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Electrical Engineering Stack Exchange is a question and answer site for electronics and electrical engineering professionals, students, and enthusiasts. There's no such thing as "lossless" anything in electronics, and there's not a single IC that's designed to do what you want. R1 essentially drops the difference between the Zener diode and the AC mains potential, so it's not going to be efficient for anything except light loads. This introduces a bulky, costly transformer into the design, but it's more efficient than the previous design, and your load can vary quite a bit.
As you can see, AC mains voltage is immediately rectified and filtered to produce high voltage DC. These converters, in general, provide a great amount of efficiency and can also source high-power loads.
The 7805 in figure 4 immediately reduces efficiency to under 70% due to very high dropout voltage of regulator.
These circuits are so far good enough (taken from the Internet): less components + isolation bonus.
I am mildly surprised that while the Non-Isolating Zener Supply was provided, there is no mention of a non-isolating capacitive reactance circuit voltage divider. If the device functions within a narrow current requirement, this can be reasonably efficient. IMO, a MOV (metal-oxide varistor) should be added to all of these designs to protect against line transients.
It's very nice to have no external components required (or, at least very few compared to the typical support for a switched mode DC-DC converter IC).

This circuit replaced all 1N4001 rectifiers with 1N5819 Schottky rectifiers and used a low dropout linear regulator AMS1117-5.0. An LDO with PMOS pass element (AMS1117 used PNP BJT) can have even smaller loss (headroom of a few tens of millivolts from its \$R_{ds(on)}\$) and hence more efficient. Not the answer you're looking for?Browse other questions tagged voltage ac dc converter or ask your own question. Raspberry Pi Stack Exchange is a question and answer site for users and developers of hardware and software for Raspberry Pi.
The voltage at end of the USB connector is 5V, but the voltage at the test points on the pi itself is only around 4V. You could connect 10 Ohm resistor (so that you get 500mA of current on it) to your connector and see what voltage you will get on it.
Well it wasn't the fuse but your answer made me check the pd across it, and it was low - meaning there must be something wrong with my cable. The micro-USB connection should be supplied 5V and it should read 5V across the Test Points. Not the answer you're looking for?Browse other questions tagged power-supply alternative-power or ask your own question. Why is E the correct answer to a practice test on an article titled 'Quake rocks Southern Phillippines'?
Is there any truth to interpreting definition of a second as corresponding to oscillations?
Also, your load can't change dramatically, as the resistor has to be sized to provide enough current to the zener to cause it to reverse avalanche, without providing too much current.

These work on the principle of first converting AC to DC, then switching the DC at very high frequencies to make optimal use of the transformer's characteristics, as well as minimize the size (and loss) of the filter network on the secondary. The Power Integrations device switches this voltage rapidly across the transformer's primary side.
These are the sorts of supplies you see in everything from tiny cell phone chargers to laptop and desktop computer power supplies. You still have to give it some headroom to cover mains voltage variations, the diodes also mean a 30 % efficiency loss. Then after a few more seconds it decreases to 120mA again, and continues doing this until I turn it off.
It's the reason why Adafruit offers a 5.25v power supply for the RPi, so that the voltage drop will make it become a true 5v. Dropping voltage from 5V to 4V on such a low load that RPi does is not really expected behaviour.
I want to connect my microcontroller to an ordinary electrical socket and I don't have enough space available. This is because high-frequency AC requires much smaller components to filter than line-frequency AC.

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