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That’s why when something goes extremely viral, such as pictures of Kim Kardashian’s bottom or #thedress, we joke about it “breaking the internet”. This is because, well, that obviously isn’t going to happen – but we’re searching for some way of exaggerating the impact of the event. Part of the answer lies in London’s docklands district: nestled just north-east of Canary Wharf is a large, unassuming building.
Its grey, monolithic exterior is surrounded by a metal fence and there are security cameras dotted along its windowless walls. It’s called “Linx”, the London Internet Exchange, and it’s one of the biggest points of traffic exchange on the internet anywhere in the world.
Matthew Prince, CEO of content delivery network CloudFlare, puts the number of large facilities like Linx at “around 30”. These buildings, scattered across the globe, are where networks from providers like Virgin or Comcast come together to exchange their traffic. And if any of them were cut off – by a power cut or earthquake, for instance – we would know about it.
Perhaps cutting the links between such places, then, would be an easier way to break the internet?


There are uncountable miles of cables wrapped around the globe, and many of the biggest are just lying there unprotected – albeit often underwater. Indeed, cables do sometimes get severed just by accident, for instance during earthquakes or when ships’ anchors slice through them on the seabed. It’s believed that significant internet disruptions in 2008 that affected countries including Egypt were caused by these sort of cable breaks. It might have stayed like that except for Donald Davies, a Welsh computer scientist, who came up with the same fundamental idea as Baran, completely independently and at almost exactly the same time. Their idea was called “packet-switching” and it describes a communications protocol that breaks messages down into small blocks, or packets.
These are fired across a network via the fastest route available – whatever that route is – until they all arrive at their destination, where they are then reassembled.
Take out one link in the network, even an important one, and messages can still arrive where they are expected by taking one of the many alternative routes. Even disconnecting entire regions, like Syria, won’t necessarily restrict internal communications within Syrian networks – though of course access to external websites like Google may no longer be possible.
Something like this happened a few years ago when Pakistan’s government tried to stop people in the country watching YouTube.


Huge numbers of people couldn’t access YouTube and all the traffic was instead sent to Pakistan, where the network infrastructure was quickly overloaded. It’s even been theorised that overloading routers with BGP updates could knock the entire internet offline. Re-routed traffic can cause unexpected headaches for the people who try to keep servers and online systems running. One blogger recently investigated what had sent a mail server offline only to discover mistakenly re-routed traffic was the cause.
He points out that physical attacks on the internet’s infrastructure are unlikely to do much permanent damage. Danny Hillis, an early pioneer of internet technology, pointed this out to an audience at TED in 2013.



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