Derivation of universal law of gravitation,free daily reflection tarot,ac adapter for laptop not working - For Begninners

07.10.2014
DESCRIPTION:This seminal work was initially compiled in manuscript form on vellum, with drawings in red and black. The author, a seventh century Bishop of Seville (Spain), leaned heavily himself on classical writers, as well as the teachings of the Church Fathers.
In view of the extraordinary influence of this treatise, the following excepts (the translation is taken from G.
Concerning the earth we are told that it is named from its roundness (orbis) which is like a wheel; whence the small wheel is called a€?orbiculusa€?.
As to size, Isidore accepts Eratosthenesa€™ estimate (via Macrobius) of 252,000 stadia for the circumference of the earth. The Ancients did not divide these three parts of the world equally, for Asia stretches right from the south, through the east to the north, but Europe stretches from the north to the west and thence Africa from the west to the south. Interestingly, Isidore was the first writer to clearly define the Mediterranean by that proper name. It contains many provinces and districts whose names and geographical situations I will briefly describe, beginning from Paradise .
This obvious Biblical note coming so early in the topographical section of the treatise might lead the reader to expect its continuance in subsequent chapters; but apart from one or two entirely understandable references to Biblical lore - Scythia and Gothia also are said to have been named by Magog, son of Japhet and the River Ganges which sacred scripture calls Phison, flows down from Paradise to the realms of India - only the most sparing use of this source is made. In the extreme east of Asia the country of Seres is rich in fine leaves, from which are cut fleeces which the natives who decline the merchandise of other peoples sell for use as garments . Europe, in the true classical fashion, is divided from Asia by the river Tanais [todaya€™s Don] and is bordered on the north by the Northern Ocean. Moreover beyond [these] three parts of the world, on the other side of the ocean, is a fourth inland part in the south, which is unknown to us because of the heat of the sun, within the bounds of which the Antipodes are fabulously said to dwell. This concession by Isidore as expressed in the brief quote above indicated that he more than half believed in the sphericity of the earth and quite fully in the doctrine of the Antipodes.
As far as his own graphic expression of the worlda€™s geography, one of the map designs frequently associated with Isidore of Seville is actually a survival of the ancient Greek tripartite division of the world into Asia, Africa and Europe, surrounded by the Ocean Sea. The T within the O produced a world image divided into half (by the cross of the T) and two quarters. Regardless of experience and all knowledge to the contrary, the most important city regionally was located in the center of the habitable world. In addition to the usual tripartite circular map of the world, some manuscripts of the Etymologiarum feature other map designs as well. Caius Crispus Sallustius, generally known as Sallust (86-34 BCE) was a Roman senator and historian, who subsequent to his falling out with the Caesar, was sent to Africa as a governor of Numidia (In the north-west of Africa}.
He produced his most important works on the conspiracy of Catiline and the war of Rome with Jugurtha.
The Medes and Armenians connected them selves with the Libyans who dwelled near the African sea, while the Getulians lay more to the sun, not far from the torrid heats; and these soon built themselves towns, as, being separated from Spain only by a strait, they proceeded to open an intercourse with its inhabitants.
Some copies of Sallusts manuscripts, which have reached us, do also include a simple T-O map, which relates to his narrative of the Jugurthine War. As mentioned above, Sallusta€™s works were copied and re-copied and were in use until the late medieval period and many of the later copies of his manuscripts have reached us. Sallust mappamundi, ninth century, a€?University of Leipzig Library, Leipzig, Germany, MS 1607, f. Since Sallust was the governor of Numidia, he has naturally paid more attention to the details of this continent. In the bodies of water dividing the world into the three continents, the Mediterranean bears no legend. Another variation of the basic Isidorean design was called the Byzantine-Oxford, or B-O T-O maps. More prominently than in any other example of the biblical school, the Holy Land dominates the center of the map. The map was brought back to England or Ireland after the First Crusade, which conquered Jerusalem in 1099.
Christian scholars adopted the T-O map for its simplicity, as had the classical writers who first employed it. These T-O maps, whether actually contained in the Etymologiarum of Isidore, in later editions of the same, as modified derivatives thereof (Sallusts, B-O T-O), or as maps that were merely influenced by the basic design format (Hereford, Ebstorf, et.
At the Benedictine monastery of Thorney in East Anglia, a large and elegant computus book was finished in 1110, designed to be an ornament of the newly completed church. The continents are arranged with Asia at the top, Europe apparently in the center and Africa in the southwest corner.
Like the map within the rota of sunrises and sunsets, this is a T-O map with Asia in the top half, and Europe and Africa in the lower half. In form, content and function, MS 17a€™s map represents a recent development in medieval cartography. On the other hand, this mappamundi is also closely connected in content and context to Byrhtfertha€™s Diagram on fol. But there is also a particularly insular connection between computus and universal geography, one that is connected to the debates over the correct system of calculating Easter that marked the early years of Christianity in England. Schematic maps of the oikumene of the T-O type are often embedded in computus diagrams as a shorthand representation of the earth; zone maps illustrating the climates of the earth, derived from Macrobiusa€™ Commentum in Somnium Scipionis (#201), appear in anthologies of cosmographic materials as illustrations of passages from Isidore (cf. In about 1446-1451 Jean Mansel composed a universal history titled La fleur des histoires, and then in the 1460s wrote a longer version of the same work.
The map is placed at the start of the prologue to Book IV, in which a description of the regions of the world is given in alphabetical order.
The name gorgato recalls the medieval Latin gargata and Old French gargate, meaning a€?throat,a€? perhaps alluding to the creaturea€™s voracious nature, but these monsters seem to have been invented by the cartographer.
The T-O map tradition did not die out as a cartographic form of expression until as late as the 17th century, as may be seen from a book such as the Variae Orbis Universi, by Petrus Bertius, 1628. The Matenadaran archive collection in Yerevan, capital of Armenia, contains some 14,000 manuscripts from the golden age of Armenian literature, beginning in the 5th century, and from later periods. One exception to the general lack of maps in the Yerevan archives is MS 1242, a collection of eighteen unrelated essays on religious, moral, mathematical and astronomical subjects dating mainly from the 13th to the 15th centuries. The map on folio 132r can be described as of the T - O type, but its construction has been modified.
Also as in many maps of the T-O genre, the centre is occupied by the Holy City of Jerusalem, which is shown with its six gates, each inscribed with its name in Armenian.
In both shape and arrangement, the city sign is akin to that on the Hereford mapparnundi, c.1290 (#226), although it lacks the enclosing crenulated walls of the Hereford map sign. As shown in the following Table, in addition to Jerusalem, twenty-seven place- names are found on the map.
The inscription to the left of the stem of the T, below the triangle formed by three dots, reads, Ays koghms Eropa [This side is Europe]. The Red Sea [Karmir] dzov; only the word sea is legible on the map) is shown as a bold open circle on the borders of Africa and Asia. The division between Europe and Asia, normally marked with the horizontal crossbar of the T, here is demarcated with a single red line and is more complex.
In keeping with T-O maps in general, the greater part of the Armenian map is allocated to Asia, inscribed Ays koghms Asia [This side is Asia]. In the east, in the upper part of the map close to the Ocean are the names Khaytai [China] and Zaytun [Zaytun], another Chinese trading port city.
The presence of these toponyms in the area between Europe and China bears witness to the importance of these towns and provinces in trade and commerce between East and West and is perhaps indicative of the period of the mapa€™s creation. There is nothing, then, untoward in the inclusion on the Armenian map of Sara (Sarai), a city founded only in the 1240s by Batu Khan, the grandson of Mongol leader Gangiz Khan, who took over the territory of southern Russia and its Turkic speaking peoples during the early 13th century. Khachaturian also proposed that based on palaeographic evidence, the map was made in the Cilician Kingdom of Armenia during the Crusades, unfortunately not specifying which Crusade. Caffa, the first town listed in the row of toponyms along the northeastern periphery of the map, was only a small Crimean seaside town until the 13th century. The presence of the name Caffa on the map is a strong indication that the map was made during the citya€™s heyday, namely in the 14th century.
Since, in my view, the map has to postdate both the establishment of Sarai-Batu and Sarai-Berke (New Sarai, established 1257-1266) and the time when Caffa became an important conurbation, it cannot be dated to earlier than the third quarter of the 13th century. While the majority of T-O maps produced in the Christian West depict Armenia, Mount Ararat and Noaha€™s Ark, this Armenian mapmaker has chosen not to mention any of these Armenian features. In the end, the absence of reference on the Armenian map to Armenia itself or to any of its immediate neighbors, such as Persia and Assyria, is more puzzling.
The existence of this Armenian language T-O map, though, may be owed simply to the curiosity of an individual whose interest in Western maps and literature would have been a sufficient reason for him to create a map of his own in line with those of the Western mapmakers of the time, leaving us an Armenian map as remarkable for its uniqueness as for the hints it gives of the interconnections underlying the T-O maps and the mappaemundi of the West.
This is a very late example of a T-O world map, probably made in Bruges in 1482 for King Edward IV, the founder of the old Royal Library. 205CT-O map from Isidore of Sevillea€™s Etymologiarum, unknown, 10th century, 11.5 cm dia, Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana, Florence, Plut.
205CCDiagram map from MS of Bedea€™s De natura rerum, Bede, 9th century, 24 cm square, Bayerische Staatsbibliotek, Munich, Clm 210, f. 205DD Isidore mappamundi, unknown, 11th century, 26 cm dia, Bayerische Staatsbibliotek, Munich, Clm 10058, f. 205ET-O map from Isidore of Sevillea€™s Etymologiarum, unknown, Santarem s Atlas compose de mappemondes .
205GG Circular Plan of Jerusalem, unknown, 13th century, 26 cm diameter, British Library, Additional MS. 205HT-O Sallust map from Bellum Jugurthinum, unknown, 14th century, Biblioteca Nazionale Marciana, Venice, Fond.
205HH Reverse T-O map from MS of Isidorea€™s De natura rerum, unknown, 12th century, 19 cm diameter, Cathedral Curch of Exeter, MS. 205JJT-O map from MS of Isidorea€™s De natura rerum, unknown, 9th century, 12.5 cm diameter, Burgerbibliothek, Bern, Codex 417, fol.
205LLSallust T-O map from De bello Jugurthino, West oriented, unknown, 6.8 cm diameter, Bibliotheque Nationale, MS.
205MT-O map from Isidore of Sevillea€™s Etymologiarum, unknown, 8th century, 22 X 29 cm, Vatican Library, MS Vat. 205MM Sallust T-O map with symmetrical rivers, unknown, 13th century, 10.5 cm diameter, Gonville and Caius College, MS.
205NSallust T-O map, unknown, 13th century, 10.5 cm diameter, Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge MS.
205OT-O Sallust map, unknown, 13th century, 4.3 cm diameter, Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris, MS Lat. 205QT-O map from Isidore of Sevillea€™s Etymologiarum, unknown, 10th century, 11.5 cm diameter, Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana, Florence, Plut. 205TT-O and -V maps from Isidore of Sevillea€™s Etymologiarum, unknown, 12th century, 7.2 cm diameter, BnF, Manuscrits (Latin 10293 fol. 205TTT-O world map by Chatillon, Gautier de Chatillon, 13th century, 7 cm diameter, Bodleian Library, MS Bod. 205V1Gauthier de Chatillon mappimundi, Alexandreis, Gauthier de Chatillon, 13th century, Bibliotheque Nationale, Fonds Francais 11334, fol.
205WY-O map from Macrobiusa€™ Commentarium in somnium Scipionis, unknown, 12th century, 8.7 cm diameter, Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris, MS. 205YT-O map from MS of Commentary on the Apocalypse of Saint John (Beatus), unknown, 11th century, 4.7 cm diameter, Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris, MS. 205ZT-O map from MS of Bedea€™s De natura rerum, Bede, 12th century, 8.1 cm diameter, Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris, MS.
Description: This highly significant map of the world eluded examination by modern scholars for nearly four hundred years until its re-discovery in 1901 by the Jesuit historian, Joseph Fisher, in the library of Prince von Waldburg zu Wolfegg-Waldsee at the Castle of Wolfegg, WA?rttemberg Germany. It had long been suspected that Martin WaldseemA?ller, a professor of cosmography at the school in St. The purpose of this little book is to write a description of the world map, which we have designed both as a globe and as a projection [tam in solido quam plano].
Martin WaldseemA?llera€™s Universalis Cosmographia secundum Ptholomei Traditionem et Americi Vespucci aliorum Lustrationes [A Map of the World According to the Tradition of Ptolemy and the Voyages of Amerigo Vespucci] was designed on a single cordiform projection and engraved on twelve wooden blocks (21 x 30 inches each; 54 x 96 inches overall) at Strasburg and printed at St.
In Plate IX of the map, numbering the plates from left to right, the top row first, WaldseemA?ller re-asserts that he is particularly delineating the lands discovered by Vespucci. A general delineation of the various lands and islands, including some of which the ancients make no mention, discovered lately between 1497 and 1504 in four voyages over the seas, two by Fernando of Castile, and two by Manuel of Portugal, most serene monarchs, with Amerigo Vespucci as one of the navigators and officers of the fleet; and especially a delineation of many places hitherto unknown. Vespucci claimed that on his first voyage he made discoveries along the coasts of Honduras and the Gulf of Mexico.
In describing the general appearance of the world, it has seemed best to put down the discoveries of the ancients, and to add what has since been discovered by the moderns, for instance, the land of Cathay, so that those who are interested in such matters and wish to find out various things, may gain their wishes and be grateful to us for our labor, when they see nearly everything that has been discovered here and there, or recently explored, carefully and clearly brought together, so as to be seen at a glance.
This mapa€™s greatest claim to immortality, however, is contained in the simple word of seven letters, America, the earliest known use of that name to describe the newly found fourth part of the world, placed on the southern continent (present-day South America) of the world map only by WaldseemA?ller. More than four years had elapsed since Amerigo Vespucci announced what he claimed to be the discovery of an entirely new continent, and as yet that new continent had no satisfactory name.
In the first years of the new century, a group of scholars decided to produce a revised edition of the Cosmography of Ptolemy (#119) to meet the urgent need for new maps, according to the new discoveries.
Martin WaldseemA?ller, a native of Freiburg in the Breisgau and appointed Professor of Geography at St. Toward the South Pole are situated the southern part of Africa, recently discovered, and the islands of Zanzibar, Java Minor, and Seula. The name appeared in Halmal, a semi-divine mythical forefather or ancestor of the Amelungen, or royal tribe of the Ostrogoths, which was called A–mlunger.
Returning to the map, it is curious to note that while the name America appeared on the new continent (South America) of the new hemisphere on the world map, WaldseemA?ller did not choose to use it on the small inset map of the western hemisphere, where South America is labeled Terra Incognita.
By selecting the name America for a major portion of the new discoveries, WaldseemA?ller was not unaware of the contributions of Columbus and intended no denial of the credit properly due him. Plate I, in the upper left-hand corner, contains an inscription that explains WaldseemA?llera€™s ideas as to the location of the lands discovered by Vespucci and Columbus. Many have regarded as an invention the words of a famous poet [Virgil] that a€?beyond the stars lies a land, beyond the path of the year and the sun, where Atlas, who supports the heavens, revolves on his shoulders the axis of the world, set with gleaming starsa€?, but now finally it proves clearly to be true. Instead of a€?19 degreesa€? he should have written a€?29 degreesa€? which, when added to the 23 degrees of the tropic, would have made the a€?52 degreesa€? given in the a€?thirda€? voyage as Amerigo Vespuccia€™s farthest south.
The remarkable geographical features of the WaldseemA?ller map are, however, more important than the giving of a name to one of them. These close approximations to geographical actualities were natural corollaries of Amerigoa€™s great a€?discoverya€™ of a a€?fourth part of the worlda€?. WaldseemA?ller places a land to the west of Isabella Insula [Cuba], as do many of the other mapmakers of his time, La Cosa, Cantino, Ruysch and Caveri (#305, #308, #313, #307).
To the south, the long attenuated form given to both Terra Ulteria€? Incognita and to America, the west coasts of which are, as it were, rolled back to indicate WaldseemA?llera€™s lack of knowledge of these areas. Leaving the New World discoveries, one cannot help but notice the striking resemblance between WaldseemA?llera€™s a€?Old Worlda€? outline and that presented by Henricus Martellus Germanus in his map of 1490 (#256). Although many of the ancients were interested in marking out the circle of the land, things remained unknown to them in no slight degree; for instance, in the west, America, named after its discoverer, which is to be reckoned a fourth part of the world.
In addition to Caveri, Martellus and Ptolemy, other sources synthesized by WaldseemA?ller include the narratives of Marco Polo, whose data concerning the geography of eastern China and the adjacent islands, though already known to the world in the map of Fra Mauro (#249), the Catalan Atlas (#235) and in globes such as those of Behaim (#258), are now for the first time embodied in a popular printed sheet map; and the Northmen, whose explorations in Mare Glaciale and in the neighborhood of Greenland were known from the maps of Claudius Clavus and those of Donnus Nickolaus Germanus.
Thus, derived chiefly from Caveria€™s map (#307), itself based in many particulars upon the Cantino world map of 1502 (#308), the WaldseemA?ller production of 1507 transmitted the features of both to an impressive list of succeeding maps, globes and globe gores reaching to 1520 and well beyond.
Of the same year as the map itself, and displaying its features, was the previously alluded to printed globe issued by WaldseemA?ller, known today only by two sets of globe gores on uncut sheets.
WaldseemA?ller, himself, continued his cartographic production beginning with a revised edition of Ptolemya€™s Geographia (eventually published by others), which included a Supplement composed of 20 maps claimed by some scholars to be a€?the first modern atlas of the worlda€™. The regression of WaldseemA?ller to the Columbian conception of Cuba as a part of the continent of Asia was without question confusing to those who saw the map of 1516 with its specific legend.
One can hardly overemphasize the significance in cartographic history, therefore, of the printed WaldseemA?ller productions of 1507 - world map, insets, and globe gores.
The name America (applied to present-day Brazil) appeared for what is believed the first time on Martin WaldseemA?ller's 1507 world map a€” the so-called Baptismal Certificate of the New World. AMERICA, we learn as schoolchildren, was named in honor of Amerigo Vespucci a€” for his discovery of the mainland of the New World. Traditional history lessons about the discovery of America also raise questions about the meaning of discovery itself. And yet, despite the issue of who discovered America, we are still confronted with the awesome fact that it was the voyages of Columbus, and not earlier ones, that changed the course of world history. Carew is resurrecting the ideas of Jules Marcou, a prominent French geologist who while studying North America argued, as did other 19th-century writers, that the name America was brought back to Europe from the New World; and that Vespucci had changed his name to reflect the name of his discovery. Like Marcou, Carew wants us to believe that America was not named after Vespucci, but vice versa; that Vespucci had, so to speak, re-named himself after his discovery, gilding his given name by modifying it to reflect the significance of his discovery. Some scholars believe Vespucci was named after Saint Emeric, son of the first king of Hungary. As was the custom of the Florentine nobility, Vespucci received an education that featured special instruction in the sciences connected with navigation a€” natural philosophy, astronomy, and cosmography a€” in which he excelled.
During the first half of the 20th century, scholars discovered further evidence that clears away the cloud of misunderstanding and ignorance by which Vespucci has long been obscured. The voyage completed by Vespucci between May 1499 and June 1500 as navigator of an expedition of four ships sent from Spain under the command of Alonso de Hojeda is certainly authentic. Under Portuguese auspices he completed a second expedition, which set sail from Lisbon on May 31, 1501. Vespucci not only explored unknown regions but also invented a system of computing exact longitude and arrived at a figure computing the earth's equational circumference only fifty miles short of the correct measurement.
The new geography included in its appendix WaldseemA?ller's large, stunning map of the world, on which the New World is boldly labeled AMERICA a€” in the middle of present-day Brazil. The baptismal passage in the Cosmographiae Introductio has commonly been read as argument, in which the authors said that they were naming the newly discovered continent in honor of Vespucci and saw no reason for objections.
Even though the Latinization of Americus fits a pattern, why did the cosmographers not employ Albericus (hence the assumption that "Alberigo" was Vespucci's authentic Christian name), the Latinization that had already been used for Amerigo's name as the author of the Mundus Novus?
Did America get its name through oral tradition when those who had sailed with Columbus or Vespucci circulated stories that gold was to be found in the Amerrique Mountains of Nicaragua?
The coast at the foot of the Amerrique Mountains that faces the Caribbean Sea is called the Mosquito Coast, named for the Mosquito Indians, who live there still. The Caribs, traveling far from their Carib or Cariay coast, could see the Amerriques in the distance, and these mountains for them could have signified the mainland.
Rodney Broomea€™s recent book, Terra Incognita: The True Story of How America Got Its Name (2001), in which he argues for the Amerike theory, is a very good read, but ultimately lacks the hard evidence to support the authora€™s claim. An early version of this essay appeared in The American Voice (1988) and a section in Encounters (1991). In late May 2003, the Library of Congress completed the purchase of the only surviving copy of the first image of the outline of the continents of the world as we know them todaya€” Martin Waldseemullera€™s monumental 1507 world map. Martin Waldseemuller, the primary cartographer of the map, was a sixteenth-century scholar, humanist, cleric, and cartographer who had joined the small intellectual circle, the Gymnasium Vosagense, organized in Saint-DieI?, France. Thus, in northeast France was born the famous 1507 world map, entitled Universalis cosmographia secunda Ptholemei traditionem et Americi Vespucci aliorum que lustrationes (A drawing of the whole earth following the tradition of Ptolemy and the travels of Amerigo Vespucci and others). While it has been suggested that Waldseemuller incorrectly dismissed Christopher Columbusa€™s great achievement in history by the selection of the name America for the Western Hemisphere, it is evident that the information that Waldseemuller and his colleagues had at their disposal recognized Columbus's previous voyages of exploration and discovery.
By 1513, when Waldseemuller and the Saint-DieI? scholars published the new edition of Ptolemy's Geographiae, and by 1516, when his famous Carta Marina was printed, Waldseemuller had removed the name America from his maps, perhaps suggesting that even he had second thoughts in honoring Vespucci exclusively for his understanding of the New World.
A reported one thousand copies of the 1507 map were printed, which was a sizeable print run in those days.
The Library of Congress's Geography and Map Division acquired in 1903 the facsimiles made of the 1507 and 1516 maps. Library of Congress and specialists in the Library were encouraged to investigate the opportunity.
The 1507 world map is now the centerpiece of the outstanding cartographic collections of the Library of Congress, as it would be for any world class cartographic collection. The Librarya€™s acquisition of the Waldseemuller map represents an important moment to renew serious research into this exceptional map, to determine the sources which made possible its creation, and to investigate its contemporary impact and acceptance.
Through agreement with Prince Waldburg-Wolfegg and the government of Germany, the 1507 world map by Martin Waldseemuller is to be placed on permanent display in the Library of Congressa€™s Great Hall area in the Thomas Jefferson Building.
DESCRIPTION: The existence of sets of gores for making into a globe had been surmised for some time from the discussion in WaldseemA?llera€™s CosmographiA¦ Introductio.
That which adds special significance to this young Germana€™s representations of the new lands, so far as a study of globes is concerned, is the repeated recurrence of his particular outlines or contours in the globe maps of the first quarter of the century, produced by such cartographers as Johann SchA¶ner of NA?rnberg (#328), and by those of his school.
In a little tract, printed in Strassburg in the year 1509, there appears to be a reference to a globe which may be that constructed by WaldseemA?ller. The twelve such gores, measuring 18 x 34.5 cm, corresponding very closely to those described by WaldseemA?ller were for a long time in the Hauslab-Leichtenstein collection and are now in the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis. The world outline is a simplified reduction of WaldseemA?llera€™s large map of 1507 (#310) with relatively few names but (when mounted) sufficient for illustrative purposes. Martin WaldseemA?ller, theologian and cosmographer, and Matthias Ringmann, a humanist poet, were brought to the monastery of St. Although it is likely that the simple globe gores, their model or a€?Marquettea€? of the New World view, would have been available with each issue of the Cosmographiae, the large 12 sheet wall-map, would have been too expensive to be sold as widely.
Considerable speculation, misinformation and some misunderstanding has surrounded these globe gores and the large world map. Proposition: The Kepler Laws allowed Newton to establish his Law of Universal Gravitation without which Newton would have been at a considerable loss!
Prior to Johannes Kepler ( 1571 - 1630 ), Copernicus ( Polish: Mikolaj Kopernik, 1473 - 1543 ) supposed that planetary orbits were approximate circles which indeed are ellipses of a special kind. Kepler's 2nd Law ( Equal Areas in Equal Times ) states that a planet's motion maps out equal areas in equal times for a radius vector, , drawn from the sun - foci to the planet. This then provides one of the first and most important empirical proofs of Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation since planetary centripetal acceleration solely depends upon the distance of the planet from the sun!! Of course, planets do not accelerate and fall into their center bodies due to a countervailing centrifugal force and Newton's Law of Inertia. Hence, here is a further interpretation of the force which maintains a planet's orbit about the sun and which is directly dependent upon the planet's distance from this central body.
Moreover, the universality of Newton's concept of forces acting upon bodies did not just allow for the relative mass of the sun to effect a planet's orbital motion, but equally that there exists a mutual force arising from a planet's mass and hence its reciprocal effect upon the sun. This says that there is some universal value, , for both the sun and any planet and therefore for any body whatsoever in the solar system.
The following interview was done originally for broadcast over Public Radio Station WOSU in May, 1980 by Robert H. Fowler: Traditionally, the age has been derived from the redshift measurements which were first perfected by Edwin Hubble and showed that we live in an expanding universe. Fowler: Those measurements are very sophisticated and very beautiful, but in spite of that, there are considerable uncertainities.
Fowler: Well, of course, the redshift gives the velocity quite directly and very precisely if you believe it is a cosmological red shift as most of us do. Fowler: We have known for almost the whole of this century that stars probably shine on nuclear energy. Fowler: To that question, you'll get an answer that depends on the person of whom you ask it.
Fowler: You don't have to emphasize the direct technological spin-offs from astronomy or the space program which I think have changed life for all of us. Many thousands of years ago, in a scene that must have been repeated many times in human history, a man quietly resting on a log grasped a stick and began scratching in the sand at his feet.
This small band of humans didn't realize the profoundness of their simple act of making images in the sand.
Only slowly did man fashion keys to unlock the doors of his skull and open the consciousness of one person to every other. When man had covered the whole planet with a swarming interchange of consciousness, he still was not finished freeing himself from his isolation. Civilizations arising at widely scattered points in the universe are far more isolated than primitive humans ever were. Having released himself from the solitude of his own mind, man now turns to the stars and faces a larger order of solitude. Man's first efforts at sending his thoughts beyond his own planet have taken a very ancient form.
All the accomplishments since man first scribbled pictures in the sand have led us right back to where we began. Once again we are using pictographs to join brain to brain, but now the brain we are trying to reach is much vaster. Today we are trying to break out of the isolation of our planet and join a flow of thoughts that may fill the whole universe. A short version of this appeared in Science Digest where other articles by Don Logo have also been published.
Once again the gap between machine intelligence and biological intelligence has been narrowed. Shoch and Hupp have a network of 100 small computers connected together by the Ethernet technique.
Fortunately, Shoch and Hupp also have a special Antibody program that can stop the WORM from growing. This particular WORM program can only exist in the specific kind of computers and network used by Shoch and Hupp, but with future development could perhaps function with dissimilar computers and various types of networks.
Another application is to search for previously undetected malfunctions and defects in the network and report their existence. Although several Russian SETI programs are believed to be in progress, very little detailed information about them has been published. Russian search strategies are generally the exact opposite of those used by most western experimenters. Effect of terrestrial interferenceBlots out certain frequencies; can be identified by moving the antenna and by Doppler shiftBlots out certain times, can be identified by using multiple sites.
Both strategies have their strengths and weaknesses, and since no one knows the form of extraterrestrial signals, both strategies are necessary.
The Russian strategy makes use of the fact that radio pulses are distorted by the interstellar medium in such a way that they arrive here first at higher frequencies and later at lower frequencies.
Gindilis and his co-workers used broadband receivers covering the frequency range 350-550 MHz, located at two sites separated by 3000 km. They found many pulsed signals, most of which were blamed on local interference, since they occurred at only one or the other of the two sites. This experiment was valuable in that it demonstrated the capability of the method to detect potentially interesting signals, and to positively identify interfering signals. In previous issues we have listed 30 colleges or universities offering or planning to offer courses. Content: Nucleogenesis, nucleosynthesis, evolution of planetary systems, solar system, spaceship Earth, Mars, beyond Mars, life beyond the solar system, interstellar life, interstellar communication, space colonies.
Could the speed of the space vehicles be accelerated and the time of travel thus shortened? To make a material body move with the full velocity of light is impossible because it would require an infinite amount of energy.
Consciousness remains the ultimate mystery even though it is through it that we perceive the cosmos around us.
One of the consequences of motion with a velocity approaching that of light, according to Einstein's Theory of Relativity, is a foreshortening of time which in the departed vehicle advances slower than the body left behind, so that when the vehicle's velocity equals 0.995 that of light, a tenfold foreshortening takes place and a return trip to a star 50 light years away, recorded from Earth as of 100 years duration, would be recorded as only 10 years of life by the passengers in the vehicle. Despite such tempting prospects of a "time machine", there is a great obstacle which renders the project virtually impossible.
Theoretically there could exist even a more powerful explosive or fuel than the hydrogen of the bomb: the mass of matter itself which, when converted into radiation, yields 128 times more energy than fusion of hydrogen.
To summarize—interstellar travel, visiting the stars or expecting visitors from the stellar universe, is at present not possible. The analogy of the timeless photon could suggest possibilities for grasping (not solving) the greatest mystery of our experience — that of our consciousness, or our "soul". The direction and emphasis of our efforts in space have changed a great deal since I was associated with the program. The justification for our space program lies in the benefits it produces for us in the here and now, benefits that enhance the lives of each and every one of us.
Countless thousands of human lives and millions of dollars have been saved through satellite warning of hurricanes, typhoons, and severe storms.
Communications satellites are bringing us all closer together, linking continents at half the cost of just ten years ago. Aircraft, automobiles, ships, and buildings are now more structurally sound, safer, and more economically constructed thanks to structural analysis techniques developed by NASA. Our country as a whole is more secure because observation, reconnaissance and early warning satellites have made a surprise attack on the United States less feasible, and therefore less likely.
In this light it is more than simply troubling that the Administration has proposed devastating cutbacks in NASA's budget; indeed, in the entire Federal research budget.
O'Neill is President of the Space Studies Institute, a non-profit corporation conducting and sponsoring space research. Bernard Oliver, Vice President for Research and Development of the Hewlett-Packard Company of Palo Alto, California, has made a $20,000 grant to the Extrasolar Planetary Foundation to assist in their program to discover planets of other suns.
The Astronomical Society of Australia is holding a "Space Day" on August 9th of this year to promote public awareness of and interest in space research and astronomy. A number of groups interested in promoting increased utilization and exploration of space are designating July 13 to 20 of this year as "Spaceweek" on the twelfth anniversary of the Apollo Moon landing.
These companion volumes give an overview of the present state of engineering planning for civilian utilization of space.
Each volume represents the Proceedings of an engineering conference and contains the texts of the engineering papers presented at these conferences.
COMMERCIAL OPERATIONS IN SPACE 1980-2000 covers the proceedings of the 18th Goddard Memorial Symposium (1980). Other papers in COMMERCIAL OPERATIONS deal with the economic outlook for private commercial operations in space, manufacturing facilities for making new materials in the ultra-clean gravity-free environment of space, space vehicle design, use of satellites to survey earth resources or to collect solar power for transmission to earth, etc.
These volumes would be valuable additions to the libraries of everyone having a serious working interest in space exploration and utilization. SETI* (*Search for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence) has long been the province of the radioastronomer. It seems to be the nature of this "Cereal Box Syndrome" that those affected seldom recognize their affliction. A second cause of the Cereal Box Syndrome is the frequent confusion of the issues of interstellar travel and interstellar probes. The third reason for hostility to the notion of interstellar flight as a significant factor in SETI is the physical and economic argument that extrasolar missions are grossly impractical.
Calculations showing that the energy required to launch spacecraft to the stars is equal to the total U.S.
The last factor contributing to the pervasiveness of the Cereal Box Syndrome is the lack, until recently, of a well-defined observational program to search for probes such as now exists for radio-SETI. Twenty years after the historic OZMA project, the serious search for extraterrestrial artifacts in our Solar System has finally begun. Letters are always welcome but owing to the volume it is not possible to acknowledge all of them. Much as I enjoy the company and personalities of other radio astronomers, I surely don't relish the idea of everybody being one of them!
As to the question of whether radio waves are the best means of interstellar communication, well, we do know a lot more about physics and the universe than the scientists of the 19th century.
The nature of gravity was obscure to early watchers of the sky who believed that the earth was flat and stationary with the sun, moon, planets and stars moving around it. In 1582 with the financial support of King Frederick II of Denmark, Tycho Brahe built the best equipped observatory of his day and for three decades carried out very accurate and complete measurements of the positions of stars and planets. The foundations had been laid and in 1687 Isaac Newton of Cambridge University, England, enunciated his famous Law of Universal Gravitation describing the force of gravity or attraction between two objects, such as the sun and a planet. To answer the question, "What is gravity?" it is essential to appreciate that gravity and acceleration are equivalent.
If the force of gravity can be replaced by an acceleration, then, according to Einstein, it cannot be like the force exerted by a bulldozer. Now if space is curved near a massive body, such as the sun, Einstein concluded that electromagnetic rays, following the shortest path from a star to the earth, would be bent if they passed near the sun or other celestial body. Another question we may ask is, "Are there gravity waves?" The answer is that they exist in theory although to date none have been detected for sure. On the basis of the preceding discussion we may say that a gravity wave is simply a moving ripple in 4-dimensional space.
Gravity waves of considerable strength could be produced by two stars rotating around each other. Gravitational energy may also be radiated when a star collapses into a neutron star (pulsar) or a black hole.
A random sample of COSMIC SEARCH readers responded to a recent questionnaire that, of the articles they liked, this one by Dr.
Billions of years went by, with galaxies forming and stars burning, expanding, exploding, shrinking, collapsing, dying.
After more eons elapsed, man evolved, creating societies and civilizations and education and nations and war and peace and law and science and technology and our modern world.
In such a cosmic sweep through space and time, any rational person must feel an almost overpowering smallness.
This piece appeared at the conclusion of a longer article "Out of Sight." Reprinted by permission from THE AMERICAN SCHOLAR, Vol. Opinions expressed by persons writing in COSMIC SEARCH are their own and do not necessarily reflect the opinions of the editorial staff. Address subscriptions and all other correspondence to: Radio Observatory, Box 293, Delaware, Ohio 43015.
Text versions of the equation work are made with Microsoft Equation Editor and are embedded in Microsoft Word documents. From this it is quite evident that the two parts, Europe and Africa, occupy half of the world and that Asia alone occupies the other half.
Proceeding to a systematic description of the countries of the world, of Asia Isidore says that it is bounded in the east by Lake Maeotis [Sea of Azov] and the river Tanais [the river Don].
Other maps give definite localities for the Twelve Tribes of Israel and the abiding places of the Twelve Apostles. The most closely related or influenced maps of the T-Oa€™s are those that accompany manuscripts of Sallusta€™s works and may have originally been drawn to illustrate a passage from Sallusta€™s De bello Jugurthino which, like Isidorea€™s treatise, also attempted to briefly describe the countries of the world. Both accounts appear bound in one manuscript that was copied and used as a textbook of history for almost a millennium. The sea is boisterous, and deficient in harbors; the soil is fertile in corn, and good for pasturage, but unproductive of trees.
The name of Medes the Libyans gradually corrupted changing It in their barbarous tongue, into Moors. Many copies of this map mention the name of Armenians in North Africa, along with the names of the Medes and the Persians These were probably the forbearers of the first T-O maps, as we know them today. Some of these include basic T-O maps, which show the continents, including the names of some countries and peoples. The copy dates from the ninth or tenth century and is drawn on vellum and taken from a Sallust manuscript now in the University of Leipzig in Germany.
In the area of Europe there are no legends, only the city of Roma is represented with a vignette of a castle and its name, attesting to the importance of the power of Rome in the Empire.
Affrica contains 24 legends, which include cities of Harran, Cartage [Cartage] plus four other cities. The left arm of the T is inscribed Tanais, but the right arm, which should have borne the name Nilus, is only connected to the Nile at the right extremity, where the Nilus is shown as a vertical line. There are 15 toponyms and the countries of Phoenicea, Carthago, Ethiopia, Numidia and mountains of Catabatmon are shown.
This area is divided first into the lands of Judea, Galilee, and Palestine, and further by the names of seven of the Twelve Tribes. One of the most interesting features of this map is its highly abstract form: it is mostly comprised of straight lines with only a few concessions to irregular geographical forms.
Most puzzling is that the label for Europe crosses what would normally be the Mediterranean. The division of the earth among the sons of Noah, Noaha€™s ark, seven of the twelve tribal territories of the land of Israel, Jericho and the city of refuge (Joshua 20) for those guilty of involuntary manslaughter under Hebrew law, all come from Jewish history. These divisions are treated rather casually, however, for the label EVROPA straddles the boundary between Europe and Africa; locations in the Holy Land are indifferently assigned to Asia and Africa, and Athens and Achaia are placed in Asia. Running horizontally across the middle of the map, and dividing Asia from Africa and Europe, is a band labeled HIERVSALEM.
Europe in principle occupies the left hand side of the lower half of the map, but the label EVROPA actually straddles the vertical divider. Great Britain, Ireland and Thule are represented at or over the edge of the orbis and in the northern rather than western quadrant.
The prominence given to Jerusalem, together with the double representation of the Cross (once on its own, and once on Mount Zion), is a case in point. Evelyn Edson, on the other hand, argues that MS 17a€™s mappamundi is one of a small group of complex maps directly inspired by computus themes. A famous and often reproduced world map in a manuscript of the short version of Mansela€™s book, which was probably made by Simom Marmion in about 1460, illustrates the division of the world among the three sons of Noah. Mansela€™s description includes ancient places such as Carthage and Delos, biblical places such as Babylon and Judaea, and lands of contemporary importance such as Westphalia and Gascony. Of course that is the easy conclusion, but it is rendered very plausible if we look at the names of some of the islands in the circumfluent oceana€”golgavatas terra, lapides presiosa (for lapides pretiosi, a€?precious stonesa€?), habundans terra, illa deserta, tamaria, alphaua terra, and illa arcana, for examplea€”which are quite clearly invented. It immediately precedes the prologue to Book IV, which includes a regional description of the world in alphabetical order. Among these manuscripts are many illustrated works on astrology and astronomy as well as some on geography, but virtually nothing contains a map.
The circular legend around the city reads The city of Jerusalem populated in ancient and recent times by the Israelites [the Armenian phrase reads Bnakui hin yev nor avrinatz qaghaq I[sra] letzotz vor e Yerusaghem]. It also resembles the plan of Jerusalem in another Armenian manuscript in the Matenadaran, the much later MS 1770 which dates from 1589. This is shown by the pair of vertical red lines that descend from Jerusalem in the center to the outer Ocean and represent the Mediterranean, which is identified only by the word Sea. Between the inscription and the Mediterranean, that is in western Africa, is a small circle which, being inland, can only denote a lake.
It is outlined in black, colored solidly in red and interrupted as if to indicate the traditional crossing of the Israelites as they fled from Egypt. Two black lines, drawn at right angles to each other and to the red lines of the continental division and the Mediterranean, indicate the Aegean and Black Seas. In the north, following the curve of the encircling Ocean, and on the borders of Europe and Asia, is written Rusq [Russia]. Zaytun was the Arabic name given to the port of Quanzhou or Tseu-Tung in the province of Fujian, China. It may also be that this is the earliest Christian map on which the toponyms Caffa, Azov, Sarai, Zaytun and Khansai are found. The geographer Mkrdich Khachaturiana€™s suggestion that the map dates from 1206 is unlikely to be correct.
The Flemish Franciscan William de Rubruck (1220-1293), who in 1253 travelled to the region, stated that [Sarah] Batu was one of the most important cities of the region.
It is hardly possible to date a manuscript precisely based on palaeography alone, and, furthermore, the script used on the map is similar to that in a manuscript produced in Caffa in 1445 (Matenadaran, MS 8963), which is another collection of astrological and scientific subjects, with diagrams and calendars. Only after Genoese merchants had leased it from the Mongols, was it transformed into a flourishing commercial centre, trading with the East and rivaling the Venetian- controlled city of Tanais on the Sea of Azov. Such a date would fit the suggestion that the Armenian mapmaker, who was most likely to have been a monk, either saw or was told about contemporary Italian T-O maps in Caffa, a city not only administered by the Genoese, but also to all intents and purposes functioning as an Italian city, and one of the most suitably located Armenian communities for intellectual as well as commercial contact with the West. Hovhannes Hovhannisian, the other Armenian geographer who has studied the map, argues that the presence of the commercial centers of Khorazm [Oxiana] and Sarai are indicative of the period when the Mongols had close connections with Khorazm (that is, from the 1240s to the 1360s), and this explains the rationale behind his dating the map to as late as 1360. Other biblical events and places are shown on the map, however: Jerusalem, the giving of the Tablets of the Law to Moses, Mount Sinai and the Red Sea. While the Hereford mappamundi, c.1290 (#226) and the Sawley map, 1180 (#215) each show a monastic establishment, the references to these have been placed on the banks of the Nile. It can plausibly be deduced, that the author was familiar with Central Asia since current trends in commercial and political relations are well represented by the depiction of the Silk Road cities and major trading centers such as Baghdad, Damascus, Constantinople and Venice. A sumptuous example of Flemish illumination illustrating an encyclopedic work, it embodies the spirit of medieval civilization. Fisher found the only known remaining copy of this map securely bound up in an old book bearing the bookplate of the 16th century German mathematician and geographer Johannes SchA¶ner. Die, located in the Vosges Mountains of France, had made a map of the world in the year 1507. Die in a an original issue of about 1,000 copies (a thousand copies represented a large edition for this time, immediately preceding post-Columbian world maps, such as Juan de la Cosaa€™s, Cantinoa€™s and Caveria€™s (#305 thru #309 - were all manuscript maps). All this we have carefully drawn on the map, to furnish true and precise geographical knowledge.
A Florentine cosmographer, he sailed in 1497 with a commission appointed by Ferdinand and Isabella to investigate reports that Columbusa€™ administration of Hispaniola was inept. He also credited himself with three other voyages by 1503, when he made his last, an investigation of the coast of Brazil for Portugal.
Taken together, these inset hemispheres form the most comprehensive and most nearly correct representation of the world displayed on any map known to have been constructed up to the year of 1507.
Besides this world map, WaldseemA?ller also introduced the name America in two other media, in the previously mentioned Cosmographia Introductio and on his globe (thought by some scholars to be the so-called Hausslab-Linchoten globe (#311), both also produced in the year 1507). It happened that in the Vosges Mountains in the little town of Saint-Die, there was a college under the patronage of the studious Duke Renaud (Rene) II of Vaudemon, of Lorraine, the titular a€?King of Jerusalem and Sicilya€?, who was there resident.
On Plate V (the Caribbean area) of his map, WaldseemA?ller wrote: These islands were discovered by Columbus, an admiral of Genoa, at the command of the King of Spain. For there is a land, discovered by Columbus, a captain of the King of Castile, and by Americus Vespucius, both men of very great ability, which, though in great part lies beneath a€?the path of the year and of the suna€? and between the tropics, nevertheless extends about 19 degrees beyond the Tropic of Capricorn toward the Antarctic Pole, a€?beyond the path of the year and the suna€?.
Since Columbus never explored as far south as the equator, the words a€?it proves clearly to be truea€? are clothed with meaning only in the light of Amerigoa€™s voyages into the southern hemisphere, not at all in the light of the a€?firsta€? of the a€?four voyagesa€?, from which the dispute ultimately arose as to which could claim priority upon the shore of the new continent, Columbus or Amerigo Vespucci; for that a€?firsta€? voyage, like all the voyages of Columbus, was entirely north of the equator. In addition to the previously mentioned accuracy and a€?noveltya€™ of the hemispheric insets, and the picturing of the new southern continent, with its surprisingly correct general contour, the inset map presents a portion of the northern continent as well, and the two are correctly joined together by a narrow isthmus. One is tempted to loose sight of this revolutionary advance over the previously dominating world conception of Ptolemy in focusing all the attention to the single feature that has made WaldseemA?llera€™s map so famous, the first appearance thereon of the name America. This area may represent the coast of China copied from Marco Polo, and placed here in the belief that the new discoveries were in and near Asia.
In extending the South American coast to 50 degrees South (high-lighted by the implantation of a Portuguese flag), WaldseemA?ller avoids committing himself as to the possibility of a passage by sea around this new continent by continuing its land to the edge of, and actually into, the map frame (compare this abrupt treatment with his depiction of Africa, where he is willing to go outside of the preset form of his map frame in order to accommodate the full extension of the continent and thus substantiate the Portuguese proof of a passage to the Far East). As can be seen on the accompanying comparison illustration, except for the southern half of Africa, in both projection and general geographical contours the Old World of WaldseemA?llera€™s 1507 map seems to have been virtually copied from Martellus.
Another is, to the south, a part of Africa, which begins about seven degrees this side of Capricornus and stretches in a broad expanse to the south, beyond the torrid zone and the Tropic of Egocerus (Capricornus).
At least twice Henricus Glareanus copied WaldseemA?llera€™s world map and insets in manuscript.


Two maps in this Supplement show the New World discoveries, Tabula Terre Nove and Orbis Typus Universalis. In his great and very important world map of 1516, WaldseemA?ller showed the landmass abutting upon the western border of the map, as in the two above mentioned maps, but here gives it the name Terra de Cuba Asie Partis.
The representation in these of the American continents separated from Asia by a broad ocean in the midst of which lay the island of Japan was a splendid synthesis based upon such known particulars as the narrative of Marco Polo, the voyages of the Portuguese to North America by way of the Atlantic and to India by way of the Cape of Good Hope, the discoveries of South America by Vespucci and Cabral, the Spanish discoveries in the West Indies and the Caribbean, and above all, perhaps, the notable manuscript maps of La Cosa, Cantino, and Caveri.
The only known surviving copy was purchased, in 2003, by the Library of Congress for $10 million.
Further, other discoveries of America have been credited to the Irish who had sailed to a land they called Iargalon, the land beyond the sunset, and to the Phoenicians who purportedly came here before the Norse. Specifically, Marcou introduced the name of an Indian tribe and of a district in Nicaragua called Amerrique, and asserted that this district a€” rich in gold a€” had been visited by both Columbus and Vespucci, who then made this name known in Europe. To define it Carew echoes Marcou, who quotes from his correspondence with Augustus Le Plongeon. He has been wrongfully portrayed as a crafty opportunist ever since the mid-16th century when Bartholomew de Las Casas accused him of being a liar and a thief who stole the glory that belonged to Columbus. Around 1490 he was sent to Spain by his employers, the famous Italian family of Medici, to join their business in fitting out ships. At the beginning of 1505 he was summoned to the court of Spain for a private consultation, and, as a man of experience, was engaged to work for the famous Casa de Contratacion de las Indias (Commercial House for the West Indies), which had been founded two years before in Seville. The first or traditional series consists of the widely published letters, dated 1504, purportedly written by him.
After a halt at the Cape Verde Islands, the expedition traveled southwestward, reached the coast of Brazil, and certainly sailed as far south as the RA­o de la Plata, which Vespucci was the first European to discover. It was, however, not his many solid accomplishments but an apparent error made by a group of scholars living in St.
This map is the first known map, printed or manuscript, to use the name America, and also the first to depict clearly a separate western hemisphere, with the Pacific as a separate ocean. But, as etymologist Joy Rea has suggested, it could also be read as explanation, in which they indicate that they have heard the New World was called America, and the only explanation lay in Vespucci's name.
Their substitution of Americus for the well-known Latinization Albericus might mean that they wanted a Latinization that would fit and explain the name America which they had already heard applied to the New World. The Indians in the Caribbean did have a word for the mainland, given in the LexicografA­a Antillana (Antillean Dictionary, 1931) as babeque and defined as the name that Columbus understood the Indians to say when they were pointing to a land beyond Haiti and Cuba. It constitutes an incredible Anglicization of the New World a€” and would, for obvious reasons, infuriate Carew. He purportedly gave one of the islands he explored to a friend, another to his barber, and also promised some Italian friars that they could be bishops.
However, even if the name America were known in Bristol in 1497, Hudd has taken a majestic leap to suggest Ameryk's name as its origin. That map has been referred to in various circles as America's birth certificate, and for good reasona€”it is the first document on which the name America appears. He was born near Freiburg, Germany, sometime in the 1470s, and died in the canon house at Saint-DieI? in 1522.
That map, printed on twelve separate sheets from wood block plates, when assembled would measure more than 4 1a?„2 feet by 8 feet in dimension.
However, the group also had acquired a recent French translation of the important work Insuper aquattor Amerigo Vespuccii navigationes, Amerigo Vespucci's letter detailing his purported four voyages across the Atlantic Ocean to America between 1497 and 1504.
Instead, in the 1513 atlas the name America does not appear anyplace in the volume, and the place of America is referred to as Terra Incognita (Unknown land). This single surviving copy of the map exists because it was kept in a portfolio by Johannes SchoI?ner (1477-1547), a German globe maker, who probably had acquired a copy of the map for his own cartographic work. Throughout the twentieth century the Library continued to express interest in and a desire to acquire the 1507 map, when, if ever, it was made available for sale.
Through the combined efforts of several Library of Congress specialists, and many other members of the Library's staff over an 11 year period, the map has made its way to the Library of Congress. The map serves as a departure point in the development of the American cartographic collection in addition to its revered position in early modern cartographic history. The mapa€™s well announced acquisition provides us an extraordinary opportunity to appreciate the earliest of early depictions of our modern world. The Library of Congress is proud to have obtained this unique treasure and is anxious to have this great cartographic document receive the public acclaim and the critical scholarly inspection that it so rightly merits.
This call for further scholarship on the map, its impact, and the sources used to produce it is not meant to suggest that previous scholarship is lacking. Both the globe and the large world map were doubtless printed in large numbers and widely distributed. It is this reference that the Prince of Liechtenstein, as noted above, has taken as a reference to the gore map, a copy of which is in his collection.
Although a text on WaldseemA?llera€™s later wallmap, the Carta Marina (1516), says that 1,000 copies of the 1507 wall-map were made, it is unlikely that this number were issued, given the survival rate of the one bound copy now in the Library of Congress.a€? The globe map and book had an enormous influence on other geographers, notably Appian, SchA¶ner and Fries, and advanced the science of globe-making and map making particularly in Germany and the Low Countries. The Kraus-Bavarian State Library copy -- in 1960 at Sothebya€™s in London, a set of the gores was offered bound into a Ptolemy atlas of 1486. The Offenburg copy -- following the publicity regarding the acquisition of the copy above by the Bavarian State library in 1992, in 1993 two researchers, Dr. The present example was discovered in February 2003 when the owner, on reading an article in the Frankfurter Algemeinen Zeitung on the Munich copy, realized he owned a similar map amongst his large collection of books and ephemera. To present the various strands of information relating to the genesis, execution and influences of the WaldseemA?ller gores, the following timeline brings together the principal events in the lives of WaldseemA?ller, Ringmann, Vespucci and their circles.
In any event, because circles are special cases of generalized ellipses, any derivations based upon Kepler's 1st Law ( Planetary Law of Ellipses ) for ellipses must also hold true for circles.
This universal factor of proportionality, , is called the gravitational constant and was finally and fairly accurately implicitly determined [ within 1% ] in 1797 by British Henry Cavendish ( 1731 - 1810 ) whose original intent was to calculate earth's density relative to water.
Although that duration of time is almost incomprehensible in terms of human experience, we can claim that the uncentainty only falls in the range of ten to fifteen billion years. When Hubble looked at distant galaxies, he found that they were receding with velocities that were proportional to distance.
Although the age of the Universe as derived from the redshift measurements is consistent with the twelve billion years which I believe to be correct, the uncertainty spreads all the way from seven billion years to twenty.
It is named for the Austrian physicist, Christian Johann Doppler (1803-1853) who found the shift in the wavelength or frequency of sound from sources moving relative to the listener.
I'm a nuclear physicist, so early in the game when my colleagues, Fred Hoyle and Geoffrey and Margaret Burbridge and I, came up with the general idea of the synthesis of heavy elements, including the radioactive ones, in stars, we realized we had a way of using nuclear radioactivity in cosmochronology, just as a geologist uses the radioactive elements to determine the age of a rock.
Over the history of our Galaxy, we think that stars have been producing the heavy elements which some 4.6 billion years ago condensed out of the interstellar medium into the solar system. As I noted previously, this work was done along with Fred Hoyle and Geoffrey and Margaret Burbridge.
I must also emphasize that we think all galaxies were formed very soon after the Big Bang, so our Galaxy is approximately twelve billions years old. I'm still interested in the question of how the heavy elements are produced, and in particular, what can astronomical observations tell us about the sites, the places where nuclear synthesis occurs. There's no question that federal space program funding has been going down in recent years. Fowler has published numerous articles on nuclear forces, nuclear spectroscopy and nuclear structure. He slowly moved the stick back and forth, carefully guiding it through curves and straight lines. There was almost a magical power in being able to conjure up well-known shapes out of nothing. However compelling it might have seemed to them, they could not have felt how important it would be for their species. Now minds could receive nourishment from other minds far too distant to be heard or spoken to — distant both in place and time. Profound thoughts swirl around the surface of a planet and never leave the cradle where they are born.
The whole of Earth is a giant skull holding the human mind in a terrible muteness and lack of nourishment from outside. The first message, on a plaque aboard two Pioneer spacecraft launced in 1972 and 1973, featured a simple picture of two humans, one male and one female, the male holding up his hand in greeting, and drawings of the solar system, with a spacecraft emerging from the third planet. To communicate with very different species we can only return to the simplest form of symbol available and work upwards from there.
Long ago human brains were isolated from one another, but now we have joined our brains in a planet-wide flow of thoughts. Space may be swarming with energies carrying the thoughts of countless civilizations; thoughts may be flowing between galaxies like impulses leaping between neurons.
His article "Circles of Stone and Circles of Steel" was the First COSMIC SEARCH Award Winner, appearing in the March 1979 issue. Researchers John Shoch and Jon Hupp at the Xerox Palo Alto Research Center in California have created a computer program that will migrate, reproduce and ultimately take over all the computers in a network.
However, the antibody cannot restore the afflicted computers, so they have to have their memories individually cleared out and reloaded with their normal programs to resume operation. A practical application of such a program is to search through a computer network for some information or data whose exact location is unknown, and then return it to the seeker. How long will it be before some computer attains the theoretically "perfect" level — one in which a human conversing via a computer terminal cannot tell if it is a machine or another person at the other end of the circuit.
A notable exception to this dearth of information is a recently published chapter in the book entitled Communication with Extraterrestrial Intelligence, edited by John Billingham and Rudolf Pesek (Pergamon Press, 1979). The relative disadvantages of the Russian strategy are less sensitivity (since very small antennas are used) and the necessity of operating several widely-separated receiving sites simultaneously. A pulse that was originally transmitted at the same time on all frequencies will be received as a pulse that sweeps downward in frequency, like a descending chirp. One was near the Black Sea in extreme southwestern Russia, and the other was in the Tadzhik Republic, near the southern tip of the Soviet Union. The authors recommend that further experiments of this type be conducted using improved receiving and recording equipment. The maximum physically possible speed is that of light, ten thousand times faster than the "normal" velocity of interplanetary vehicles.
Even at near this velocity the energy per unit mass (initial or "rest mass") could by far exceed all sources of nuclear energy. This strange fact is not simply a mere mathematical conclusion, but is confirmed by experiments in atomic physics where moving atoms represent the vehicles, their vibrations measuring time.
There is the story of Rip van Winkle; or Andersen's tale of Swamp King's Daughter, where the heroine is allowed to spend but one day in paradise with her deceased beloved and, returning to Earth, discovers that 1000 years have passed. Mass is thus the ultimate possible source of energy, a source of which we have no idea how to tap it. We, as well as the inhabitants of other planetary systems, may be forever isolated in this respect. The waves of radiation, the photons, have no rest mass, only energy (and a kinetic mass appropriate to the energy).
Its nature is not accessible to physical experiment, it is not subject to the laws of physics, to measurements or timing: it is immaterial.
In those early years the emphasis was on simply putting a man into space and bringing him safely home.
In today's world, our economic and military strength depend upon boosting our efforts in this area.
O'Neill, Professor of Physics at Princeton University, has published a new book "2081: A Hopeful View of the Human Future" (Simon and Shuster, May 1981) in which he predicts what he believes the world will be like a hundred years from now.
O'Neill on "Space Colonization and SETI" appeared in the March, 1979 issue of COSMIC SEARCH. Oliver's $200,000 grant to the Monterey Institute for Research in Astronomy to assist in their proposed plan to study stars in the solar neighborhood and acquire better statistics on those that may be good SETI candidates. Solar power collected in space and transmitted to power grids on earth, exotic new materials from space, scientific experiments free of atmospheric distortions, all these and more have advanced to realistic engineering planning stages. It contains eighteen papers, all but two by authors directly or indirectly associated with NASA programs.
New materials that can be made only in space may have the greatest impact on us as consumers. It presents twenty three papers on topics similar to those covered in COMMERCIAL OPERATIONS. While this, in itself, is neither bad news nor good, these early workers and their attitudes have left an indelible imprint on the field that persists to this day.
This is a potentially serious problem as radio-based SETI research enters the megabuck funding range and thereby risks unnecessarily "pricing itself out" of an already parsimonious market.
A mere handful of lucky individuals are fortunate enough to be able to devote their full time to SETI, and perhaps only a few hundred others can manage a part-time commitment to the field. However, as Robert Forward of Hughes Laboratories has often pointed out, in each case the only thing proven is that various sets of initial assumptions can be chosen to give the appearance of immense difficulty. Ronald Bracewell originally proposed that a circular circumsolar orbit somewhere within the stellar "habitable zone" for carbon-water life might be the most logical place to park a visiting extraterrestrial messenger craft, though this represents a rather large search volume.
Freitas is Director of Space Initiative which publishes "Lobbying for Space: The space Lobbyist's Handbook" and provides information on Congressional voting records and other materials useful for promoting increased activity in space. Also due to space limitations we reserve the right where necessary to condense or edit the contents. No, I think the mix of personalities and talents in our population will not change very much in the future, except that there will be a much smaller percentage of manual laborers.
Even if you have a good fusion reactor, which does go a long way towards making interstellar travel possible, the energy required is still enormous and could be used to much greater benefit right back home.
We know enough of the very basic physics of the universe to conclude that radio waves are a very promising way to go, although everyone agrees that we should be alert for signs of life in other forms of radiation. Drake's "In Which Klingons Become Chimeras" in the Winter 1981 issue contains a good summary of the argument advanced recently against the existence of extraterrestrials.
Drake's position and his opposition is to gather more data and this is the best argument for proceeding with all kinds of searches.
Boyle raises a very fundamental and provocative question which is of great interest in its own right, as well as in its importance in determining the best approaches to SETI. Boyle makes a very important point which every thinking person should draw from discussions like that above. The idea that the earth was a spinning sphere revolving around the sun began to gain slow acceptance after Nicholas Copernicus of Poland drew attention to the concept in 1543.
Subsequently, Brahe's observations were analyzed by Johannes Kepler from Germany who deduced from them that the orbits of the planets, although approximately circular, are actually ellipses with the sun at one focus.
According to Newton's law, the two objects are attracted by a force that increases in proportion to the product of their masses and decreases in proportion to the square of the distance between them.1(1. Instead it must represent a special property of 4-dimensional space (3 coordinate dimensions plus time) in which the gravitational effect of a mass is equivalent to a curvature of the space.
Observations have been performed at both optical and radio wavelengths indicating that this is indeed the case.
Being creatures accustomed to a 3-dimensional world it is difficult to visualize a 4-dimensional space so we resort to analogies.
The co-rotating stars form a gravitational broadcasting station beating out gravity waves in rhythm to their rotation.2(2.
In this case the principal radiation would probably be in a short pulse and not in sustained, steady waves as for the co-rotating stars. We kill time, spend time, lose time, make time, beat time, take time, waste time; but we virtually never consider time, much less understand it.
Then, some five billion years ago, on the remote periphery of an average galaxy in an unexceptional part of the universe, a particular star was born.
Our day-to-day concerns and trite prejudices shrink into microscopic, infinitesimal nothingness. For even though our physiques are but specks in space and our life-spans but ticks in time, we nonetheless are capable of comprehending a system far vaster than ourselves. Berendzen believes that science fact, if presented well, can be far more engaging than science fiction. A more general presentation of the equivalence of the two methods (Part II) integrates well into calculus-based University Physics courses.
The former were made into two parts because the Great Sea (called the Mediterranean) enters from the Ocean between them and cuts them apart .
His treatment of the habitable earth enables one to arrive fairly easily at the scope of his knowledge.
During his mission there he was involved in various rebellions and conflicts with neighboring powers and has left accounts of his activities.
In his Jugurthine War Sallust writes about Africa, describing its geographic location and climatic conditions, as well as its demography where he narrates how the Armenian mercenaries settled in North Africa and intermingling with the Libyan tribes, gave rise to the peoples that inhabit the region today. Since they are about the history of northern Africa, this particular area is shown in more detail. In Europe only the name of the continent and two countries of Italia and Hyspania are shown. Near the Nile the land is described as Exusta [parched], a reference to the southern parched areas. Jerusalem was the focus of that Conquest for more than two centuries of Crusaders, and it would remain the center of attention on maps until the invention of printing and the publication of Ptolemy in the 1470s. The whole is illustrated by instructive diagrams, including five world maps: two T-O centers of rotae, two zonal maps, and one larger, more detailed map. Another oddity is that Achaia, where St Andrew [preached] is in Southeast Asia, far from Athens, the preaching site of Paul.
These are the usual numbers for the descendants of Shem and Ham, but the source of the numbers for Armenia and why this country is singled out are not clear. There is no attempt at cartographic realism: this is a diagram containing a list of places. ASIA MAIOR: glossed QVOD SVNT SEPTVAGINTA DVE GENTES ORTE, and beneath this De Sem gentes XXVI. In the Europe zone, reading from top to bottom and left to right are: Terra macedonum, Campania, Italia, ROMA, tiberis flumen, Tuscia, mons Ethna, sicilia, KARTAGO MAGNA. These independent maps tend to occupy the full width of the page, or the page in its entirety.
Anna-Dorothea von den Brincken claims that this map is the first to position Jerusalem in the centre of the world, and not at its eastern extremity.
A mappamundi with identical arrangement and legends appears in the Peterborough Computus (Harley 3667 fol. The British Isles and Ireland were little corners of the outer margins of the orbis terrarum, which further served to marginalize the deviant computus of the island churches. But the ADAM device, to say nothing of its proximity to Byrhtfertha€™s Diagram both in MS 17 and in the Peterborough computus, argue forcefully for its derivation from Byrhtferth or his milieu. In this category she includes oikumene maps, often quite large, such as the one in Vatican City BAV 6018 fols. Another world map in a manuscript of the long version of the book, this one created c.1480, for this map contains large and prominent sea monsters in the circumfluent ocean. His aim was to show how Rome developed from a small town to a global empire, almost every corner of which had been penetrated by Christianity before the empire passed to the Franks.
In fact none of the islands in the circumfluent ocean which are discussed by Mansela€”Grande-Bretagne, iles Fortunees, Gales, Irlande, Orcades, Escosse, Thanatos, Taprobane, Thule, and Islandea€”appears on this map. The oldest geographical work originates from as early as the fifth century and is titled in Armenian Ashkharhatzuytz or Mirror of the World. The horizontal arms of the letter T (stretching north and south from Jerusalem at the centre) are not represented by the rivers Tanais (Don) and Nile, as in conventional T-O maps, but by single red lines ruled, it would seem, to demarcate Asia from Europe and from Africa.
The considerable prominence given to Jerusalem can be explained by the fact that the Armenian Church had, and still has, close ties with the Holy City and is one of the four custodians of the Holy Places, with a church, seminary and religious order active since the 5th century.
Outside the double-circle frame of the map are the names of the four cardinal directions Hyusis, Harav, Arevelq and Arevmutq, and the word Dzov [Sea] is written seven times. Further in from the Ocean two cities are named, Kostandnupolis [Constantinople] and Venejia [Venice]. Indeed, that is how it is identified, with the phrase Ays dzovis anunn Tuman [This Sea is named Tuman]. The legend that appears to refer to the Crossing of the Red Sea is worn and partly illegible.
A gap in the horizontal line for the Aegean, filled with the name Kostandnupolis [Constantinople], seems to imply that the line also represents the Dardanelles, the Sea of Marmara and the Bosporus. Zaytun and Khansai appear on the Catalan Atlas of 1375 (#246) as Ciutat de Zaytun and Ciutat de Cansay, respectively; Fra Mauroa€™s map of 1459 (#249) contains these toponyms as Cayton and Chansay. His conjecture was based on the assumption that all the toponyms on the map are contemporary with the time of its creation. This posed a problem for Khachaturian, however, and he therefore had to insist that the toponym Sara related not to Sarai-Batu but to some other location, perhaps a putative island in the Caspian Sea, even though the Caspian is neither mentioned on the map nor has it ever had an inhabited island named Sara. Looking at the toponyms shown on the map, the question arises why a Cilician-Armenian mapmaker would have included the names of cities along the distant northern Silk Road, instead of the toponyms in his locality.
The earliest mention of Caffa in Armenian literature dates from the middle of the 13th century. In Rouben Galichiana€™s view, the most creditable hypothesis is that the map was created between the late-13th and mid-14th centuries, or even slightly later, which is in line with Hovhannisiana€™s proposal. The legend to the southeast of Palestine, between Mount Sinai and the Nile reads Takhtak orinatz zor yet[ur] a[stua]tz Movs[es]i, which translates Tablets of law that God gave Moses. The Armenian language has several different words that mean monastery, among them liana, menastan and ananpat.
It may also be suggested that the mapmaker was a native of the region, very likely from 14th century Caffa, then one of the most important Armenian cultural centers and the source of a large number of manuscripts of that date.
This volume contained twelve sheets, each 21 x 30 inches, which when laid together disclosed a large map of the world 4 feet 6 inches by 8 feet, which was designated by one of its own inscriptions a carta marina, dated on its own face 1516, and bore the name of Martin WaldseemA?ller as author.
Henry Harrisse had made this conjecture in his Discovery of North America, which he published when the world was celebrating the 400th anniversary of the discovery of America. As farmers usually mark off and divide their farms by boundary lines, so it has been our endeavor to mark the chief countries of the world by the emblems of their rulers. While certainly not the only large world map produced during this dynamic era of exploration, the Universalis Cosmographia was one of the first large engraved and printed maps to depict the recent Spanish and Portuguese discoveries of the Mundus Novus.
Much of what Vespucci claimed to have seen on this and other voyages was later called into question by both his contemporaries and, later, by historians. He wrote a letter describing his third voyage that was circulated throughout Europe as a tract called Mundus Novus [The New World], and later was included by WaldseemA?ller in his Cosmographia Introductio (the Solderini letter, see illustration below). To avoid confusion hereafter the main portion of the map will be referred to as the a€?world mapa€?, designating the two small representations of the eastern and western hemispheres, placed above the world map, as the a€?insetsa€?.
The term used by some of the map-makers, Land of Brasil, was confusing, for Brasil was the name of an imaginary island located somewhere in the Atlantic, according to popular belief, when there had been no thought of a continent.
Walter Lud, Secretary to the Duke, and a wealthy man, had established a printing press at St.
And at the mouth of the Orinoco River is the following: All this is sweet water, a statement based upon the well-known story of Columbusa€™ discovery of the fresh water of the Orinoco River (there is the same reference found on the Bartholomew Columbus map (#304) which has Mar de aqua dolce along the northeastern shores of South America). In other words, on his 1507 map, WaldseemA?ller unmistakably showed that in his own mind he ascribed proof of the existence of the new continent to the Portuguese voyage of Amerigo (the a€?thirda€? of the a€?four voyagesa€?), and that Columbus never detoured from his conviction that he had actually reached the shores of Asia (accepting the longitudinally shortened world of Ptolemy, et al), and that it was the acceptance of Amerigoa€™s proof of its existence more so than Amerigoa€™s supposed priority which caused him to name the new continent America. However, as can be seen above on Plate I of the world map, the two continents are inexplicably separated by a hypothetical strait, connecting the two great oceans.
Contarini (#308) and Ruysch (#313) distinctly record their belief on their maps that the contemporary explorers had reached China, as does the Columbus map and the letter of Columbus explanatory of his fourth voyage record the same view (#303, #304).
Curiously enough, though, while accepting the Portuguese delineation of the New World and South Africa, WaldseemA?ller reverts to the Ptolemaic conception of North Africa and Asia as refined and expressed by Martellus, rejecting the more accurate rendering of contemporaries such as Caveri.
A third instance, in the east, is the land of Cathay, and all of southern India beyond 180 degrees of longitude. The transmission of the Cantino-Caveri concept through the members of this notable group created one of the mainstreams of interest in the history of cartography. Thus this ingenious geographer not only preserved the geographical concepts of WaldseemA?ller, but also carried the representation of hemispheres a step further by the experimental construction in 1510 of the first known maps of the northern and southern hemispheres on a circumpolar projection. The world picture in the maps and globe of 1507 - the representation, that is, of an American landmass widely separated from the Asian coast with Japan lying between the two - had become the accepted canon in geographic theory and cartographic expression. The new picture compiled from these varied elements and presented to the literate world in printed form became a factor of the highest importance in developing a new concept of the earth and its divisions, rendering obsolete the Ptolemaic geography that had been accepted and revered since the second century of the Christian era.
In 2005, this treasured map was inscribed in UNESCO's Memory of the World Register, and is the first document in the United States to be so honored.
By the time we are adults it lingers vaguely in most of us, along with images of wave-tossed caravels and forests peopled with naked cannibals.
They were of course preceded by the pre-historic Asian forebears of Native Americans, who migrated across some ice-bridge in the Bering Straits or over the stepping stones of the Aleutian Islands.
The 1497 voyage by John Cabot to the Labrador coast of Newfoundland constitutes yet another discovery of the American mainland, which led to an early 20th-century account of the naming of America, recently revived, that claims the New World was named after an Englishman (Welshman, actually) called Richard Amerike.
To rob people or countries of their names is to set in motion a psychic disturbance which can in turn create a permanent crisis of identity. Vespucci was probably in Seville in 1492 when Columbus was preparing for his first historic voyage, as well as in 1493 when Columbus returned. In 1508 the house appointed him piloto mayor (pilot major, or chief navigator), a post of great responsibility, which included the examination of the pilots' and ships' masters' licenses for voyages. Pohl's biography, Amerigo Vespucci, Pilot Major (1944), and GermA?n Arciniegas's Amerigo and the New World (1955; tr. Addressed to his patron, Lorenzo de' Medici, the Mundus Novus (New World) a€” the title alone revolutionizing the European conception of the cosmos a€” was translated from the Italian into Latin, and originally printed in Vienna; the other letter, addressed to the gonfaloniere (chief magistrate) of Florence, Piero Soderini, was a more elaborate work.
Since Vespucci took part as navigator, he certainly cannot have been inexperienced; however, it seems unlikely that he had made a previous voyage, though this matter remains unresolved. In all likelihood the ships took a quick run still farther south, along the coast of Patagonia to the Golfo de San JuliA n or beyond. The entire New World portion of the map roughly represents South America, and when later mapmakers added North America, they retained the original name; in 1538, the great geographer Gerard Mercator gave the name America to all of the western hemisphere on his mappamundi. In ignoring the possible intention of these words as explanation, most scholars have ignored the simple fact that place names usually originate informally in the spoken word and first circulate that way, not in the printed word. Why did they ignore the common law in the naming of new lands: the use of the last names of explorers and the first names of royalty? It is almost certain that Columbus first heard the name of the mountains pronounced by a Carib. Las Casas believed for a while that this must be Jamaica, but later decided it was the name for the mainland. No proof exists to substantiate his claim that Cabot actually honored the Welshman by naming America after him. It is also the first map to depict a separate and full Western Hemisphere and the first map to represent the Pacific Ocean as a separate body of water. The large map is an early sixteenth-century masterpiece, containing a full map of the world, two inset maps showing separately the Western and Eastern Hemispheres, illustrations of Ptolemy and Vespucci, images of the various winds, and extensive explanatory notes about selected regions of the world. In that work, Vespucci concluded that the lands reached by Columbus in 1492, and explored by Columbus and others over the ensuing two decades, was indeed a segment of the world, a new continent, unknown to Europe. In the1516 Carta Marina, South America is called Terra Nova (New World), and North America is named Cuba, and is shown to be part of Asia. That portfolio contained not only the unique copy of the 1507 world map, but also a unique copy of WaldseemuI?ller's 1516 large wall map (the Carta Marina) and copies of SchoI?ner's terrestrial (1515) and celestial (1517) globe gores. In 1999, Prince Waldburg-Wolfegg notified the Library that the German national government and the Baden-WuI?rttemberg state government had granted permission for a limited export license.
The map provides a meaningful link between our treasured late medieval-early Renaissance cartographic collection (which includes one of the richest holdings of Ptolemy atlases in the world) and the modem cartographic age unfolding as a result of the explorations of Columbus and other discoverers in the late fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries. Major segments of this world map have not received the concentrated scrutiny that the American segments have received.
WaldseemA?ller states in a legend on his marine chart of 1516 (#328.1) that he had printed his map of 1507 in one thousand copies, but only one of which is now known to exist.
WaldseemA?ller and Ringmann started work on a new edition of Ptolemy's Geographia that was to combine Ptolemaic maps with a new set of modern maps. By 1890, it had been acquired by the Prince of Liechtenstein and studies by Gallois dated it to 1507 following the realization that it was the lost globe described in the St. References to accurate factual information are principally taken from 19th century sources, much of the 20th century work on the subject being a reiteration of earlier work by Humboldt, Da€™Avezac-Macaya, Fischer, Varnhagen and Harisse.
Rather, Cavendish misinterpreted his discovery of the gravitational constant as earth's density; nevertheless, the torsion balance apparatus conceived and built earlier by then deceased John Mitchell ( Reverend, geologist and English natural philosopher, 1724 - 1793 ) was crated and sent on to Cavendish which allowed him to complete his 1797 experiment to within 1% accuracy of the modern gravitational constant calculation!
This velocity redshifted their light, and in that way he was able to measure their velocities. In dating the time of formation of a rock, a geologist may have reason to believe that the rock had no lead in it when it was formed, but did have thorium which is radioactive and which decays to an isotope of lead. We are interested in understanding the relative amounts of thorium and uranium and the other radioactive elements so that we can use these nuclear chronometers in a manner similar to using an hour glass. Geoffrey is now director of Kitt Peak National Observatory and Margaret is Professor of Astronomy at the University of California at San Diego and president-elect of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.
The contents of the eon glass we're talking about is the interstellar medium, the gas and dust in between the stars on our Galaxy. We have independent ways of measuring the age of the oldest stars in the Galaxy, and their age is indeed about twelve billion years.
Born in Pittsburgh in 1911, he received a Bachelor's degree in Engineering-Physics from the Ohio State University in 1933 and a Doctor's degree from the California Institute of Technology (CIT) in 1936.
In particular he has pioneered in studies of energy production in stars and how elements are formed in them, collaborating in this work with Margaret and Geoffrey Burbridge and Fred Hoyle. A few twists of a stick could turn an ordinary patch of sand into something quite different. The moon in the sand was reflected from a different sky: the massive firmament within the human head. Their development to the point of embodying the intricacies of human consciousness was only the first step of man's liberation from the prison of his skull. A thought born within a single skull could leap from mind to mind, slowly spreading until it was flickering in every cranium on the planet. With his local silence filled, man is ready to grope his way into the greater silences separating civilizations. He has had tens of thousands of years to develop more and more sophisticated symbols, moving from crude pictographs to ideograms to phonetic signs, branching off into syllabic systems and alphabetic systems, evolving complex grammars, inventing Morse code and computer language. The next message, broadcast from the Arecibo radio telescope in 1974, included images of a radio telescope, the solar system, a DNA molecule, and a human. We have simply graduated to a higher level of isolation, and now we have to start all over by mastering the most elementary skills at this level. Their creation is called the WORM program, perhaps because it crawls through the wires interconnecting the various computers in a network, replicates itself in each one, and destroys whatever programs were originally running in the computers. One night they left the WORM running in a few computers, and returned the next morning to find that dozens of the computers had been taken over and were "dead." They tried to restart some of the dead ones, but they would only run briefly before they were invaded by a WORM from some other computer again. Shoch and Hupp can observe the progress of the WORM with a WORM-Watcher program, that can also limit the WORM's growth or kill it completely. And if we recognize the possibility of building such a machine, we will have another unknown to consider if and when we ever receive radio signals from other civilizations — Are we listening to machines or to "people"? This book is a special issue (Volume 6) of the Journal Acta Astronautica, and contains many of the SETI papers given at the meetings of the International Astronautical Federation in the years 1975-77. Whereas most searches seek narrowband, continuous signals, the Russian searches have concentrated on wideband, pulsed signals. These sites, however, can use relatively small (even portable) equipment that is inexpensive to operate.
Some of the signals agree even down to very small details, so they cannot have come from the surface of the earth. There undoubtedly are other planets, some lifeless, some carrying life—relatively few of the latter kind as can also be judged from what we know about our Solar System. Yet despite the seemingly virtual impossibility of attaining such high velocities, there are extraordinarily interesting outlooks connected with it, so that even scientists are repeatedly tempted to consider, theoretically at least, the consequences of locomotion at such ultimate velocities, and to search for loopholes to overcome the apparent technical near-impossibility. Thus, even with the modest ratio of 10 to 1 as in the above example, each gram of the vehicle must be given 9 grams extra; now, according to Relativity theory and experiment, mass is equivalent to energy; it is actually the greatest concentration of energy we know, so that the extra grams of mass need a supply of energy equal to that of 1200 grams of a hydrogen bomb, or about ten times more of a "conventional" atomic bomb!
One way would be to have a store of "antimatter" which, in contact with matter, annihilates completely. Only an object which lacks a rest mass can be made to move with the velocity near that of light, because a zero increased so many times still remains a zero. Therefore, time inside a photon stands still—at exactly the velocity of light the foreshortening is absolute. Being immaterial and massless, it could be timeless as the photon, moving with the speed of light in an instant (by its own timing) through the immensities of space. Recently he reviewed his monograph "The Sun", published in 1919 and noted how much of our basic concepts of cosmic evolution have persisted despite new observational facts, and how little has changed. In the biting cold and with a dim electric light available, the writing was done in pencil, in bed under a blanket—a foretaste of a freezing dying world of the future. Today, the benefits of further manned exploration do not justify the tremendous expenditures such ventures require.
He foresees great improvements in transportation on the earth using fast magnetic propulsion through underground pipelines. Upon his retirement as President, a position he will have held for 30 years, it is reported that he is to be named Chancellor of the University.
In the last issue of the magazine it was noted that an asteroid had been recently named for him. George Gatewood, Chairman of the Extrasolar Planetary Foundation, writes regularly in COSMIC SEARCH about the plans and progress of the Foundation. Patterson, Vice President of the Society, this new non-profit organization seeks to promote amateur studies in the field of radio astronomy and to serve as a forum for discussions of projects, techniques and results.
Riccardo Giacconi of the Center of Astrophysics at Harvard for his lifetime contributions to astronomy. The absence of gravity will make possible the manufacture of metallic alloys with new and unique properties, reinforced metals or polymers, crystalline materials and pharmaceuticals.
One year after Cocconi and Morrison first seriously proposed a search at the 21-cm wavelength, Ronald Bracewell suggested the use of interstellar spaceprobes for communication among sentient races. Alternative less-expensive search programs based on the concept of advanced spacefaring automata have been devised and continue to be developed.
Recently a group of scientists and engineers working under the auspices of the British Interplanetary Society on "Project Daedalus" produced, after a five-year study, a preliminary design for an automated starship vehicle capable of exploring out to about 10 light-years from the Sun. This is because these computations chauvinistically presume current human society to be the standard of comparison for the entire universe. He has written numerous papers and articles which have been published in the Journal of the British Interplanetary Society, Mercury, Omni, Analog, Astronomy and other journals. More to the point, I think the typical person will still not be an intellectual and will have the ambitions and desires of our era.
The energy picture, and the relative benefits of employing the energy near home or in deep space do not change no matter what breakthroughs occur. This is a question in galactic sociology, and even the most confident of the SETI people doesn't claim any skill at that subject, yet. It is very unlikely that there is some potential form of communication, some mysterious "Q-waves" which we do not know about.
Is it the absolute or relative amounts of energy which will control a civilization's decisions about interstellar enterprises? We do not know enough to phyche [sic; "phyche" should be "psyche"] out the extraterrestrials. He fires a rocket on the craft causing it to accelerate and immediately he finds himself being pressed to the rocket end of the craft. Looking at the plate from above, and being unaware of the depression, we might think that the ball was attracted by a point at the center of the depression. The analogy here would be that of a ball on a taut flexible sheet rippled by a wave traversing it.
By analogy a man rocking a boat sends out steady waves but a stone dropped in a pond produces only a few waves, a pulse, which spreads out in a ring. Yet to view events properly and possibly even to perceive ourselves in rightful context, let us go back in time, even to its beginning. On some of those planets there must have been early atmospheres, perhaps similar to the earth's in its primordial days. Our ethical and moral concerns, together with this ability, constitute some of the most ennobling characteristics of humankind. He feels that there is a tremendous need to make more people aware of the difference between real science and blatant pseudo-science.
These maps are taken from various manuscript copies of Sallusts works some of them dating from as late as the 13th and the 14th centuries, when they were still in use as textbooks by historians and scholars.
The fourth line from the center bottom, near mount Athlas reads Medi - Armeni, a reference to the Armenians and Medes having settled in the area. In Asia beside the name of the continent, river Nilus, Egypt and Mare Rubrum [Red Sea] are mentioned, while the tall rising tower bears the legend Jrslm [Jerusalem].
These are the people, that according to Sallust settled in North Africa, giving rise to the North African tribes of today.
Its heavily biblical content is also unusual: note Hierusalem on the central axis with the cross and Mt.
Of the sons of Noah, Shem is found in Asia and Ham in Africa, as usual, but Japheth stands next to Shem in Asia, instead of Europe. In the centre, at the juncture of the horizontal and vertical dividing bands, is an omega-shape with a cross in the centre, labeled beneath Mons syon. The only place names in the Africa zone are at the very top, and two of them, TERRA IVDA, and PALESTINA, may have been intended as part of the central band (B above).
They absorbed significant amounts of text into the schematic frame, such as lists of the provinces of the inhabited world.
She associates this with the piety of the First Crusade, and the attention given to the Cross would support this claim. 8v), a manuscript very closely related to MS 17 in space and time; and the Peterborough computus also contains the only other extant copy of Byrhtfertha€™s Diagram (#205Z13). Moreover, in Book 5 of the Historia ecclesiastica, Bede follows up his account of Adomnan of Ionaa€™s reception of the Roman Easter with a paraphrase of his De locis sanctis: now it is Jerusalem, not Rome, which is the center of the world, but the link between computistical orthodoxy and the universality of the Church in space is still the underlying message. The map (shown below) is in a chapter on the a€?Provinces du monde,a€? but there is almost no connection between the map and the list of provinces in the chapter. The legend hic sunt dragones, a€?Here there are dragonsa€?, sounds like a legend that would appear on many medieval mapsa€”such is our tendency to associate monsters with medieval mapsa€”but in fact it appears on only one other cartographic object, namely the Hunt-Lenox globe of c.1510 (Book IV, #314), where on the southeastern coast of Asia there is a legend that reads HC SVNT DRACONES. The prominent sea monsters on the map are thus invented dangers, rather than being based on the descriptions of sea monsters in a bestiary or encyclopedia, and the labels, like those on the islands, are attempts to convey an authority and accuracy which in fact are absent. Under the letter a€?Aa€™, for example, we read first about Asia and Assyria, then Arabia, Armenia and Albania. One full and almost sixty abridged manuscript copies of this work have survived, thirty-three of which are in the Matenadaran.
Only the northern end of the single red line might be considered to represent the river Tanais, the traditional divide between Europe and Asia. It may be worth bearing in mind that for the first four centuries of Christianity it was predominantly an Asiatic and North African religion, and that the Christian world was not divided into a Latin West and a predominantly Byzantine East until after the Council of Ephesus in 431. In Section 11, containing a text related to the Old Testament, there is circular plan of the city of Jerusalem (fol.
Because the encircling Ocean touches two sides of paper, the words Hyusis [North] and Harav [South] have had to be split. West of this water body, an unnamed river is shown by a pair of parallel red lines bearing the simple inscription Sea. North of Constantinople, the vertical black line, inscribed only as Sea, represents the Black Sea.
According to Ibn-Battuta, this was the largest port [he] had ever seen, which could easily accommodate more than 100 large Chinese junks.
Furthermore he claimed that since Mardin appears prominently on the map, it must have been made before the conquest of that city by the Arabs, in the early 13th century. By the middle of the 14th century, when numerous monastic scriptoria were in operation, the majority of Caffaa€™s population of 70,000 were Armenian. Arguably, the lack of any references to Armenia itself could be attributed to the fact that he lived far from his homeland and felt no particular affinity with it.
The Mediterranean Sea is not shown and only the black African faces convey a hint of reality. There were twelve other sheets of the same size in the book, making another world map but containing no authora€™s name or date. And (to begin with our own continent) in the middle of Europe we have placed the eagles of the Roman Empire (which rule the Kings of Europe) and with the key (which is the symbol of the Holy Father), we have enclosed almost the whole of Europe, which acknowledges the Roman Church.
In that letter, Vespucci proposed that the new lands ought to be called a a€?New World, because none of those countries were known to our ancestors . In the western hemisphere inset the two Americas are shown as a continuous landmass firmly joined together by an isthmus, unlike the representation in the world map where the two continents are inexplicably separated by a strait. Die that he prepared the treatise Cosmographia Introductio, which presented this description of itself: An Introduction to Cosmography, together with some principles of Geometry necessary to the purpose. Both the inset and the world map illustrate another important feature, the representation of a great ocean even broader than the Atlantic, between the New World and Asia. However, this view is not supported on the WaldseemA?ller map either by the place-names found in the area of the new discoveries, or by the overall visual image presented by the placement of the new discoveries as totally separated by some distance from Asia.
One difference being that the WaldseemA?ller map is basically a a€?land mapa€™ and the interiors are somewhat filled-in, whereas the Caveri chart is basically a portolano, or nautical chart, with little or no interior detail. This Ptolemaic basis results in giving the map an extremely exaggerated representation of the eastern extension of Asia; in fact, the landmass of the Old World, alone, extends through some 230 degrees of longitude.
All these we have added to the earlier known places, so that those who are fond of things of this sort may gaze upon all that is known to us of the present day, and may approve of out painstaking labors. In 1512 appeared, far away in Cracow, Poland, in the Introductio in Ptholomei Cosmographia of Johannes de Stobnicza, the inset hemispheres of the 1507 map, copied and reprinted by the Polish scholar without reference to their source (#319). From it evolved, indeed, today's concept of the geographical divisions of the continents and islands, and of the great waters that form our earth. A black African discovery of America, it has been argued, took place around 3,000 years ago, and influenced the development of Mayan, Aztec, and Inca civilizations. The naming of America, then, becomes essential to a full understanding of our history and cultural values a€” ourselves a€” especially when considered in terms of the range of theories about the origin of the name. Subsequently, according to Marcou's account, Vespucci changed his Christian name from Alberico to Amerigo. Amalrich, which literally meant work ruler, or designator of tasks, might be freely translated as master workman. Moreover, as a reflection of national pride, a theory native to Hungary argues that the European explorers of the New World (or their priests) named it after this popular saint, in the old tradition of bestowing place names in honor of saints.
He also had to prepare the official map of newly discovered lands and of the routes to them (for the royal survey), interpreting and coordinating all data that the captains were obliged to furnish.


Harriet de OnA­s) are among the best efforts that dispel the shadows to which he was relegated by those who maligned his fame.
In the voyage of 1499a€“1500, Vespucci would seem to have left Hojeda after reaching the coast of what is now Guyana (Carew's homeland). His published letters had fallen into the hands of these German scholars, among whom was the young cartographer Martin WaldseemA?ller. WaldseemA?ller's 1507 map, lost to scholars until 1901 when it was found in a German castle, is now reckoned to be the first to show the name, and the earliest record of its use.
Moreover, to read the passage in the Cosmographiae Introductio as explanation lends credence to the theory, argued by Carew, Marcou, and others, that the early European explorers called the new continent Amerrique or, perhaps, another name with a similar pronunciation. Their ignoring it, Rea claims, further supports the idea that they were trying to force an explanation and that the only one they could think of was a Latinization of Vespucci's first name. Columbus, who met the Indians of this coast, presumably heard the name Amerrique from them: he was looking for gold and the Indians gave him some, telling him he could get more to the west in the mountains there.
Amerrique, therefore, must derive from a Carib word, possibly one of the Carib culture words a€” not a word in the Mayan language, which was not spoken in Nicaragua, though it almost resembles in sound the Quiche Mayan iq' amaq'el meaning perpetual wind. The purchase of the map concluded a nearly century long effort to secure for the Library of Congress that very special cartographic document revealing new European thinking about the world nearly 500 years ago. Waldseemullera€™s 1507 map was a bold statement that rationalized the modern world in light of the exciting news arriving in Europe as a result of explorations sponsored by Spain, Portugal, and othersa€”not only across the Atlantic Ocean, but around the African coast and into the Indian Ocean. Because of Vespucci's recognition of that startling revelation, he was thus honored by the use of his name for the newly discovered continent. Sometime later in history, the family of Prince Waldburg-Wolfegg acquired and retained Schoner's portfolio in their castle in Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany, where it remained unknown to scholars until the beginning of the twentieth century when its extraordinary contents were revealed. Having obtained this license, which allowed this German national treasure to come to the Library of Congress, the Prince pursued an agreement to sell the 1507 map to the Library. Although it is likely that the simple globe gores, their model or a€?marquettea€™ of the New World view, would have been available with each issue of the Cosmographiae, the large 12 sheet wall-map, would have been too expensive to be sold as widely. They were provided with at least six printed editions and certainly several manuscript versions of the Geographia.
The notoriety and mystery that has surrounded both the globe, map and large wall-map has often concentrated on the naming of America, but in truth, given that they named South America after Vespucci, who had sailed furthest around it, it is not unreasonable.
Vera Sack found a third example of the gores inserted into a copy of Aristotle published in Freiburg in 1541. Cavendish published his results in Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Vol.
The real trouble is that you can't pace off the distance to a galaxy, and astronomers, following Hubble and his contemporaries, have developed many clever indirect ways of determining the distance to a galaxy.
If he looks now at how much lead is in the rock, he can tell when that rock became a closed system.
I often refer to these nuclear chronometers as "eon-glasses," since they measure eons rather than hours. Fred has retired as the Plumian Professor at Cambridge and lives in the Lake District of England.
When the sun becomes what astronomers call a red giant star, it will shine for a while on the conversion of helium into carbon. When a star is formed, it is formed with an abundance of thorium and uranium characteristic of the interstellar medium in the Galaxy at that time. We're all interested now [sic; was "now" intended to be "not"?] only in the history of the human race, but the history of the earth, the history of the Sun, the history of the Galaxy, the history of the Universe, so I can't believe that there isn't going to be support for this marvellous science of astronomy.
Their hypothesis that all elements might be produced in stars brought additional nuclear processes into recognition leading to explanations of how heavy elements have been built up through enrichment by stars of the interstellar medium and the formation of successive generations of stars. The deer that magically appeared from nowhere had been lurking in the thickets of the human mind all along.
The images they left in the sand would soon be swept away by the wind, but their game would slowly grow through the generations until it had remade the human race. Each mind was locked in the deep loneliness of its own skull — and sometimes suffocated there. The awareness one person developed through great effort and seeking could become another person's awareness in a moment. This task will be much harder, for man doesn't know whom he is seeking, or where they may be. With so much learning to draw from, what super-sophisticated symbols would man chose to carry his consciousness into space? While it is true that this second message involved electromagnetic waves and a system of binary pulses to encode its meaning, these sophisticated devices were only employed to send a primitive picture.
The cosmos may be like a giant brain, a brain unbelievably rich in ideas and feelings and experiences. Later articles were "A Hymn to Life in the Universe" in the Fall 1979 issue and "In The Time Machine" in the Spring 1980 issue.
These four frequencies were chosen to have equal time delay between them for a dispersion-caused sweeping signal.
After careful analysis of all the signals received, Gindilis and his co-workers concluded that their extra-terrestrial signals came from three separate causes — artificial earth satellites, bursts from the Sun, and sporadic radiation from the Earth's ionosphere. Years given, attendance, a syllabus (if available) and other information will be appreciated. Yet their distances are enormous to which, among other things, testifies their feeble apparent brightness when it is realized that, seen from an equally close distance, a star could equal, or even appear 10 to 100 times brighter than our Sun. If the rocket accelerator of the vehicle could use the strongest existing explosive, that of hydrogen fusion in the hydrogen bomb, acceleration to an 8-fold foreshortening of time would require an expenditure even of this super-fuel equal to 1037 times the mass of the vehicle (1 with 37 zeroes). However, only single particles of atomic dimensions have been observed in the laboratory, and these annihilate instantaneously in contact with matter.
When measured by their "internal time" (if such a notion is permissible), the photons can traverse the entire Universe in an instant of their own time, although in our measure the time between the emission of a photon and its absorption by a body somewhere on the outskirts of the Universe would amount to thousands of millions of years or to anything short of infinity. As a mere suggestion for an insoluble mystery — could it be that the immortal soul, the individual unit of consciousness, would move through the infinities of space and time, after leaving one body, to find another and cooperate with it, like the absorbed photon transmitting its energy when absorbed? The age of the Earth in 1919 was underestimated at a few hundred million years, while that of the stars reckoned in thousands of millions. He also believes that travel to and from space colonies will be commonplace and routine for millions of people. One in particular makes a comparison between the USA's Space Shuttle and the European Space Agency's ARIANNE project.
However, many SETI workers for years have virtually ignored this possibility, and have maintained that listening for radio signals of intelligent extrasolar origin is the only reasonable way to open up interstellar communications.
The genesis of SETI was in radio astronomy and radio physics, and these elements, aided by the presence of a few rather strong-willed personalities, have combined to create a kind of snowballing effect.
Understandably, they are reluctant to associate themselves with any endeavor which might be misinterpreted by the public as endorsing alien visitations or be scorned by academic colleagues as credulous.
They concluded that such a mission may become feasible for humanity sometime in the next century. Yet almost certainly any race capable of transmitting either radio signals or interstellar probes for SETI purposes must be far in advance of ourselves, possibly on the level of a Kardashev Type II civilization (utilizing a major fraction of the energy output of their sun). Born in Camden, Maine, in 1952 he received his Bachelor's degree in Physics and Psychology from Harvey Mudd College, Claremont, California, in 1974 and his Juris Doctor degree from the University of Santa Clara Law School in 1978, specializing in international and space law.
Currently he is writing a book "Xerology", a comprehensive scientific treatment of the subject of SETI and life beyond the earth. It is not the absolute amount of energy a project will need but the percent of the total energy budget of a civilization which determines if a mission is impossible. For example, in his article he links his opponent's argument with a "disease" and by giving that "disease" a name, "Star Trekitis," tends to identify the argument with the still slightly disreputable sub-culture of science-fiction. Around a black hole, space is curved or curled to such an extent that electromagnetic waves are trapped by it. The ball would be accelerated first one way and then the other as the ripples pass by causing the ball to oscillate back and forth.
Gravity waves would carry valuable information about star collapses, explosions and other violent events in the universe.
Even today we live in the lingering remnant of the radiation produced by that titanic blast. In some of those atmospheres there must have been the very chemicals that brought forth life here. Most of them die by the gradual decay of age, except such as perish by the sword or beasts of prey, for disease finds but few victims. The page is composed with the map above and a week-day table arranged under the arches below. Athens, Ephesus, Achaia, and Caesarea are mentioned specifically as sites where the apostles preached.
The only significant difference between the Peterborough version of the map and the one found in MS 17 is that MS 17 alone contains the marginal note on Asia maior. A map of the Macrobian type also appears in the Abbonian computus manuscript Berlin 138 fol. Adam, Eve, and the serpent are in Eden at the top (east) of the map, with the rivers of Paradise flowing downward from it to the west (the river Jordan is labeled). Heads symbolizing the four principal winds surround the habitable world, on which a number of historical or encyclopedic features are portrayed, such as the Tower of Babel, the Trees of the Sun and the Moon, the river Jordan, Jerusalem with Mount Calvary, the Red Sea, Rome, and some of the monstrous races. These monsters, though invented, nonetheless have their effect, and render the circumfluent ocean a place of terrors, in contrast to the apparently peaceful buildings of the inhabited world. The original Ashkharhatzuytz is attributed by some to the 5th century Armenian historian Movses Khorenatzi, while others believe that it is the work of the 7th century scientist and astronomer Anania Shirakatzi.
Two vertical parallel red lines (running from Jerusalem to the western edge of the map) represent the unnamed Mediterranean Sea that separates Africa and Europe.
Christianity had reached Armenia through the preaching of the Apostles Bartholomew and Thaddeus.
392r), which is similar to the plan of the same city drawn in the centre of the world map of MS 1242. The significance of the two circles is made clear by the note, also on the outside, The all encompassing ocean, which is in this shape.
Venice was an important entrepot for Armenian merchants, and Constantinople, capital of the Byzantine Empire, was the most important religious and political centre outside Jerusalem. These lines, drawn almost at right angles to the Mediterranean, connect with the outer Ocean. Misr is the Arabic name of Egypt, used also in old Armenian, which the mapmaker has chosen to employ in conjunction with the later-day Armenian name of the country. The northern extremity of the red line dividing Europe and Asia, beyond the eastern end of the Black Sea, must also stand for the Sea of Azov (for which there is no place-name) and the river Tanais. Sarai refers to the capital of the Mongols; it is either Sarai-Batu (Old Sarai), built in 1240s, or Sarai-Berke [New Sarai], dating from around 1260. These are doubtful lines of argument; information took time to be disseminated, and maps were only slowly updated. In addition, two legends in Palestine read Yekin anapatn [Came to the monastery] and Yekin Ye[rusaghe]m sakavq [A few came to Je[rusale]m].
The monastery on the Armenian map is not named but is defined as ananpat, which suggests a conscious choice, since on the Hereford map the whole legend reads Monasteria Sancti Antonii in deserto.
The greater part of Africa and a part of Asia we have distinguished by crescents, which are the emblems of the Sultan of Babylonia, the Lord of all Egypt, and of a part of Asia.
To the east of the continent in the inset is the Atlantic, to the west is another great sea with the island Zipangri [Japan, Marco Poloa€™s Zipangu] nearly in the middle of it but closer to the American continent than to the Asian. Mundus Novus [New World] and Terra Incognita [Unknown Land] were less real names than descriptions, though for many years these last two terms were quite prevalent on maps showing new discoveries. The duke and several professors in the college used this press in their geographical project. The decision to display a large expanse of ocean west of the New World discoveries was, of course, pure conjecture on the part of WaldseemA?ller since, in 1507, the discoveries of Balboa and Magellan were still a few years off in the future. On the other hand, navigators unknown to modern historians, may have sailed along the coast of Florida at this time. This lack of any substantive modification, of the Far East especially, is understandable in light of the scarcity of verifiable reports from this region and the focus of popular attention on both Africa and the New World. This one request we have to make, that those who are inexperienced and unacquainted with cosmography shall not condemn all this before they have learned that it will surely be clearer to them later on, when they have come to understand it.
To question the origin of America's name is to question the nature of not only our history lessons but our very identity as Americans. The records of Scandinavian expeditions to America are found in sagas a€” their historic cores encrusted with additions made by every storyteller who had ever repeated them. The two men eventually became friends; Columbus later wrote that he trusted Vespucci and held him in high esteem. Vespucci, who obtained Spanish citizenship, held this position until his death in Seville in 1512. Nonetheless, both biographers disagree about the authenticity of his two published letters, key documents in a dramatic controversy: Arciniegas accepts them as genuine, whereas Pohl rejects them as forgeries. In the first series of documents, four voyages by Vespucci are described; in the second, only two. Turning south, he is believed to have discovered the mouth of the Amazon River and explored the coast of present-day Brazil.
This voyage is of fundamental importance in the history of geography in that Vespucci himself became convinced that the lands he had explored were not part of Asia but a New World. Inspired to publish a new geography that would embrace the New World, the group collectively authored a revision of Ptolemy, which included a Latin translation of Vespucci's purported letter to Soderini, as well as a new map of the world drawn by WaldseemA?ller.
Hudd opens with a reference to Bristol's 1897 celebration of the 400th anniversary of the discovery of North America by John Cabot (Giovanni Caboto), the Italian navigator and explorer who had sailed for England, laying the groundwork for the later British claim to Canada. The map must have created quite a stir in Europe, since its findings departed considerably from the accepted knowledge of the world at that time, which was based on the second century A.D.
It is remarkable that our entire Western Hemisphere was thus named for a living person; Vespucci died in 1512.
Yet, cartographic contributions by Johannes Schoner in 1515 and by Peter Apian in 1520 adopted the name America for the Western Hemisphere, and that name became part of accepted usage. The uncovering of the 1507 map in the Wolfegg Castle early last century is thought by many to have been one of the most extraordinary episodes in the history of cartographic scholarship. In late June 2001, Prince Waldburg-Wolfegg and the Library of Congress reached a final agreement on the sale of the map at the price of $10,000,000. Waldseemuller recognized the transition taking place, as the title of his map notes and his placement prominently of images of Ptolemy and Vespucci, next to their worlds, at the top portion of the 1507 world map denotes. In 1949, the Liechtenstein map collection was bought en bloc by the famous New York dealer H.P. The Aristotle formed part of the Grimmelshausen-Gymnasium library given to the Stadtbucherei Offenburg.
If you know the distances and the velocities, you can estimate how long it has been since the galaxies were much closer together right after the Big Bang back in the beginning of the expanding universe. It starts with parallax measurements on nearby stars, but eventually it all boils down to establishing certain types of galaxies as "standard candles." All of these standard galaxies have the same power output. By studying the problem for some twenty years now, Barbara Zimmerman, my present colleague, and I have finally refined it to where we believe that the best estimate is twelve billion years, and that it cannot be much less than ten nor more than fifteen.
The Galaxy started twelve billion years ago, and before the Sun formed, there were 7.4 billion years which involved the birth, evolution and death of stars.
If you look in the direction of Taurus you can see a nebulous region, and if you look with a high powered telescope, you can see tangled filaments of gas moving outward. I'm also perfectly willing to admit and I think everyone in physics and astronomy has to realize that when times are tough, we all have to share some of the lumps with the rest of society.
Fowler has been on the staff of CIT since that time with several leaves as lecturer at Cambridge University, England. After a few moments his foot reached out to stir the sand, erasing the marks he had made upon it. Words spoken into the air quickly dissolved into nothing unless a mind was present to receive their meaning.
Great thoughts and feelings could live and give life long after the minds that created them had died. Thousands of years after we used pictographs to join isolated brains together, we now are using them to connect human brains to the cosmic brain. The speed of light is 300,000 kilometers per second, 10,000 times faster than the motion of the Earth in its orbit or the velocity of an interplanetary vehicle; while this in turn could be a hundred times faster than the fastest jet planes.
Also, most of the planets of such a binary system would move on unstable orbits, being either ultimately ejected from the system, colliding between themselves, or swallowed by a sun (as is the fate of comets and other stray bodies in the Solar System). At this rate, for one ton of the vehicle the amount of hydrogen to be spent should equal the mass of 10,000 million suns or almost that of the entire Galaxy. To store antimatter is just as practicable (and infinitely more dangerous) than to store gunpowder in a burning fireplace. We do not know; the nature of consciousness, of the soul remains the ultimate mystery, despite the fact that consciousness to us is the only incontestable reality, through which we perceive the world around us. The prophetic suggestion of immense energy sources in stellar interiors was a forerunner of modern concepts of nuclear energy sources. For these easons, I will continue to press for sufficient funding for NASA and other agencies involved in the quest for knowledge. The Space Shuttle uses reuseable vehicles to launch working payloads into orbit, while ARIANNE is based on the use of expendable vehicles.
One paper worth a special note is by an American team and describes a new design for Solar Electric Propulsion System. That is, the emphasis on radio techniques is most diligently studied, hence gains more respectability, thus attracts more workers, whose work adds yet more credibility to the effort, and so on. It is a simple matter to calculate that to launch a 100,000 ton vehicle on a one-way trip at 1-gee acceleration to a destination 100 light-years away would require an equivalent relative energy expenditure for a Type II civilization as the launching of a few Saturn V rockets represented to American society a decade ago (about one percent of the GNP annually). In any case, we should not defer the promising radio searches because of the remote possibility that Q-waves exist. If the acceleration is sufficient to make his weight the same as when standing on the earth, it is said that the acceleration amounts to 1 g (that is, it is equal to the force of gravity at the earth's surface). 1, Winter, 1980, page 28; "Our Cosmic Universe" by John Kraus, Cygnus-Quasar Books, 1980, page 211.
Some billions of years after the explosion, large ensembles of material clumped because of their mutual attraction. All current evidence compellingly suggests that the same processes that operated here might well have operated elsewhere, possibly thousands or millions or even hundreds of millions of times. Uniting these two gives us Garden of Delight; for it is planted with every kind of wood and fruit-bearing tree, having also the tree of life. Several of the districts are rich in gold and precious stones but are rarely approached by man owing to the ferocity of the Griffens . Animals of a venomous nature they have in great numbers, Africa, then, was originally occupied by the Getulians and Libyans, rude and uncivilized tribes, who subsisted on the flesh of wild animals, or like cattle, on the herbage of the soil.
Place names are almost entirely omitted from Africa and Asia Major, and a note in the upper right adds a€?[Asia] Major has in the east Alexandria and Pamphiliaa€?. The only places without a biblical link of some kind are in Italy (Sicily, Mount Etna, Tuscany, Campania), Constantinople and Britain, Ireland and Thule.
However, the Peterborough map does not represent Mount Sion as a round a€?hilla€? with a cross, but as a triangle, and spells IERUSALEM without MS 17a€™s initial H. When these Greek names for the cardinal directions are read as if making the sign of the cross, that is, east-west-north-south, their initial letters spell ADAM. Jerusalem stands out at the center of the world and is labeled, as are Calvary, Babylon, the Red Sea, and Rome; the Trees of the Sun and Moon visited by Alexander the Great are also easy to identify.
As this manuscript is the only one of the long version of the work that contains a world map, it seems likely that the map was the result of a specific request by the patron commissioning the manuscript, namely Philippe II Sans Terre (1438-1497). The text also retains Isidorea€™s distinction between the Fortunate Islands and the earthly paradise and repeats the belief that Enoch and Elijah dwelt in the Garden and that the noise of the waters of Paradise falling to earth from a such a great height caused the local population to be born deaf. The text is based on the work of Pappus of Alexandria (late third or early 4th century AD), but the chapters relating to Armenia and neighboring countries have been expanded. In accordance with the Western Christian T-O maps, the Armenian map is oriented with East at the top. It became the state religion in 301, after the conversion of King Tigran III, which makes the Armenian Church one of the oldest Christian entities. Although made in geographically widely separate locations, a common source or tradition may be suspected, especially were the Armenian map to prove to have been made before the end of the 13th century, which would place all these maps to within one hundred to one hundred fifty years of each other.
The term Sea, it should be noted, as used on the Armenian T-O map, refers any substantial body of water, whether it be an ocean, sea, lake or river.
One of these is located at the eastern extremity of the Mediterranean Sea, within the parallel lines, whereas the other two lie just to the north of the lines. On the other (eastern) side of the legend indicating Africa a large red circle contains the legend Paravon yev zorqn Yegiptosi [Pharaoh and the army of Egypt].
Directly south of the Red Sea, near the shores of the surrounding Ocean, lies Ethiopia, named Hapash. The 13th century traveler Marco Polo mentions Zai-tun and Kin-sai as being important cities, trading with Japan (Zipangu), as well as with the Arabs and Persians.
Moreover, in the case of the Western mappaemundi the very essence of the map was the inclusion of old (historical as well as biblical) information together with contemporary places and events.
Since the two Western maps and the Armenian map seem to have been made within one hundred and one hundred fifty years of each other, we can see the reference on the respective maps as further confirmation of the possibility of a common source. The part of Asia called Asia Minor we have surrounded with a saffron-colored cross joined to a branding iron, which is the symbol of the Sultans of the Turks, who rules Scythia this side of the Imaus, the highest mountains of Asia and Sarmatian Scythia.
Westward from that island is to be recognized the eastern coast of Asia, showing Catay, or Cathay, and other identifiable names. But now the fact that there was a new continent beyond the western ocean had become nearly common knowledge throughout Europe, and there was everywhere a subconscious demand for an adequate name, a universally acceptable name.
In all its forms the underlying meaning was that of work; as for example, the word for work in Hebrew is amal, and in old Norse aml, the consonant sounds of which were retained in the verb moil. In this respect, WaldseemA?ller may have been led by the maps of La Cosa, Caveri, and Cantino to believe that this was at least a possibility, for he depicts a small portion of the northern mainland extending from the narrow strait in Central America to just north of Terra Ulteria€? Incognita [Florida].
Not many interior details are shown to speak of, but a large group of natives is shown at the Cape, and above them, a large vignette of an elephant. As can be seen, Terra Incognita replaces America and it is placed up against a frame that avoids any speculation as to the size or shape of the new continent(s). It appeared in feminine forms in Amelia and Emily; its masculine forms were Amery, Emeric, and Emery. In the face of the spurious charges that he was an ignorant usurper of the merits of others, the fact that Spain entrusted him, a foreigner, with the office of pilot major certainly bolsters his defense. Until the 1930s the documents of the first series were considered from the point of view of the order of the four voyages. On the way back, he reached Trinidad, sighting en route the mouth of the Orinoco River, and then made for Haiti. Unlike Columbus, who, to his death, clung to the idea that he had found the shores of Asia, Vespucci defined what had indeed been found a€” and for this he has been rightfully honored.
He clearly never tried to have the New World named after him or to belittle his friend Columbus. Very different spellings for the same Carib word reflect variants that sound little like each other; thus, the variants of the name Carib are Canibe, Galibi, Caniba, Canibal and Caliban. For his achievement Cabot received a handsome pension conferred upon him by the King, from the hands of the Collectors of Customs of the Port of Bristol.
In 1479, four Bristol merchants received a royal charter to find another source of fish and trade. The map sheets have been maintained separated (not joined, with each of the large maps comprised of twelve separate sheets) and that is the probable reason why they survived. In late May 2003, the Library completed a successful campaign to purchase Waldseemullera€™s 1507 world map, after receiving substantial Congressional and private support to achieve the terms of the contract.
37 (1985), 30-53, is an extensive airing of the date of the printing of the 1507 world map and other Waldseemuller contributions. But how you shall understand the globe and the description of the whole world you will hereafter find out and read.a€? Harrisse thinks it probable that a real globe accompanied and was sold with this little volume. Ringmann, a supporter of Vespucci, had already published in 1505 an edition of Vespuccia€™s Mundus Novus, a vivid description of the New World which became a bestseller around Europe. The mystery of the globe map, its definition of Florida (before it was discovered by the Spanish), the Pacific (before any man had officially seen it), the coast of South America (before anyone had officially sailed along it) and the use of the name The Western Ocean in the Pacific, all suggest that the Portuguese may have been more active west of the Tordesillas Treaty Line before 1505. Kraus, however the globe map was retained and offered by the Prince at a special auction at Parke-Bernet in New York on 24 May 1950. Other methods are consistent with this, but being a nuclear physicist, I believe that the nuclear chronology gives the most accurate determination. Since the time when the solar system condensed out of that medium, it has been a closed system. We know that Oriental astronomers saw a new star in that region of the sky in the year 1054 A.D.
I think some of the big steps in astronomy are going to be the studies of these objects that made the stuff that you and I are made of, by looking at them with satellites that have big X-ray telescopes and gamma ray telescopes. He has served as a member of the Science Board of the National Science Foundation, the Space Science Board of the National Academy of Sciences and the Space Program Advisory Council of NASA. The person guiding the stick felt a sense of self-revelation as the image inside him suddenly appeared before his eyes. But when man developed writing he would be able to make his thoughts last as long as stone or paper or microfilm. If we were in search of extraterrestrial life, thousands of stellar systems would have to be tried before one is found, at distances requiring centuries to be covered even at the speed of light. But even if storage were possible, to reach the desired "modest" time-foreshortening ratio of only 8, an amount of antimatter 3000 times the mass of the vehicle should be spent. The outmoded representation of stellar spectral types as a continuous evolutionary sequence is no longer valid, as well as the description of solar evolution by continuous "cooling" and dimming. After looking in detail at technical and economic pros and cons, the author suggests that the two concepts may be usefully complementary.
Such a system would use solar energy collected by the vehicle to generate high speed ion beams for thrusting the vehicle into the desired orbits. Interstellar vehicles which must be man-rated, protected against the hostile hard-vacuum high-radiation environment of space, carry expendables able to support human life for decades or centuries and permit a return voyage may be vastly more complex and expensive than fully-automated unmanned spaceprobes on one-way trips.
Clearly, active interstellar exploration by advanced cultures will require commitment — but hardly an outrageous sacrifice. Additional (and surprisingly inexpensive) search proposals are currently being developed, and the first explicit SETI search for Earth-orbiting interstellar probes was recently reported in Icarus (Vol. With all portholes closed and communication with the outside cut off there is no experiment the astronaut can perform inside his craft that would tell him whether he is moving in space or parked on the launching pad on the earth. If so, life may have flickered into existence on those planets, and some of that life may have been intelligent.
They were controlled neither by customs, laws, nor the authority of any ruler, they wandered about, without fixed habitations and slept in the abodes to which night drove them. These islands, the only ones represented, break the frame of the map, perhaps as a burst of patriotism on the part of the scribes.
The popularity of this ancient conceit was primarily due to St Augustine, who compared Adama€™s progeny filling the earth and the sons of Noah re-populating the globe. A list map using the T-O form as a symbolic frame for displaying the names of provinces in Asia, Africa and Europe appears in Cotton Vitellius A.XII, fol.
But otherwise the mapa€™s geography is vague; it presents much of the earth as a a€?jumblea€? of land and water. Adam and Eve, the tree and the serpent are shown within an ornate architectural frame, as if to emphasize the uniqueness and splendor of the Garden.
But once he had been assigned this task, the artist seems to have given his fancy free rein. A later version of the Ashkharhatzuytz by the 13th century historian and geographer Vartan Areveltzi is also extant in multiple copies (MS 3119, 4184 and others). Armenian Christianity's ties with the Latin churches were severed in 554 over irreconcilable doctrinal differences. The city plan in the 16th century MS 1770 also would seem to have been derived from the same common source or tradition. Similarly the term Land does not denote a territory as such, but is placed wherever there is a significant gap between neighboring toponyms. The Nile is placed well inside Asia, where a vertical (easta€”west) red line running from close to the eastern Ocean towards the Red Sea bears the legend Ays dzovis anun Nil asen [This Sea is named Nile]. Although the whole representation may be highly schematic, the way that the Aegean Sea is depicted as branching off from the Mediterranean to the west of Jerusalem and the easta€”west alignment of Black Sea, shown at right angles to the northern end of the Aegean near Constantinople, presents a more faithful picture of reality than many other T-O maps.
Then comes Ashkharq Hndkatz [Lands of the Indians], followed well to the southeast by Hndkastan [Hindustan or India]. It was usual for medieval maps, in short, to depict conditions in existence some time before their creation. There was no question whatever in the mapmaker's mind, therefore, as to the separate identities of the American and Asian continents. Here the northern coast terminates abruptly with open sea beyond approximately 50 degrees, with Newfoundland being shown as an island far to the east.
While the shape his Africa resembles reality more so than Martellusa€™, WaldseemA?ller extends the continent to beyond its actual 34 degrees South in a similarly misguided manner as Martellus with WaldseemA?llera€™s Africa reaching an inexplicable 50 degrees plus. Gone, however, is that mysterious strait that had separated North and South America on the 1507 map.
But the question concerning the authenticity of these historic letters remains fundamental to the evaluation of Vespucci's achievement. According to the conflicting theory to which Pohl and other modern scholars subscribe, these documents should be regarded as the result of skillful, unauthorized manipulations by entrepreneurs, and the sole authentic papers would be the private letters, so that the verified voyages would be reduced to two.
Vespucci thought he had sailed along the coast of the extreme easterly peninsula of Asia, where Ptolemy, the 2nd-century Greek geographer, believed the market of Cattigara to be; so he looked for the tip of this peninsula, calling it Cape Cattigara.
Nonetheless, the name America spread throughout Europe and quickly established itself through sheer force of usage. One of these officials, the senior of the two, who was probably the person who handed over the money to the explorer, was named Richard Ameryk (also written Ap Meryke [Welsh] on one deed, and elsewhere written Amerycke) who seems to have been a leading citizen of Bristol at the time.
Not until 1960 did someone find bills of trading records indicating that Richard Amerike was involved in this business. To us, the 1507 map appears remarkably accurate; but to the world of the early sixteenth century it represented a considerable departure from accepted views regarding the composition of the world. The portfolio with its great treasure was uncovered and revealed to the world in 1901 by the Jesuit priest Josef Fischer, who was conducting research in the Waldburg collection.
And from that fragile first glimpse of the world, so adequately described by WaldseemuI?ller in 1507, the Library of Congressa€™ cartographic resources provide the historical breadth and cartographic depth to fill in the geographic blanks left by those early cosmographers.
Works that have increased our knowledge about WaldseemuI?ller and the group in Saint-DieI? include: Joseph Fischer and Franz R. They exhibit the Old World, in the main, in accord with the Ptolemaic idea, and the New World with a close resemblance to the Caveri map record (#307), and that of WaldseemA?llera€™s world map of 1507. By April 1507, WaldseemA?ller and Ringmann had completed the booklet, Cosmographiae Introductio, to accompany the globe and wall-map. Such information would have been kept secret by the Portuguese, and it is perhaps here in this globe that the secrets were first drawn up for a wider audience, particularly since Vespuccia€™s allegiance to Portugal changed when he became a Spanish citizen. The catalogue published a reserve of $50,000, but it failed to sell and was sold privately in 1954 to James Ford Bell for approximately $45,000. They were offered for sale in 1991, and purchased by the Bavarian State library in Munich for approximately 2 million DM (in excess of $1million). That translated directly into the time scale using the redshift determination of the velocities. There was lots of hydrogen, and some helium, but no heavy elements except perhaps a trace of lithium; no carbon, no lead, and in particular no uranium and thorium.
Other people were resting nearby, and as they noticed what he was doing, a few of them gathered around to watch.
Those watching felt a small thrill of discovery each time an image flashed inside them to match the one forming outside. The experiences of a hundred generations of mankind could be compressed within the mind of a youth.
At the actual speed of our space vehicles it would take 40,000 years to reach and nearest star, and three million years to reach an average sun seen by the naked eye as a faint scintillating starlet. The outlook is entirely hopeless; humanity must content itself with its own Solar System, as must those other humanities lost somewhere in the depths of space in permanent isolation.
This must now be replaced by a future brief heating up, ultimately followed by a real cooling—a collapse into the white dwarf stage to which the offered description of a frozen end of the world could still apply. Then we can speculate that sources of energy so copious will finally be developed that almost anything, even interstellar colonization, will be justified and attempted. In those early galaxies, some of the gas and dust congealed by its own gravity to form large, amorphous, spherical balls, which slowly shrank and ultimately flickered into light. From the middle of the Garden a spring gushes forth to water the whole grove and, dividing up, it provides the source of four rivers [see #205C and Q].
The northern (left) half of the cross bar represented the river Tanais [Don], and the southern (right) half of the cross bar represented the river Nile.
But after Hercules, as the Africans think, perished in Spain, his army, which was composed of various nations, having lost its leader, and many candidates severalty claiming the command of it, was speedily dispersed.
Around the circle of the map the cardinal directions are ostentatiously given in Greek and glossed in Latin: for example, Anathole vel oriens vel eoi, in the east. Like MS 17a€™s image, it gives considerable prominence to the circumambient ocean, as well as to the islands of Britain, Ireland and Thule: its creator seems to have been especially concerned to situate his own region with respect to the extremes of the world, both to the east and to the west. It should also be noted that a second, incomplete copy of this map is found in Cambridge, Corpus Christi College 265, p. It appears in Bedea€™s commentary on Genesis, and is prominently featured in Byrhtfertha€™s Diagram. 29r) in which only the northern temperate zone -- the oikumene or inhabited world -- is treated like a map, while the remainder of the disk is occupied solely by text. From Paradise the four rivers flow out to give life to the earth and to establish a mysterious yet material connection between paradise and the human realm.
Both the earlier and the later versions display the influence of Ptolemy, and as in the case of Ptolemy, no maps accompany these manuscripts.
By adding the word Land between the toponyms, the mapmaker has tried to show that although these towns are widely separated and distant from each other, they constitute a chain of cities along a route that can only be the Silk Road. In the Middle Ages, the designation India was used loosely to refer to the lands east of Persia, Media and the Middle East.
A red cross symbolizes Prester John (who rules both eastern and southern India and who resides in Biberith); and finally on the fourth division of the earth, discovered by the kings of Castile and Portugal, we have placed the emblems of those sovereigns. This interpretation is similar to both Cantino and Caveri and helped keep alive the possibility of a northern access to the as yet unnamed Pacific and, of course, the riches of far Cathay. Over to the left, on Tabula Terra Nove, apparently referring to the Pearl Coast and perhaps to Honduras, we read the surprising inscription: Hec terra cum adiacentib insulis inuenta est per Columbu ianuensem ex mandato Regis Castellae [This land with the adjacent islands was discovered by Columbus of Genoa by order of the King of Castile]. Its appearance undoubtedly ignited a debate in Europe regarding its portrayal of an unknown continent (unknown to Europe and others in the Eastern Hemisphere) between two huge bodies of water, the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, and separated from the classical world of Ptolemy, which had been confined to the continents of Europe, Africa, and Asia. Shortly after the appearance of the 1507 world map by Waldseemuller, Vespucci was appointed the first Pilot Major in the Spanish House of Trade (the Casa de la ContratacioI?n) in Seville, and in that capacity was responsible for navigational issues and concerns of Spanish shipping to the new western possessions, across the Atlantic.
In 1903 an elaborate set of facsimiles of the 1507 and the 1516 maps accompanied by a scholarly study by Josef Fischer and Franz von Wieser appeared.
The North American region is nameless, but the South American region bears conspicuously the name America. They eject material back into the interstellar medium, but that material is enriched in nuclear debris. Fowler has received numerous awards and medals including an honorary Doctor of Science degree and the Lamme Medal from the Ohio State University, the Bernard Medal from Columbia University, the Apollo Achievement Award from NASA, and the National Medal of Science.
Each time the man finished a drawing, the smile that appeared on his face would appear on theirs also. Man has always been tempted by far-away places, yet those distances are utterly prohibitive. The Dorthea Klumpke - Roberts Award goes to Dietrick Thomsen, Senior Editor of Science News for his outstanding contributions to public understanding of astronomy. I think this is true up to a certain level of energy supply, beyond which the absolute amount of energy required to do things will control decisions. Approach to this place was barred to man after his sin, for now it is hedged about on all sides by a sword-like flame [romphaea flamma], that is to say that it is surrounded by a wall of fire that reaches almost to the sky.
Of its constituent troops the Medes, Persians and Armenians having sailed over Into Africa, occupied the parts nearest to our sea. A note to one side says, Maior habet in oriente alexandriam pamphiliam, a reference to Asia Major at the top of the map.
Kartago Magna, which could be Cartagena in Spain as Cartago appears elsewhere on the map, is another non-biblical site.
It is very close to such contemporary elaborations of the Sallust map as Vatican City, BAV Reg. Insular writers were particularly attracted to this theme, because they associated the conversion of their lands, at the very edge of the known world, with the fulfillment of Christa€™s command to take to Gospel to the ends of the earth.
64, underscores the magnetic attraction of these two ways of listing the inhabitants of the world, and how innovative MS 17 was in fusing them.
In his book, Mansel described Paradise as a wonderful region surpassing all other earthly lands, fit for mana€™s initial perfection, surrounded by a wall of fire and situated on an exceptionally high mountain that reached the sphere of the moon. So here Lands of the Indians most probably refer to the northern and western neighbors of India, such as Persia and its neighboring countries, while Hndkastan denotes India proper.
And what is to be borne in mind, we have marked with crosses shallow places in the sea where shipwreck may be feared. Gemma Frisius and Sebastian Munster edited versions of the latter, so that the WaldseemA?ller type, or Lusitano-Germanic Group, held the field until the advent of Mercator, Ortelius, and the Dutch school of the mid-16th century. A statement that is in obvious conflict with the thrust of both the graphic productions of 1507 (map and globe) and the text of Introductio CosmographiA¦ referred to earlier - both prepared more or less as a testimony to Amerigo Vespucci. As soon as he was back in Spain, he equipped a fresh expedition with the aim of reaching Asia.
The ashes of the nuclear fires which fueled the star while it was shining produced heavy elements in the star which are ejected into the interstellar medium. The star had been too faint for them to see previously, but when it exploded and became a supernova, they could see it. But we can also expect continued support of the basic sciences, and I think it is pretty clear that there are payoffs there, technologically from the spin-offs, and culturally from the gains in new knowledge about the world around us. Once it was very slow indeed, but as ideas trickled back and forth new ideas arose that helped to speed the flow: clay tablets, paper, the printing press, radio and television. Despite the thirst for knowledge and its philosophical lore (while no practical purposes could be served by a space journey of so long duration), hardly such a voyage will ever be undertaken. We should support any cost-effective approach to SETI which, even at the greatest stretch of the imagination, might find evidence of extraterrestrial life. Englanda€™s geographic position may have made it especially sensitive to this apocalyptic dimension: the second of two notes on chronology in Oxford Bodleian Library Auct. The manuscript is dated to the last quarter of the 11th century, and this addition to the second half of the 12th century but the hand of the map bears an extraordinarily close resemblance to that of Scribe A of MS 17, and the palaeographical indicators point to a date closer to 1100. This fulfillment would be the climax of history, and would usher in the last days; hence the world-maps included in the Apocalypse commentary of Beatus of Liebana were essentially maps illustrating the preaching of the apostles to the gentes descended from Noaha€™s three sons, but expanded to encompass the whole world and the entirety of the world-age (#207). Its presence in the manuscript raises questions about how such an essentially non-Armenian-style map came to be made by an Armenian, and when, considering that this is the only T-O type map bearing Armenian inscriptions known to exist. But the Spanish government did not welcome his proposals, and at the end of 1500 Vespucci went into the service of Portugal. When a new star forms as our Sun did 4.6 billion years ago, it inherits, for example, thorium which had been made by earlier stars which were born soon after the formation of the Galaxy and on up to the time when the solar system was formed.
And as technology evolved, thoughts were embodied in forms even stranger than puffs of sound or figures in sand or books; now they became the dots and dashes of Morse code, electromagnetic waves bouncing through the atmosphere, and the binary language of computers.
In a form of stellar alchemy, hundreds of millions of tons of hydrogen were converted into helium every second. In every part of their body they are lions, and in wings and head are like eagles, and they are fierce enemies of horses.
The frame of the map, a double circle, was drawn in drypoint, and at the right and left upper corners of the page are two smaller drypoint circles. Indeed, mappaemundi have a pronounced historical dimension: they are found in association with chronicles more frequently than in scientific works, and as illustrations of sacred history, they were infused with an allegorical vision of time. The Cosmographiae provided an introduction to the new geography of the world as laid out in the globe and wall-map, and included a Latin translation of Vespuccia€™s four voyages. On Earth, during such a span of time, there appeared and disappeared entire races, nations and empires—how could ever survive and persist in its aims over a hundred thousand generations a tiny isolated human group lost in the immensities of space and time?
I suspect that they may go to the Antarctic once, just to see what it is like, but from then on their resources will be expended in places such as Tahiti and Paris.
82v, a manuscript contemporary with MS 17, adopts a four-ages scheme somewhat like that found in the dating clause on fol.
Hence this world map is a logical addition to a manuscript devoted to the reckoning of time. Edson tentatively suggests a comparison to the maps of the Holy Land created by the Talmudic scholar Rashi to expound the sacred text; however, MS 17a€™s map does not illustrate a text. Returning to the extraterrestrials, I think they may dabble in interstellar exploration, but will primarily turn to terraforming their own planetary system.
3v, but the fourth age, instead of ending in the annus praesens, runs from the Incarnation ad iter ierusalem, as if this event closed the series of years and ushered in the end times.
Moreover, those scientific and philosophical aims which are underlying the plans would interest only the initiators of the expedition and, perhaps, their immediate descendants.
In fact, the only bodies of water to be named on this map are the rivers Jordan, Euphrates and Tiber. In this respect, MS 17a€™s map is an integral part of a monastic encyclopedia, in which the study of the world and time is itself a serious discipline.
Prospects of receiving an answer after one hundred thousand or a million years would hardly be conducive to such an expedition, and especially because its ultimate failure would be certain. The land of Hyrcania, bordering Scythia to the west, has many tribes wandering far afield on account of the unfruitfulness of their lands. XII): the latter is of exceptional interest in that the map shares the page with a schema of the divisions of philosophy not dissimilar to the one on fol. The interpolated Biblical references include the ark of Noah in Armenia, and cities such as Athens and Caesarea that are explicitly connected with the missionary activity of the apostles. The collapse gave up a great deal of gravitational energy which was transferred in a shock wave to the outer part and blew the outer parts off.



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