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Copper loss is the power lost as heat in the windings; it is caused by the flow of current through the coils of the DC armature or DC field. As the armature rotates within the field, it cuts the lines of flux at the same time that the copper coils of wire that are wound on the armature cut the lines of flux. To reduce eddy-currents, the armature and field cores are constructed from laminated (layered) steel sheets.
To reduce hysteresis losses, most DC armatures are constructed of heat-treated silicon steel, which has an inherently low hysteresis loss. Rotational or mechanical losses can be caused by bearing friction, brush friction on the commutator, or air friction (called windage), which is caused by the air turbulence due to armature rotation. Brush friction is reduced by assuring proper brush seating, using proper brushes, and maintaining proper brush tension. Electrical Corner StoreCheck out our new #Electrical Corner Store with selected Electrician's Books, Testing and Safety equipment and other electrician's stuff! Science at GlanceOur mission is to be the leading provider of scientific information in the field of power and engineering in general.
The DC Generator is an electrical machine which converts mechanical energy in the form of motion, into electrical energy in the form of a dc voltage and current by using the principles of magnetic induction. The DC Generator gets its energy of motion from the wind or water turbine blades attached to its rotor shaft. The way to generate dc electricity is to spin a coil inside a magnetic field such that the magnetic lines of force generated by the magnetic field are cut by the spinning coil. The advantage of permanent magnets is that no field supply is needed as the magnetic field is permanently excited reducing costs, and it also means that there are no I2R power loss in the magnetic field winding, which helps to increase the generators efficiency. Magnetic theory teaches us that a voltage is induced into a coil of wire due to generator action. The rotating armature coils pass through this stationary, or static magnetic field which in turn generates an electrical current in the coils. In a DC generator as the armature rotates a full 360o every rotation, the generated current must pass through what is called a commutator which is constructed from a copper ring split into segments with insulating material between each segments. The commutator segments in a dc generator replaces the continuous slip rings of the AC generator and is the main difference in their construction. As well as permanent magnet generators, DC generators can also have a wound field coil to produce the required magnetic field. Basically, for a separately excited dc generator, a separate external dc voltage supply is required to provide the excitation current through the field winding. For battery charging applications the shunt wound self-excited dc generator or a permanent magnet dc generator are best suited as their output voltage remains fairly constant over a large range of rotational speeds.
When charging a battery with a dc generator, the generator rpm must first rise to the point where its output voltage increases above the battery terminal voltage for current to flow into the battery. The current or amperage of a dc generator at any rpm is governed only by the connected battery load, and not by its rpm speed. Then when charging batteries with a dc generator it is necessary to use a voltage regulator and dummy resistive load to protect the battery, or to disconnect the generator from the battery completely when the charging current drops to zero or the battery terminal voltage exceeds its rated value. The dc generator is the one of the key components of a wind turbine or hydro turbine system, and as we have seen there are different options available which vary in their complexity and the type of output power they can supply. Even a simple electric generator can be constructed using fixed permanent magnets to create a permanent magnet generator. Nice Post About Dc generator parts.Thanks for the post, I will look forward to see more posts from your blog.
I was wondering what is the potential current (amp)output of one of these motors used as a wind turbine. Since Febuary 2013, one of our members has been submitted a series of articles about electric generators.

If you want to contribute to the community and write a short or a long article for the blog, simply send a mail to the team. A Generator is a machine which converts mechanical energy to electrical energy or electrical power.
Most of our everyday appliances work very well on the AC power output that is supplied to them, but appliances which involve big motors and need a large current supply, such as those used in industries and factories usually need the DC power. The advantage of a DC power over an AC power output is that dc power provides a continuous output due to which the speed of the motor turns out to be very fine and smooth. In construction, a dc generator is similar to a motor, or even an ac generator, with the addition that slip rings are replaced by split rings.
We have already studied that an electric generator uses Faraday’s law of electro-magnetic induction to generate the required voltage. A Dc generator also consists of a coil with a number of turns, rotating between the poles of a magnetic field. The position of the metal brushes is adjusted in such a way that the connections of the coil to the external circuit also reverse when the coil completes half of its rotation cycle.
This shows that even when the coil has turned its side, the direction of current in the external circuit is still the same. Join 11,264 of us on the Homemade Tools forum, and get your free 50 Must Read Homemade Tools ebook. Homemade high-current DC power generator constructed from a surplus lawnmower motor, an automotive alternator, a 2.5" pulley, battery cables, and 2x4 lumber. This loss varies directly with the square of the current in the armature or field and the resistance of the armature or field coils.
Since the armature is made of iron, an EMF is induced in the iron, which causes a current to flow. The laminated sheets are insulated from one another so that current cannot flow from one sheet to the other. The magnetic domains of the armature are held in alignment with the field in varying numbers, dependent upon field strength.
After the heat-treated silicon steel is formed to the desired shape, the laminations are heated to a dull red and then allowed to cool. Highly specialized for design of LV high power busbar trunking (<6300A) in power substations, buildings and industry fascilities. Every day, the generation and usage of energy produces more pollution than any other single industry. Neither the service provider nor the domain owner maintain any relationship with the advertisers. The voltage and current output produced by a dc generator depends on its shaft speed (rpm) and the electrical load connected to it. Most AC generators are designed to run too fast to be coupled directly to these turbine blades so gearboxes or pulley systems are used to increase an AC generators speed. We know from school that magnets have two poles, north and south, and that magnetic flux emerges from the north pole and flows back to the south pole. Firstly, feeding some of the generators output power back into its own field coils to make an electromagnet which can be precisely controlled or secondly to use permanent magnets to generate the magnetic flux rather than current in a coil of wire. Generator action is based on Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction in which an N-turn rectangular coil rotates within a uniform magnetic field. Generally for a dc generator design, the magnetic field is on the stator and the power generating coil winding is on the rotor.
When the armature coil is adjacent to the direction of the stator magnetic flux, maximum voltage is induced into the coil since the most magnetic lines of force are being cut by the coil. A carbon brush arrangement in contact with the commutator segments carry the electrical power to the output terminals as shown.

The commutator mechanically reverses the armature coil connections to the external circuit producing a pulsating voltage. The names used to describe these types of dc generator depends upon the relationship and interconnection of each of the magnetic field coils with respect to the armature. Whereas in a self excited dc generator, the generated voltage itself is used to excite the field winding of the same dc generator as shown. The effort required to turn the generator (its input torque) increases and as long as the amount of input torque required can be supplied by the generators prime mover blades, it will continue to charge the battery. As soon as the battery becomes fully charged, no more charging current flows and the load effectively disappears.
But the fact that armatures, brushes, commutators and windings are complex and cost a lot of money, a lot of DC generators have been replaced by modern AC alternators and induction machines which are more economical and because DC or direct current voltages and currents, when required, can be produced by electronic rectifiers. In case of a direct current generator, this electrical power is in the form of a DC voltage. For this purpose we introduce the process of commutation in an ac generator, so that it can convert its AC output to a dc supply.
In an ac generator, the ends of the coil are connected to the two slip rings, which rotate with the coil as it rotates in the magnetic field. The set of rotating split rings and the carbon brushes to which they are attached is called the commutator. In this way the direction of current through the external circuit also remains the same even when the ac had to reverse its direction of emf, since the commutator has reversed the polarity. Connected to deep-cycle marine batteries and an inverter, it is capable of supplying emergency AC power.
The magnetic domains rotate, with respect to the particles not held in alignment, by one complete turn during each rotation of the armature. In case of trademark issues please contact the domain owner directly (contact information can be found in whois).
Then low rpm dc generators are a popular choice for use in wind power and hydro power battery charging systems. However, speed increasing gearboxes are complex mechanical items requiring good mechanical alignment and lubrication for reliable operation, so low rpm dc generators are ideal for this type of application.
The magnets and coils within a dc generator are configured in such a way that the magnetic flux passes through the electrical coils of wire linking together the magnetic and electrical circuits.
As the armature moves, its coil now becomes perpendicular to the stator magnetic flux, and no magnetic lines of force are being cut, therefore the induced voltage is zero at this instant. Each type of DC generator construction has its own set of advantages and disadvantages and which one you use depends upon your application. If the dc generator continues to be driven the generators terminal voltage will rise and no matter how high the terminal voltage, if there is no load connected to the generator there is no current flow.
But if anyone knows how to build an Ammeter from scratch I do have components I have gleaned in the past.
But in a dc generator, the slip rings are replaced by the two split rings which perform the process of commutation. Then as the armature of the generator rotates in an endless cycle, its coils constantly cut the lines of magnetic flux and an alternating dc voltage is induced in them.
Then since the polarity across the generators terminals remains constant, the output voltage is DC.
Also if you run a dc generator with no load, the current will always be zero no matter how high its rotational speed.

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