Bidirectional acdc power converter,guide to horoscope interpretation,laptop power adapter too hot - Reviews

Application of microprocessors and DSP in high-performance power electronic systems has been a long term pursuing goal in development of control techniques for power converting systems [1]-[6]. Single-ended, half-bridge, or full-bridge PFC converters are all boost converters, from the point-of-view of control loop design they have the same dynamics. From the point-of-view of power circuit design, these three PFC converters have the same utilization factor, which result the processing power ratings are proportional to their number of switches. The half-bridge PFC converter has advantages of common-neutral in UPS applications and a minimal number of power switches is required.
Regulations on line current harmonics have made power factor control a basic requirement for power electronic equipment [14]. Conventional PFC control schemes focus on the shaping of the line current in proportional to the voltage and therefore, a current loop controller with wide bandwidth is required. In order to improve the dynamic response of the PFC boost converter, various feedback control schemes have been analyzed in [15].
One major design challenge in synthesizing a digital PFC controller is that we must make a compromise between the line current distortion and a fast response of the dc-link voltage regulation. The inner current loop controller is required to regulate the line current with a high sampling rate, usually from 10 to 20 kHz.
Voltage Control Loop (fs=6 kHz): This loop is used to compensate the instantaneous output voltage to track a sinusoidal 60 Hz reference. Current Control Loop (fs=24 kHz): The current loop plays a most important role in the control of a PWM inverter for ac voltage regulation. Block diagram of the digital adaptive variable structure control scheme for AC voltage regulation. The booster in a UPS system is used to convert the battery output voltage to a much more high dc-link voltage. The battery charger in the designed UPS system is symmetric common-neutral flyback converter. TMS320F2407A, in realizing all the required control functions for a single-phase on-line UPS. You must have JavaScript enabled in your browser to utilize the functionality of this website.
CodeRobo is a leading Research & Development company able to create new technologies and innovations in the engineering research. In this study, a bidirectional power converter for a stand-alone photovoltaic power generation system when a lithium-ion battery is used to regulate the power supply. Multilevel topologies have several advantages to offer over two-level topologies in high voltage applications. Modular converters based on isolated dc–dc topologies are proposed in and further investigated and modified.
These topologies enable static voltage sharing among identical modules which may be connected in series.
The proposed TMMC topology is configured as a general n-level structure as shown in Figure. The single-column structure of the TMMC is similar to the battery charge equalizer circuit first proposed and later applied to PV applications for equalizing series-stacked PV panel voltages. An n-level TMMC may also be operated at other non-integer conversion ratios and still maintain equal module power sharing. In this paper, a bidirectional modular multilevel dc–dc converter topology and its corresponding control algorithm is proposed. Power Systems Design (PSD) empowers global innovation for the power electronic design engineering community.
TDK announced the introduction of TDK-Lambdaa€™s EZA2500-32048 bi-directional converter, suitable for energy storage systems with rechargeable batteries.
In addition to small to medium sized energy storage, applications also include lithium-ion battery testing as well as the utilization of regenerated energy from robots, cranes, autonomous ground vehicles and lifts.
Internally, the twin DC-DC converter design enables continuous transitional switching between charge and discharge states to maintain the stability of the bus voltage. During the development of an inverter, control- and power section have to interact smoothly. The basis for an athlete’s success lies within an optimized use and interplay of brain and muscles. This is especially true if additional functionalities besides driving motors and generators have to be considered. Looking at economical issues, logistics and especially worldwide provision of spare parts, a progressive concept is required. The FPGA in the present application observes three voltage- and three current measurements, runs the control algorithms and generates the gate signals for the transistors. A wide spectrum of functional features combined with a swift and sensitive control is one thing. During short circuit or similarly high overload conditions a proper reaction has to take place within µs. A prerequisite to fulfill the sum of requirements is a current control loop that is deterministic, predictable and fast enough to prevent transient overshoots in the load current even at extreme changes. Comparing the thermal relationsit can be calculated, that a change from 9kHz down to 4.5kHz leads to an increase in output power by 40-45%. The FPGA-based control allows changing the switching frequency on the fly without introducing distortions to the torque.
The thermal time constants of power semiconductors typically are in a range below 100ms while those for electric motors exceed 100s. During times of high acceleration or to manage a difficult driveaway situation, this correlation can be considered and the switching frequency can be reduced for a few seconds. The strategic dependency on the raw materials along with the high prices for magnets illustrates, that savings in this dimension are economically essential.
For an all electric bus used in public transportation, 60.000 operating hours are demanded during a service life of 15 years representing 1 million kilometers. A change that improves thermal properties along with electrical capabilities is the new system bonding.
The PressFIT technology recently introduced (C) forms a connection to the PCB that is considered a cold welding joint. Improvement regarding the thermal interconnection was achieved by applying a dedicated thermal interface material (TIM) to the power modules. Copious tests, substantiated by years of field testing have proven the thermal quality and the long-term stability of the new compound. One major novelty especially for modules to support the application Commercial and Agricultural Vehicles (CAV) is the high reliability system solder process.
This delaminating poses a perturbation of the thermal transfer path as the available area to conduct the heat is reduced. During the development of an inverter, expertise from numerous different disciplines comes together.
Mobile applications tend to be extreme regarding quality and durability, especially when it comes to vibration. However, due to the complicated control functions required in a UPS system, most of the previous works were focused on the digital control of the PWM inverter for ac voltage regulation. Many research works have been carried out on the closed-loop regulation of PWM inverters using various feedback control schemes to achieve both good dynamic response and low harmonic distortion. The only difference is the effective voltage applied to the inductor due to a specified PWM duty. However, it also has disadvantages of higher voltage stress and need fast response balance control of the totem-pole capacitor bank. The main purpose of the PFC converter is to shape the input current to be linear proportional to its input voltage so that it behaves as a resistor.

However, in order to minimize the current distortion resulted from the dc-link voltage regulation, a low-pass filter is required to smooth the double line frequency ripples in the dc-link voltage. Analog notch filter to eliminate measured output voltage ripples can achieve a better dynamic response compared with other approaches. The PFC controller consists of three sub-controllers: an inner current loop controller, an outer voltage loop controller, and an adaptive ripple estimator. The outer voltage loop controller is used to regulate the dc-link voltage and at the same time to generate a current reference for the current loop.
The desired closed-loop bandwidth (600 Hz) should be at least ten times of the reference frequency (60 Hz). A proportional controller is used for the current regulation and a simple PI controller is used for the voltage regulation.
This series is based on the C2xLP 16-bit, fixed-point, low-power DSP CPU, and is complemented with a wide range of on-chip peripherals and on-chip ROM or flash program memory, plus on-chip dual-access RAM (DARAM). Experimental results show the designed 2 kVA UPS can reach very good dynamic responses both in utility interface and output voltage regulation.
Our new developments help thousands of engineering students and research scholars to complete their projects in a simple and easy way. Also, a small-scale air-conditioner was provided as the load for the bidirectional power converter developed to examine the efficiency of the converter. Several effective modular multilevel dc–dc converters have been proposed in the literature. In medium voltage applications, it has been difficult until very recently to find suitable devices to build converters with Elementary concept of a multilevel converter to achieve higher power rating entails using a series of power semiconductor devices with several lower DC sources to perform the power conversion by synthesizing a staircase voltage waveform. In applications where isolation is not a requirement, the weight, parasitic, losses, and cost associated with transformers add to the system complexity and limit the expandability and operating power of such topologies.
TMMC’s modules are constructed from buck-boost converters as shown on the top right corner of Figure.
This structure has also been recently employed for differential power processing of digital systems. For step-up only operation, switch Sa would be of active type and switch Sb could be a diode. An exception in this case would be the first row modules which would carry a current different than other row modules.
As specified, the output voltage is simply equal to the summation of the input voltage with the first and second row capacitor voltages.
In this state, the modules’ inductors are energized, with the first row modules’ inductors energized from the input voltage source and the second row module’s inductor energized through the first row modules’ capacitors. In this state, each module’s inductor is transferring energy to the corresponding module’s capacitor.
The proposed TMMC converter is capable of equal power sharing among its modules over a broad range of conversion ratios.
Through interleaved operation, the output voltage and input current ripples of the TMMC are shown to achieve a reduction of 38%and 49%, respectively. For example, the EZA2500 can replace the large power resistors currently used for lift braking and instead use that previously dissipated energy to charge batteries. The output voltage and current can be programmed and monitored using the RS-485 communications port.
Combining both, mental and physical abilities in perfect manner also is the challenge when building an inverter for mobile applications.
The key is to provide a common hardware for any possible task and make use of proper software or parameters to achieve any functionality desired. A special benefit arises, if the FPGA generates the pulse pattern for the transistors and also administers the high-speed control loops, especially the current control.
The other thing, especially in mobile applications, is the extraordinary demand towards protection.
Thermal development inside the semiconductor as a consequence of varying the load usually have to be accounted for in the regime of milliseconds.
The solution presented therefore is based on FPGA, running several processes in parallel using highly robust state machines. Changing the switching frequency on the fly even during active torque control allow to achieve higher peak power. During normal operation, the frequency remains at 9kHz but may be changed to 4.5kHz for certain points of operation. To live up to the expectations, electrical, mechanical and thermal challenges have to be mastered.
Exhaustive upgrades have been introduced to the existing design, improving the mechanical robustness, the electric properties and the thermal connection. The new design now features injection molded terminals (A) which improves the resistivity towards vibration.
System bonds are all wires that interconnect the module’s substrate to each other or provide electrical connection between DCB and terminals.
In demanding applications, solder joints degrade over time due to temperature swing and mechanical wear caused by vibrations. The system solder joint forms the connection between carrier substrate (DCB) and the module’s base plate. A positive feedback is introduced, as higher chip temperatures result from the diminishing area, leading to a higher temperature swing and increased mechanical stress in turn.
With the newly introduced process for the EconoDUAL™ 3, more than 35.000 cycles have been done under the same conditions, exceeding the target set by factor 10.
Only if measurement- and control techniques, software programming, mechanical issues, component selection and thermal management are considered an inseparable unit, outstanding devices with extraordinary capabilities come to existence. The ARADEX’ VECTOPOWER®, equipped with Infineon’s half bridge modules, survived continuous shock tests acc. Microprocessor-based deadbeat control technique has been applied to the closed-loop regulation of PWM inverters. Development of fast response control schemes for the PFC boost converter has become a technical pursuing goal in recent years [16]-[19]. Constant current with battery voltage profile control is adopted as the battery charging scheme. The overall framework of the proposed system comprised a maximum power point tracking controller, bidirectional buck–boost soft switching converter, lithium-ion battery and small-scale air-conditioner. This has allowed power electronic power processing to be extended to higher voltages and power operations. In addition, the expandability of these converters is limited due to transformer isolation rating requirements. The TMMC is bidirectional such that the high-side voltage (VHV) and low-side voltage (VLV) may readily be used as either input or output. As noted from the TMMC’s structure in Figure, there are n modules in parallel on the first row to process the high current on the low-voltage side, and at higher rows where a higher net voltage is realized, fewer modules are connected in parallel. Conversely, for step-down only operation, switch Sa could be a diode and switch Sb would be of active type.
Nevertheless, this may easily be compensated through addition or subtraction of modules in the first row. The proposed control algorithm provides localized control of the modules which enhances the dynamic performance and design flexibility of the converter.
Since each row of the TMMC provides a potential input or output node at a controllable voltage level, multiple-input multiple-output power transfer is readily achievable.
That storage can then be used to either provide peak power for high torque demands or as battery back-up for power cuts. For larger systems, multiple units can be operated in parallel by setting the unit to a€?droop modea€? current share via the RS-485 interface.

Flexible firmware is the door opener to enable the support of all the tasks hinted at in figure 2.
Additionally, a wide temperature range and massive mechanical stress, a high demand regarding thermal cycling and varying electric load have to be taken into account, not to mention the stipulation towards save operation under fluctuating system voltage. During the development of an inverter, the semiconductor, the heat sink and the application’s typical load profile have to be considered an inseparable unit.
Figure 3 can best be used to take a look at the changes in detail and their influence to the design. Previously, mikromovements of the terminals in some cases induced additional mechanical stress to the bondwires connecting the terminal to the DCB. Compared to typical solder- or spring-force contacts, PressFIT-pins improve the connection’s reliability by a factor 100.
The new material composition consists of a phase changing carrier matrix that holds the thermally active filler components. Minute deviations between the thermal coefficients of expansion lead to thermal-mechanical stress inside this joint. Deadbeat control has been developed for the voltage regulation of the PWM inverter by employing a minor current loop and a major voltage loop. These control techniques break the bandwidth barrier of double line frequency by using sophisticated control techniques in elimination the influences of output voltage ripples.
The charging profile is stored in the EEPROM of the UPS controller and can be reloaded when a new set of battery are installed. The magnetic less structure of this topology makes it well suited for automotive applications. A modular multilevel dc–dc converter is proposed for interfacing super capacitors to a dc bus in regenerative braking applications. Disadvantages with these topologies are the large size of the passive components, the high peak currents, and the challenges associated with dynamic voltage sharing during switch transitions. It is noted that the proposed topology’s structure resembles that of the power sharing diagram of Figure. The low-voltage side’s parallel capacitor are required simply for filtering reasons and are not inherent to the proposed topology’s structure. Assuming integer-only conversion ratios, the number of required rows and switches for a given conversion ratio are shown in Table I.
Figure shows the switching states and corresponding current flow directions of the two-level step-up TMMC under non-inter leaved operation. The steady-state equations provided in Section V may be utilized for component selection Figure. Sophisticated methods and model based calculations are done in hard real time inside the FPGA. Choosing a proper switching frequency has to be considered an optimization, taking different parameters into account. In-depth knowledge about this unit is mandatory to estimate the chip temperature and the temperature swing most accurately. The process of application became part of the manufacturing and is fully automated and monitored using a highly sophisticated optical inspection system. This is a fundament to support the application CAV with reliable and long-lasting power electronicequipment. However, deadbeat control scheme has the disadvantages of highly sensitive to parameter and load variations and requiring large peak-to-average ratio of control signals to achieve deadbeat effect. All these control schemes are applied to the PFC boost converter and using analog controller or analog current-loop controller with microprocessor-based voltage-loop controller. The topology is constructed from a series connection of half-bridge converters with an output inductor. The proposed topology, named the triangular modular multilevel dc–dc converter (TMMC) has a transformer less structure and does not suffer from high peak currents. While the power sharing capability of the TMMC is not identical to that of Figure, it has a significantly reduced silicon area requirement as compared to the topology of (lower than 50% for conversion ratios lower than five).
Semiconductor switches such as MOSFETs or IGBTs may readily be utilized as the active switches. In general, the TMMC modules are not restricted to the arrangement shown in Figure, and alternative configurations exist. Three-level step-up TMMC demonstrating input voltage modularity through connection of the input source above the first row. Depending on the application and the point of operation, this allows an increase in output power by up to 20% from the same semiconductor. Higher switching frequencies lead to decreased losses in the motor due to a reduction of ripple currents. Usually, semiconductor manufacturers provide the information needed by the power system designers to predict the load cycles a semiconductor will survive according to the temperature swing within the application.
The higher specific conductivity enables the handling of higher currents without increasing the number of wires and the space consumed. This sumptuous procedure ensures that the predefined amount of material is applied in the correct location.
However, due to the switched-capacitor nature of this topology, a deliberate startup procedure is required to avoid current spikes. In family of non isolated modular resonant dc–dc converter topologies are proposed for high-power applications.
Furthermore, additional or fewer modules may be connected in parallel at any row, however, this paper will focus on this right triangular structure which optimally utilizes the power sharing capacity of each module for single-input single-output applications.
The remainder of this paper is focused toward discussing the steady-state and dynamic behavior of the TMMC. This is beneficial for the application both in economics as well as in size and weight especially if advanced protection from extreme operation conditions is achievedat the same time. If, like done with the FPGA, the current can be closely controlled even in a µs scale a motor can be designed featuring the same size, torque, power and efficiency with 30% less magnetic material being used.
Knowing the load profiles and the number of cycles to be expected per time, an operating lifetime can be estimated. As a consequence of the lower resistance, the temperature rise in the bond wires is reduced as well. The pattern displayed in the picture correlates to the macroscopic geometry of the base plate. The capacitor-clamped topology is further investigated and modified for soft-switching and optimal design. Moreover, the topology provides multiple fixed voltage nodes which may be utilized as either inputs or outputs.
To aid with visualization and understanding, the two-level structure is selected as the topology under analysis. Thus, the material helps to stay within the temperature limits given for the module’s construction even at higher currents. A few disadvantages associated with the topology of are: 1) it is restricted to integer-only conversion ratios and 2) its modules’ capacitors are exposed to different steady-state voltage stresses, making the topology non-modular from a manufacturing and design perspective. This qualifies the topology as a multiple-input multiple-output converter and makes it suitable as a scalable unified solution for a variety of power system architectures. The optimal conversion ratio to operate an n-level TMMC is n + 1 as the converter may easily achieve equal voltage and current sharing among its modules under such configuration. The enlarged area that is not covered with TIM later allows direct metal-to-metal contact, leading to further thermal improvement.

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