious capacity to travel long distances without water, they completely transformed African trade, opening sub-Saharan areas to Islam. In Arabia, between the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf, is located the kingdom of Sheba; the queen, who came to visit King Solomon, is shown crowned and holding a golden disk as symbol of her wealth. Navigational information is also recorded: a€?From the mouth of the river of Baghdad, the Indian and Persian Oceans open out.
The mountains in the European and African section are arranged in chains or chain-like symbols, in Asia they appear as regular humped garlands of rocks. The Catalan Atlas, in fact, marks the progress in the gradual discovery of the Atlantic and the west coast of Africa with an illustration of Jaime Ferrera€™s ship, which, we are told, set sail on lo August 1346 bound for the fabulous Rio de Oro [River of Gold] in Africa.
In this spirit of critical realism, Cresques and his fellow Catalan cartographers of the 14th century, threw off the bonds of tradition and anticipated the achievements of the Renaissance.
The city stands near the apex of a triangle formed by two rivers and the ocean; each of the two rivers divides into three before reaching the sea, a representation embodying a somewhat confused notion of the inter-linked natural and artificial waterways of China.
Japan delocalized to China and now they have to do the same to sustain their competitive streak," he says. While he was not infected by the virus, several of his colleagues were not so lucky and they are still suffering from the sequelae after they were infected at that time. We don't focus on what happens to the Shanghai Stock Exchange on Wednesday or what currency markets do on Thursday.
The challenge for us is how we take this 4.3 percent and get something closer to 25 percent.
It also involves being incredibly diligent when we decide to make any individual investment, whether it is a piece of real estate or in a PE company.
I think my philosophy is that taking risk is part of the job and part of constructing a good portfolio. And I think it's just great to have the opportunity to be present to watch these rapid changes happen on a day-to-day basis, watch the society blossom, and watch China become a real high-profile member on every level of the world society.
Visualize a rose colored light that is enveloping around you and start picturing your appearance changing.
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Four half-sheets are occupied by cosmographical and navigational data, they describe the whole concept of the world, show astronomical and astrological representations, and provide information about the calendar, the sun, moon, planets, the signs of the zodiac and the tides.
The second sheet presents a spectacular diagram of a large astronomical and astrological wheel. This country makes a sweep from east to south with an approach to its actual form, and along it's coast appear several of the great medieval ports and trading centers frequented by Arab merchants.
There Cresques placed some of the fabulous and monstrous races legendary in classical antiquity and the Middle Ages: a€?On this island are people who are very different from the rest of mankind. Conspicuous on the map is the Christian Kingdom and city of Columbo, placed on the east coast. And know that these people marry at the age of about twelve years and generally live to be 40 years old.
The island of Scotra, an important stage on the trade route from Aden to India, is misplaced to the east, and appears to occupy the approximate position of the Kuria Muria Islands. The legend above them reads, in translation: This caravan left the Empire of Sarra to go to Catayo, across a Great Desert (Sarai, on the Edil [Volga], was the capital of the Kipchak Tartars, from which the Polos had set out about 1262.
This refers to the northwest coast of Africa which extends beyond Cape Bojador to a point just north of the Rio d'Oro. Later draftsmen, in order to escape the embarrassment caused by indicating the great trans-Saharan caravan routes within these narrow limits, began to speculate on the course of the west African coast, south of Bojador. Here they fish for pearls, which are supplied to the town of Baghdad.a€? We learn that a€?before they dive to the bottom of the sea, pearl fishers recite magic spells with which they frighten away the fisha€? a piece of information that comes straight from Marco Polo, who mentions that the pearl fishers on the Malabar coast are protected by the magic and spells of the Brahmins. The heathens believe that Paradise is situated there, because the islands have such a temperate climate and such a great fertility of the soil.
For this reason the heathens of India believe that their souls are transported to these islands after death, where they live for ever on the scent of these fruits. Despite the fact that it is common for the dangerous operation to fail and the patient's family had signed a consent form for the operation exempting the surgeon from responsibility if the operation was not successful, the family accused Liu of collaboration with the medical material producer. The job of getting more capital into the market is one of the most important strategic issues that we have. What defines what we do at the CPPIB is constant learning and refinement of the processes and our knowledge. An even earlier chart (probably covering the whole 'world' originally), that by Angelino Dulcert, of Majorca, dated 1339, also has points of resemblance to the Catalan Atlas. There are several references to world maps executed by him, though this is the only one now known.
There is a further allusion to Alexander having erected two trumpet-blowing figures in bronze; these, according to various medieval legends, resounded with the wind and frightened the Tartars until the instruments were blocked up by various nesting birds and animals. For India and the ocean to the west, therefore, we may conclude that charts were used which differed in detail from Polo's account, though similar in general features. Here unfortunately the map ends; unlike the Medici Atlas, or some others, it makes no attempt at a representation, conjecture or otherwise, of the southern portion of this continent. The text beside a Touareg riding on a camel and also a group of tents informs us that this land is inhabited by veiled people living in tents and riding camels. Various trading stations are indicated on the shore of the Indian Ocean from Hormus, a€?where India begins,a€? to Quilon in Kerala. With meticulous care the islands in the region of the portolan chart section are displayed, they are painted in color, some of them like Sicily, Sardinia and Corsica are shown in gold.
Liu said that although he had no connection with the producer, in the end, the hospital paid the patient's family compensation. The other elements (fire, air, water) are incorporated into the next three concentric circles; then come the seven planets, the band of the zodiac, and the various stations and phases of the moon. In view of the possible identity of Dulcert, and the Ligurian origin of the Medici Atlas, we may conclude that this type of world map, though developed by Catalans, originated early in the 14th century in northern Italy, where the narrative of Marco Polo, which, as will be seen, supplied many of the details embodied in the map, would be most readily available.
After his death in 1387, his work was carried on by his son, Jafuda, who eventually instructed the Portuguese under the patronage of Prince Henry the Navigator. This form of the name (it is rendered Coilum by Polo), and other details, suggest that the compiler drew upon the writings of Friar Jordanus, who was a missionary in this area, and whose Book of Marvels was completed and in circulation by 1340. It is marked by a line of towns up the valley of the Edil from Agitarchan [Astrakhan] through Sarra [Sarai], Borgar, and thence eastward through Pascherit [probably representing the territory of the Bashkirs east of the middle Volga], and Sebur, or Sibir, a medieval settlement whose site is unknown, but thought to be on the upper Irtish. The crowned black man holding a golden disk is identified as Musse Melly, a€?lord of the negroes of Guineaa€? - in fact, Mansa Musa, of fabulous wealth.
Speculation of this sort did at least have the merit of enabling the mapmaker to draw the Sahara with greater accuracy. These proportions are of some significance, for they have undoubtedly restricted the cartographer in his portrayal of the extreme northern and southern regions. The next six rings are devoted to the lunar calendar and to an account of the effect of the moon when it is found in the different signs of the zodiac. The Catalan Atlas says: The circumference of the earth is 180,000 stadia, that is to say 20,052 miles (this is the same calculation as Ptolemy's, yet it was given a full thirty years prior to the first known Latin translation of his Geographia, #119 ).
But the day of the Jewish school of cartography at Majorca was already drawing to a close, owing to the wave of persecution which swept through the Aragon kingdom in the latter years of the century. Possibly additions were also made so that the map might serve as an illustration to his narrative. In this quarter, the information upon which the map is based was not drawn from Marco Polo. Also its treatment of the Atlantic islands: the Azores, Canary, and Madeira groups, is more complete than any representation of earlier times.
The gap in the snake-like Atlas Mountain chain of North Africa is meant to illustrate a pass that these Arab merchants commonly used (#235A). This was perhaps to some extent deliberate, for two years before the composition of this map, we hear of the Infant John (son of Peter of Aragon) demanding a map 'well executed and drawn with its East and West' and figuring 'all that could be shown of the West and of the Strait [of Gibraltar] leading to the West'. Three more rings show, respectively, the division of the circle into degrees, while the last gives an account of the Golden Number.
There are still other names which are not found in Jordanus either; but the commercial importance of Cambay (Canbetum, on the map) would account for the relatively detailed information about this region. To the south is a long east-west range, called the Mountains of Sebur, representing the northwestern face of the Tien Shan and Altai. His pilgrimage to Mecca, including a visit to Cairo, was famous for the enormous amount of gold he spent on that occasion. The Infant, in other words, was interested, not in northern Europe and Asia or in southern Africa, but in the Orient and the Western Ocean. They eat white men and strangers, if they can catch them.a€? The reference is to giants familiar from the medieval Alexander legend, specifically defined here as Anthropophagi. There is, surprisingly, no indication of the river Indus, a striking omission also from Polo's narrative.
In the late 13th and early 14th centuries there were Franciscan mission stations at these localities, and the details no doubt came originally from the friars. This is plausible enough, for he controlled a large part of Africa, from Gambia and Senegal to Gao on the Niger, and had access to some of its richest gold deposits.
The cartographer satisfied him by cutting out, as it were, an east-west rectangle from a circular world map which would cover the desired area. George Grosjean, in his commentary on the 1977 facsimile edition of the Atlas, stresses that the orientation of this map must be understood from its essential part.
To these far distant waters are also relegated mermaids, some of them probably the traditional half-woman and half-fish, the others more siren-like half-birds. This oversight probably arose from confusion that often can be found between the Indus and the river Ganges.a€?The Indian powers are represented on the Catalan Atlas by the Sultan of Delhi and the Hindu King of Vijayanagar, who is wrongly identified as a Christian. Reports of the fabulous wealth of this African ruler did much to encourage an interest in the exploration of Africa.
This oversight probably arose from confusion that often can be found between the Indus and the river Ganges.The Indian powers are represented on the Catalan Atlas by the Sultan of Delhi and the Hindu King of Vijayanagar, who is wrongly identified as a Christian.
The map was constructed in the portolano style, a type of medieval navigation chart which was intended to lie on the chart-table of a ship and always was oriented to the necessities of navigation, thus there is no 'orientation of priority' of such maps. The one illustrated has two fishtails, in accordance with one of the most common medieval conventions.
Farther north appear the Three Wise Men on their way to Bethlehem and at the top (or bottom) of the map a caravan; all of the latter figures are drawn upside down, as the map was probably meant to be laid horizontally and viewed from both sides. The shape of the Catalan Atlas, therefore, must not be taken as evidence on questions such as the extent, form or knowledge of the African continent; nor does the change from a circular to a rectangular frame indicate specifically any change in ideas relating to the shape of the earth. Since the Atlas was not intended as a portolano for daily use but instead was a luxury edition for a princely library, it is useless to ask for correct orientation of the map-sheets. Camels laden with goods are followed by their drivers; behind them various people, one of them asleep, are riding horses.
This fact notwithstanding, however, as the legends that are legible prevail in north-orientation, in the modern literature of the maps the north-orientation is now adopted.a€?A major impetus to the advancement of exploration in Western Europe during the later Middle Ages came through the evolution and use of this very kind of map, the nautical chart or portolano. This fact notwithstanding, however, as the legends that are legible prevail in north-orientation, in the modern literature of the maps the north-orientation is now adopted.A major impetus to the advancement of exploration in Western Europe during the later Middle Ages came through the evolution and use of this very kind of map, the nautical chart or portolano. Designed to assist mariners find their way at sea, it served a practical purpose akin to that of the future road map, but it answered this purpose by depicting not the route itself, but detailed coastlines and hazards to shipping. Mariners previously had to rely on written itineraries which can be traced back to the peripli or coastal pilots of the classical world. Following the introduction of the mariner's compass in Europe towards the end of the 13th century, nautical or portolan charts were made as an extension of the peripli, constructed on a framework of radiating compass lines, with north at the top. Places were located and marked around the coasts, while places located further inland and usually the entire interior of the continents were left blank. The province and town of Lop mentioned by Marco Polo can be connected with the modern town of Ruoqiang (Charkhlik) south of Lop Nor. It should be emphasized that while the Atlas was drawn in the portolano style, it is not, strictly speaking, a portolan chart. The typical nautical chart, which some scholars believe had its origin with the Catalan mapmakers, had hitherto been cartographically the very opposite of the medieval theocratic or ecclesiastical maps. Portolan charts traditionally displayed only known, discovered coasts, precisely detailed harbors, river mouths, rocks, shallows, currents, etc.



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