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The schematic diagram below shows a simple trivial low-cost 12 volt DC 50W off-line SMPS switching power supply circuit.
The unit has overcurrent, overtemperature and overvoltage protections, as well as passive inrush current limiting. To safely test or troubleshoot this circuit it is recommended to power it via an isolation transformer or from an isolated AC source. This AC to DC power supply utilizes a flyback, which is the simplest SMPS converter topology. The initial start-up current for the PWM IC is provided by "bleeding" resistors R7, R8 that allow small current which charges the Vcc capacitor C7. The secondary side feedback control loop uses a TL431 precision shunt regulator D1 as both the reference and an error amplifier. Thermal switch shuts down the power supply when temperature on the MOSFET heatsink exceeds 95-100 oC. Your use of this website constitutes acknowledgement and acceptance of our Terms & Conditions. This is the circuit diagram of 5V DC regulated power supply which featured with short circuit protection system.
And if it is, would I be able to replace the two transistors with ones that can withstand currents up to 1A? Assuming IL in Amps as it should be, the BC547 has CE current of 0.05 Amp for comfortable operation. DC-DC Converter Tutorial Switching power supplies offer higher efficiency than traditional linear power supplies. A Variable DC Power Supply is one of the most useful tools on the electronics hobbyist's workbench. P1 sets the maximum output current you want to be delivered by the power supply at a given output voltage. P2 sets the output voltage and must be a logarithmic taper type, in order to obtain a more linear scale voltage indication. You can choose the Transformer on the grounds of maximum voltage and current output needed. Q4 must be mounted on a good heatsink in order to withstand sustained output short-circuit. In some cases the rear panel of the metal box in which you will enclose the circuit can do the job. The Cockroft-Walton multiplier uses a cascaded series of diodes and capacitors to generate a high voltage DC potential from an AC input through a circuit topology that uses diodes to charge capacitors in parallel and discharge them in series.  The output polarity of the Cockroft-Walton multiplier depends on the way in which its diodes are oriented, so the output polarity (referenced to ground) of a high-voltage DC power supply is usually set during the design. If the high-voltage AC output of the flyback is connected to point “A” of the voltage multiplier, and point “B” is connected to ground, then the output at point “D” will be positive.

In this AC power supply, a push-pull oscillator drives a TV flyback transformer from an old color TV (a flyback without embedded tripler). What is the output (in kV) of the AC flyback power supply circuit that goes into the input of the Cockcroft-Walton Multiplier Cascade?
It depends on the flyback and input voltage, but an old color TV flyback can put out between 25 kV to 35 kV at high frequency to feed the CW multiplier. Am I correct in assuming that each coil consists of 4 turns of wire for the first primary, and 4 turns of wire for the second primary, and then 4 turns of the smaller wire for the feedback?
Oh, also, at what minimum frequency is this circuit expected to oscillate at, providing the flyback to be used is not the new style, but one of the large old style devices with the disc shaped, fat secondary?
Anyone’s responses are welcomed at this point, just to gain clarity on how this works. Also note that an offline single-transistor flyback converter generates internal voltages which may reach 600 V.
This current sense voltage is applied through a spike filter to the current sense terminal of U3, where it is compared against the scaled down error signal at compensation pin 1. Note that a flyback transformer operates as an inductor: it accumulates energy in the magnetic field during ON period of Q1.
There are 2 kind of output that are regulated 5V DC with short circuit protection and without circuit protection.
When the 5V DC output from regulator IC 7805 is available, transistor BC547 conducts through resistors R1 and R3 and LED1.
I need to know the current output capabilities of the short circuit protected power supply. This circuit is not an absolute novelty, but it's simple, reliable, "rugged" and short-proof, featuring variable voltage up to 24V and variable current limiting up to 2A. If however point “C” receives the high-voltage AC, and point “D” is connected to ground, then point “B” will be negative.
What is the kind of wire you are using for the primaries and feedback coil, and what is its topography? If you need to get lower ripple, you may put an additional output capacitor or an LC filter outside of the feedback loop. Don't try to play with this circuit unless you are of a legal age, understand power electronics and know how to deal safely with high voltage. The input section includes a fuse, EMI filter, inrush current limiting NTC resistor R1, a full bridge rectifier CR1, and a DC bus filter capacitor C2. When Q1 turns on, the DC bus voltage is applied across the transformer T1 primary winding, current through the transformer primary ramps up and energy is accumulated in the transformer's magnetic field.
An optocoupler U1 feeds the current proportional to the error signal across the transformer galvanic isolation boundary back to the primary PWM.

The main circuit is protected from any damage due to short-circuit in the additional power supply circuit by cutting off the derived supply voltage. Instead, new primaries are made by winding two sets of four turns each of insulated #18 wire around the exposed core of the flyback transformer.
If so, is their purpose to protect the transistors and the rest of the power supply from high voltage kickback? This project is a modification of a 24V circuit that I've designed many years ago as a consultant for a small company.
If accurate regulation of the output is not required, the feedback can be taken from the bias voltage at C9 and fed via a divider into feedback pin 2.
In order to store energy efficiently with minimal physical size, a non-magnetic gap is needed in series with a high permeability magnetic core material. The green LED (LED2)? lows to indicate the same, while the red LED (LED1) remains off due to the presence of the same voltage at both of its ends. In addition, spark discharges can be produced which can ignite flammable materials or volatile atmospheres. Why double-stack the feedback winding on top of the primaries like that… or don’t? That company wanted a plug-in replacement to a cheap off-the-shelf AC to DC power supply, which had a long lead time.
When Q1 turns off, the energy stored in the magnetic field causes the voltages across all winding to reverse polarity.
Flyback transformer design usually uses ferrite cores with a physical gap, or powdered metal cores with an inherently present distributed gap. Remember that the capacitors retain charge long after the power supply is switched off.  Thoroughly discharge them before touching the high voltage rails!
By the time I've completed the design and built a proto, they found the off-the-shelf part elsewhere in stock. As a result, output rectifiers D4 and D7 conduct and the stored energy is transferred to the output and to the bias circuit. Once the converter is started, the bias for the control PWM comes from the bias winding of the transformer. But you are not allowed to republish the content of this page anywhere or use it for commercial purposes without my permission.
All coils in this design have to be made of wire with two or more layers of Teflon insulation to assure reinforced insulation between primary and secondary.

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