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31.10.2015
ABOUT THE IDFAInternational Drug Free Athletics (IDFA), founded in 2005, is committed to promoting drug free (natural) bodybuilding world wide through education, awareness, camaraderie, and community involvement.
Exhibit A—“Pure Water—Pure water for air humidification systems,” AB SIBE International, 2 pages (1999). Exhibit K—“homeSteam elite residential steam humidifier—Installation, Operating and Maintenance Manual,” Carel USA, LLC, 24 pages (Date: Known to Applicant prior to filing the present non-provisional application). TECHNICAL FIELDThis disclosure relates generally to methods and devices for conditioning air. Description: The Lenox Globe is often referred to as the oldest extant post-Columbian globe. What is known about the provenance and acquision of this special globe by the New York Public Library was assembled by Robert W. Lenoxa€™s personal library was acquired in 1911 by the New York Public Library and in the process this small, engraved globe made of copper became one of the Librarya€™s most valuable possessions. Like Martin Behaima€™s famous large globe from 1492 (#258), the Lenox Globe still shows only one ocean between Europe and Asia. There was no good indication as to when the little globe was made, but three prominent scholars in the late 19th century - Benjamin De Costa, Henry Harrisse and Justin Winsor a€“ addressed this perplexing issue before Joseph Fisher made his discovery of the WaldseemA?ller map in July 1901.
Harrisse in his landmark work The Discovery of North America (1892) concluded that the most likely date for the Lenox Globe was 1511.
Prior to Harrisse, Justin Winsor in the mid-1880s was equally perplexed concerning what to make of and how to date the Lenox Globe.
The scholar who provided the first and to this day still the most in-depth analysis of the Lenox Globe was Benjamin De Costa (1831-1904). What makes De Costaa€™s scholarship in his 1879 essay so outstanding is that he is open and candid about the profound implications of dating any globe or map depicting the entire continent of South America so many years before Magellana€™s voyage of 1519-1522. This is an astonishing pattern of cartographical evidence concerning South America prior to Magellana€™s voyage in 1519. We should also observe that even before De Costa, the world famous scholar Alexander de Humboldt took seriously the proposition that there may have been more extensive exploration of South America (Portuguese in his and our view) than the conventional wisdom allowed due to the tradition, surrounding Magellana€™s famous voyage. For his part, De Costa was well aware of Cosmographiae Introductio and the small WaldseemA?ller globe gores (#310) found in the passage in the south.
It is evident that the Lenox Globe must have been constructed subsequent to the discovery of the coast of South America, in 1500, by Cabral, who gave it the name Vera Cruz, which was soon changed to Terra SanctA¦ Crucis, as on this globe. On the other hand, the almost complete lack of information betrayed by the maker of the globe concerning the east coast of North America, and the absence of the name America on South America would indicate that it antedates the map of Martin WaldseemA?ller of 1507 (#310). Because the date of this globe could be deduced mainly from its representations of America, let us give a brief resume of the condition of geographical knowledge respecting the New World for several years subsequent to 1510. In the year 1500, Juan de la Cosa, the Pilot of Columbus, drew a map of the New World (#305), but North America does not appear, Newfoundland being represented as a part of Asia.
What has been said thus far applies only to North America, but, upon turning to South America, the representation has the appearance of belonging to a period later than 1511.
In order to present the subject with clearness, it will be useful to state first, that the La Cosa map of 1500 (#305) exhibited the northern coast of South America, together with the eastern coast down to about 25A° S. On this point it may be observed that such a termination to South America was doubtless rendered probable by the argument from analogy.
Sometimes the information thus derived was of great value, and it would appear that the maker of the Lenox Globe had received information of this kind. The uncertainty of the globe-maker respecting Madagascar may be explained by the fact that it was not until 1508 that Da€™Acuhna made his exploration of the island, though it was known to Marco Polo. The SchA¶ner Globe of 1520 (#328) has an island similar in form and situation to the nameless island of the Lenox Globe, but in a reversed position, and called Madagascar.
In support of the suggestion that the Madagascar and Certina of the globe are simply Sumatra and Java misplaced, we may cite the fact that the well-known islands of Sumatra and Java do not appear in their places, while the Malayan peninsula, labeled on the globe as Loac, is extended so far south as to confuse the geography of the whole region. It is true that one of the first references to the southern coast of Australia in the 17th century was that of 1627, when a Dutch ship sailed along the shore for a distance of a thousand miles, while one of the earliest maps of that century which showed the outlines of Australia was the Montanus map of 1572.
Attention has already been called to the fact that the great nameless island, with its attendant islands, is placed westward instead of southeast of the Malayan peninsula; but Sylvanus, in his Ptolemy map of 1511 (#318), moves the whole group into its proper position to the southeast, thus giving a somewhat correct view of the geography of that region. Thus far nothing has been said of the general appearance of the globe, though, if it were necessary, many details could be pointed out which indicate its ancient origin. In Asia the Himalayan range, anciently known as Imaus, had its influence upon the globe-maker's geography, who indicates Schite extraianivm for Scythia extra Imaum.
Moabio appears to be the Maabar of Marco Polo, who says that in this entire Province there is never a Tailor to cut a coat or stitch it, for the very good reason that everybody goes naked. Beyond Newfoundland is a sinking ship, with the figure of a human being in the water, possibly an allusion to the loss of the Portuguese Cortereal. When, however, the maker of the Lenox Globe looked away toward the region now occupied by North America, he saw only a watery waste, in the midst of which the island of Bacaleos or Newfoundland, rode like some ship at anchor. In the place of North America there are scattered islands, one of which, located near the northwest extremity of Terra de Brazil, bears the name Zipangri [Japan], being close to Yucatan, whose well-known bay, first explored in 1518, has a conjectural coast line trending towards the south instead of the west.
The name America does not appear upon the Lenox Globe, which fact, so far as it possesses any significance, favors the belief that the early date of 1504 assigned to the instrument is correct.
Hylocomilus, while admitting the priority of the voyage of Columbus, felt no necessity for naming the New World after one who, in the most pronounced manner, declared that there was no New World to be named. Humboldt maintains that Vespucci, equally with Columbus, believed that the land discovered formed a part of Asia. The Viscount Santarem (Researches respecting Vespucci) has taken the ground, as well as some others, that the map of Hylocomilus, in the Ptolemy of 1513, was the work of Columbus. The southern coasts of Asia are drawn less correctly than on the map of Ruysch and on the TabulA¦ NovA¦ of Asia inserted into the Ptolemy edition of 1513.
In the New World representation, South America appears as a large island having three regional names: Mundus Novus, Terra SanctA¦ Crucis, and Terra de Brazil. In the place of North America there are scattered islands, one of which, located near the northwest extremity of Terra de Brazil, bears the name Zipangri [Japan], and one in the far north, but unnamed, clearly resembles the Cortereal region, as it appears on the Cantino and Caveri maps (#306, #307). Most of the inscriptions on the globe reference back to the medieval picture of Asia, combining antique sources, travel accounts, and fabulous legends. From the standpoint of 2012, with our greater appreciation of the WaldseemA?ller world map, we can see how De Costaa€™s suspicions of a pre-Magellan discovery of the strait point to the broader cartographic issue. Either the Lenox Globe really was a post-1507 creation, which in view of its shortcomings oddly failed to take into account the WaldseemA?ller map of 1507, which was reportedly issued in 1000 copies for sale, along with the essay Cosmographiae Introductio. De Costa did not explicitly renege on his estimation of the 1510 date for the Lenox Globe as the most probable but he waffles.
Given these facts, one has to give serious consideration to the possibility that the creator of the Lenox Globe made it before April 1507 or at least not to long after that date if one is to explain ignorance of this widely published essay. De Costa originally prepared his analysis in 1879 without benefit of any knowledge of the large WaldseemA?ller world map discovered 22 years later. For his part, NordenskiA¶ld in his Facsimile Atlas (1889) cited De Costaa€™s a€?estimate of 1508-1511a€? and concluded that this a€?seemed to be about righta€?.
In his later work entitled Periplus published in 1897, NordenskiA¶ld dramatically asserted that knowledge of the Pacific, the isthmus and a water passage to the south a€?must have reached Europe prior to Balboaa€™s journeya€?. Ultimately, Emerson Fite and Archibald Freeman in their 1926 work A Book of Old Maps argued that the Lenox Globe was made sometime in the 1503-1507 period. One reason why they came to this conclusion was that the Lenox Globe lacks the sophistication of the Ruysch world map (1507-1508) with its more accurate depiction of features associated with the region of the Indian Ocean, something which troubled both De Costa and NordenskiA¶ld.
The bottom line is that the maker of this globe seems to be unaware of not only the WaldseemA?ller 1507 map, the Ruysch map of 1508, but also ignorant of others such as the Juan de la Cosa, Cantino and Caveri maps from the 1500-1504 period which do show substantial parts of the North American mainland including Florida and the Gulf coastline and also in the Caveri map the Central American coastline from Mexico to roughly Honduras.
This discontinuity in cartographical conception makes it hard to know where to place the Lenox Globe on the family tree of maps and globes made during the first decade of the 16th century. This analysis, if correct, would suggest that Lenox Globe was not likely to have been based on tightly held information in the possession of Spanish navigators. Furthermore, given that Balboa did not cross the Isthmus of Panama to see the Pacific Ocean until 1513, it is extremely hard to imagine the maker of the Lenox Globe getting his a€?island-likea€? conception or vision of the new southern continent from Spanish sources. There is other evidence that strongly points to the source of the Lenox Globe being Portuguese rather than Spanish. This geographical distortion seems far too neat or convenient in political terms to have been a mere coincidence as we can see when we superimpose the Line of Demarcation established by this treaty onto the Lenox Globe. Despite this obvious manipulation of nautical data, Fite and Freeman, like De Costa before them, observed that the Lenox Globe still accurately places the southern edge of of this continent at 55 degrees south of the equator. What is amazing is that Fite and Freeman made such a bold statement based merely on their assessment of the Lenox Globe of uncertain date with no consideration of the WaldseemA?ller globe gores of 1507 which also clearly shows a southern water passage. We would argue further that if this analysis is correct, then the Lenox Globe would represent a stepping-stone or interim intellectual stage in the evolution of geographical knowledge that made possible the more impressive and comprehensive cartographic synthesis articulated by Mathias Ringmann in Cosmographiae Introductio and shown visually in the world map and globe made by Martin WaldseemA?ller at the Gymnasium at Saint-Die. Note the same land mass in the southern part of the Eastern Hemisphere as in the Jagiellonian Globe, but unlike on that globe, unnamed.
The Jagiellonian Globe, dating from around 1510, held by the Jagiellonian University in Cracow, Poland, depicts a continent in the Indian Ocean to the east of Africa and south of India, but labeled America.
The appearance in the mid-16th century of Jave la Grande in a series of mappemondes drawn by a school of cartographers centred on the French port of Dieppe, suggesting an early Portuguese or Spanish discovery of the eastern coast of Australia, has been called a€?one of the puzzles of European historya€?.
An ancient Map of the World has been discovered in the British Museum, which lays down the coasts of New-Holland, as described by Cooke and Bougainville. In all the subsequent discussion of the Dieppe maps and Spanish or Portuguese discovery of the East coast of Australia in the early 16th century, it is noteworthy that there has been no consideration of the Jagiellonian Globe and the bearing it might have on the matter. The Sydney Morning Herald of 19 January 1911 carried an article with the arresting title, a€?Australiaa€™s Discoverer: was it Amerigo Vespucci?a€?. Professor Estreicher drew attention to a globe of similar date held by the New York Public Library, known as the Lenox Globe. Ein solches Land is nur Sudamerica allein, und wir mussen annehmen, dass jene Insel Sudamerica vorstellen soll, freilich an einer ganz falschem Stelle. Estreicher proposed Louis Boulengier of Albi as having been the cartographer responsible for the Jagiellonian Globe, on the basis of similarity between it and the Tross Gores, dating from 1514-1518 (#324), of which Boulengier is known to have been the author. An armillary clock, similar to the Jagiellonian, made by Jean Naze of Lyons in 1560 is held at the Orangerie Planetarium of the Staatliche Museen Kassel (formerly the Hessisches Landesmuseum). But the most revealing feature of this globe is that its maker was aware of Cosmographiae Introductio, because he refers to America. If it was impossible that the maker of the Jagellonian Globe with the benefit of access to Cosmographiae Introductio which invented the name America could have been that confused, why the gross mistake?
Edward Stevenson, discussing Estreichera€™s work in 1921, commented that he seemed not to have noticed that the inscription AMERICA-NOVITER-REPERTA possibly indicated not only an acquaintance on the part of the Jagiellonian cartographer with WaldseemA?llera€™s suggestion as to the name America, but a belief that America was actually located in this particular region. In the sixth climate toward the Antarctic there are situated the farthest part of Africa, recently discovered, the islands Zanzibar, the lesser Java, and Seula [Ceylon], and the fourth part of the Earth, which, because Amerigo discovered it, we may call Amerige, the land of Amerigo, so to speak, or America. In his 1911 interview, Petherick pointed out that Thomas Morea€™s Utopia (published in Louvain in 1516) reflected this concept of the eartha€™s geography. The representations of the east coast of a€?Jave Ie Granda€™ [sic] (Australia) delineated in those maps are, I assert, very rough representations and repetitions of the east coast of South America when that continent and our Australia were supposed to be one, before the Pacific Ocean was known. From this perspective, one might speculate that the bizarre attachment of the name America to a mythical or hypothetical island in the southern Indian Ocean was an expression of strong contempt for the Florentine navigator and an attempt to delink his name from the South American continent, which had been made by WaldseemA?llera€™s team at Saint-Die in 1507. Catigara was the name given on earlier Ptolemaic maps to the land on the easternmost shore of the Mare Indicum, south of the equator. In claiming that Amerigo Vespucci discovered Australia Petherick may simply have been intending to make the point hyperbolically that the coastline of the Dieppe maps, taken by some to represent Australia, was the coast of the land discovered by Amerigo, misplaced into the Eastern Hemisphere.
The Jagiellonian Globe demonstrates that it was possible for early 16th century geographers to depict the same coastline, that of eastern South America, in two different places on the same map. The Jagiellonian Globe reminds us that we must try to look at the early maps through the eyes and with the knowledge of their makers, free of the preconceptions arising from our current geographical knowledge. Another four decades were to pass before another scholar addressed the question of the date for the creation of the Lenox Globe. Why did Pohl see the creation of the Lenox Globe being linked so closely to the publication of Vespuccia€™s letters in Italy in 1505? Levilliera€™s analysis in an essay in Imago Mundi entitled a€?New Light on Vespuccia€™s third voyagea€? was stunning in this regard. We should observe at this juncture that even prior to the so-called Italian-Sodorini edition of Vespuccia€™s letters, the famous Cantino map (#306), which is also of Portuguese-origin and which dates to no later than November 1502, also shows the eastern coastline bending abruptly (and falsely) to the southeast.
Thus, in his essay for the Bulletin of the New York Public Library in 1963 Pohl was on solid ground when he pointed to the similar or parallel tampering with the text of Vespuccia€™s original letter for the Italian-Soderini edition as grounds for suspecting that the Lenox Globe dates to a period before the WaldseemA?ller map of 1507.
Nevertheless, Pohl deliberately dodged the question of the uncanny depiction of the new southern continent in his 1963 essay. Pohl went to considerable lengths in this long footnote in 1944 to dismiss any evidence -- the account in the Newen Zeytung journal, the SchA¶ner globes and Valentine Fernandesa€™ remarks in a deposition in a Portuguese court in 1503 -- that supports Magellana€™s assertion that Portuguese navigators had discovered the strait much earlier, and no later than 1506.
Pohla€™s rigid position concerning the a€?accidentala€? or a€?imaginarya€? features of the Lenox and Jagellonian Globes remains baffling given that he was prone to accept highly dubious claims of evidence for the presence of Europeans and Asians in America -- such as the stone tower in Newport, Rhode Island which has been reliably dated to after 1492.
In the more than forty years since Pohla€™s essay was published there has been little attention paid to the Lenox Globe. Meridians and parallels are engraved and numbered on its surface at intervals of ten degrees, the prime meridian passing through the island Ferro. We believe that when all the evidence and analysis of the historical context are taken into consideration, Fite, Freeman, and Pohl presented a compelling, convincing argument that places the creation of the Lenox Globe prior to the WaldseemA?ller map and globe gores. Furthermore, it seems more probable that the Lenox Globe was based on sensitive information that was improperly acquired directly from someone in Lisbon than it was based on information leaked from the Gymnasium at Saint-Die while the work on Cosmographiae Introductio, the world map and globe gores was still underway in 1505-1506.
Thus, there is some basis for concluding that the maker of the Lenox Globe had learned about a water passage and thus knew a lot more than Vespucci conveyed, at least more than the Florentine navigator revealed openly in Mundus Novus which entered into circulation in 1503-1504. In conclusion, we can summarize what appear to be five solid facts concerning the creation of the Lenox Globe. Second, the maker of this globe also knew from sensitive Portuguese sources a lot more about the overall shape of the entire southern continent than Vespucci conveyed (at least openly) in Mundus Novus that entered into widespread circulation beginning in 1503- 1504.
When one considers all this chronological evidence, analysis of the most probable historical context points to the creation of the Lenox Globe between the publication of Vespuccia€™s Mundus Novus in 1503-1504 and April 1507 when Cosmographiae Introductio and the large world map were printed. Whatever the truth, the Lenox-Jagellonian Globes add to a large body of cartographic evidence that points to a Portuguese discovery of the strait before 1519 which is what Magellan had always insisted, and to a clandestine exploration of the west coast of this new fourth continent as far north as what we know as Acapulco no later than 1507.
Magellana€™s odd decision was illogical or counter-intuitive if he and his contemporaries believed that this new land mass was an extension of Asia. It is a reasonable conclusion that Magellan understood from extensive discussions with Spanish officials and navigators that this land mass was connected to the land region we know as Central America with which the Spanish were quite familiar by 1518- 1519. Chauncey, Henry, a letter written on January 21,1902 to Willberforce Eames, official at the Lenox Library. Lingren, Uta, a€?Trial and Error in the Mapping of America in the Early Modern Period,a€? in America: Early Maps of the New World, editor, Hans Wolff, New York, 1992, pp. Nordenskiold, Adolf, Periplus - An Essay on the Early History of Charts and Sailing-Directions, Stockholm, 1897, p.
Pohl, Frederick, a€?The Fourth Continent on the Lenox Globea€?, Bulletin of The New York Public Library, Volume 67, Number 9 (September 1963), pp.
Stevenson, Edward Luther, a€?Martin WaldseemA?ller and Early Lusitano-Germanic Cartography of the New World,a€? Bulletin of the American Geographical Society, Volume XXXVI, Number 4, 1904, pp.
Winsor, Justin, Narrative and Critical History of America, Houghton-Mifflin & Company, 1884-1889, Volume III, pp. Zakrzewska, Maria N., Catalogue of globes in the Jagellonian University Museum, translated by Franciszek Buhl, Kracow, 1965. A A A  Lenoxa€™s personal library was acquired in 1911 by the New York Public Library and in the process this small, engraved globe made of copper became one of the Librarya€™s most valuable possessions. A A A  Like Martin Behaima€™s famous large globe from 1492 (#258), the Lenox Globe still shows only one ocean between Europe and Asia.
Talackova subsequently contacted lawyer Gloria Allred, who took on the case and challenged the pageant organizers, including Donald Trump in his capacity as owner of the international Miss Universe organization, to reverse the decision and allow Talackova to compete. At the pageant on May 19, 2012, Talackova made it into the Top 12, but failed to reach the Top 5. This photo is currently being used to illustrate the Jenna Talackova article on Wikipedia, one of the world's top-ten most-visited websites. The Side Hustle Show is the podcast for part-time entrepreneurs who are looking for business ideas, actionable tips to start a business, and killer strategies on how to turn their side hustle dreams into a growing business. Guests include Jon Acuff, Chris Ducker, Brian Clark, John Lee Dumas, Pat Flynn, and many Tim Ferriss and Gary Vaynerchuk proteges.
Product licensing is essentially selling your ideas to larger companies for a percentage of future sales.
In this conversation, Stephen shares how you can get started in product licensing without any big upfront investment, how to protect your intellectual property without a patent, and how to get big companies to take you seriously.
Carey Green had spent the last 20 years as a pastor, before making the leap into entrepreneurship.
Today Carey helps other aspiring mortgage brokers pass their certification exam, a test he says was the hardest he ever took. Then, as he studied to become a licensed mortgage broker, an idea took hold to put his study notes online.
In this episode you’ll hear how Carey hustled to make it happen and the steps YOU can replicate in your own industry or niche.
You may know Jason as the IWearYourShirt guy, where he earned over $1,000,000 wearing t-shirts for various companies. In this episode, he shares his tips for getting sponsors for your work, even if you're just starting out.
Since then, I’ve experimented with several other sponsorship projects, including sponsored posts on this site and more recently, paid advertising on The Side Hustle Show. You may know Jason as the IWearYourShirt guy, where he earned over $1,000,000 wearing t-shirts for various companies. In this episode, he shares his tips for getting sponsors for your work, even if you’re just starting out. In my recent annual member survey, one of the biggest challenges named was coming up with the right side hustle idea. We actually recorded this a live Blab hangout (my first ever!), and may try and do similar sessions in the future. This is the second in what will (at least) be a 2-part series on side hustlers earning income from their land investment endeavors. In addition, Chris does the occasional cash flip and also has more than $70,000 worth of land payments under contract. In episode 108 of The Side Hustle Show last year, we met Mark Podolsky, a real estate investor specializing in raw land.
Tune in to hear Chris’ tactics for sourcing deals, finding buyers, and setting up his land business for recurring passive income. How to use public information to find leads (and how Chris has trained a virtual assistant to do much of this legwork for him).
In episode 108 of The Side Hustle Show last year, we met Mark Podolsky, a real estate investor specializing in raw land.
Josh has actually been investing in real estate for over 10 years, but accelerated his land-investing efforts after hearing Mark on the show last year. Tune in to hear Josh’s tactics for sourcing deals, finding buyers, and setting up his land business for recurring passive income.
I know it’s a good episode when I hang up the call buzzing like I should totally start this!
The time commitment needed to run this business as a side hustle to his Army job and Enduring Charity work. We've talked about Uber and Airbnb before, but there are literally hundreds of different platforms where you can put your buy buttons. These app-powered peer-to-peer transactions are unlocking an estimated $300 billion in economic activity by 2025. We’ve talked about Uber and Airbnb before, but there are literally hundreds of different platforms where you can put your buy buttons. Tune in to hear about several promising platforms and Glenn’s top tips for side hustlers getting started down this path. We chat content, traffic, and monetization strategies, as well as how he manages the business in his spare time. How he added a forum to the site to address questions one-to-many instead of one-to-one (and build an archive of user-generated content in the process). Kenny Azama has worked with massive global brands like Nike, Samsung, Apple, Chevrolet, and Coca Cola, but he's not an ad agency or a top secret marketing mogul. Kenny Azama has worked with massive global brands like Nike, Samsung, Apple, Chevrolet, and Coca Cola, but he’s not an ad agency or a top secret marketing mogul. When we caught up, Kenny was in the middle of a cross-country RV tour for a pet care brand, earning $2k a week! But not every brand ambassador gig requires this kind of full-time commitment, and many can be done on your schedule part-time, nights and weekends. Kenny is so in love with this income stream he’s actually built an online platform dedicated to helping people learn more about the opportunity. Gina Horkey has come highly recommended by a number of listeners, and I’ve seen her work what seems like “all over the Internet” for the past couple years so I’m excited to finally connect and bring her on the show. She’s a freelance writer extraordinaire, but also a virtual assistant, and someone who now helps others follow in her footsteps.
Gina successfully built her freelance writing and virtual assistant business to be earning several thousand dollars a month; enough to quit her day job and go full-time. In this call, we chat pinpointing a service you can offer, finding your first clients, pricing your services, and growing the business and expanding into more time-leveraged income streams. Jon is a former attorney turned full-time entrepreneur, and he's the master of building high quality niche blogs and monetizing them to $10k-20k per month in record time. We've covered niche sites in the past, but the type of sites Jon focuses on are a different animal. Parenthood has got me thinking, every BIG victory is built on the back of a ton of mini victories. We all want the BIG win; quit our jobs, passive income, early retirement, location-independence, whatever it is. Phil's built up a HUGE library of more than 50 online courses and teaches more than 130,000 students. In this episode we chat about how he comes up with course ideas, how he structures his content, and he markets his material, along of course with the tech he uses to get it all done. Teaching online is a fantastic way to earn money from your experience, skills, and expertise - Phil's built up a HUGE library of more than 50 online courses and teaches more than 130,000 students.
His own ecommerce empire has grown to $400k per month in revenue -- yes, per month -- and he's the founder of the popular Jungle Scout software tool that helps make the product research process faster and easier.
In this call we dive into his specific sales criteria and next steps in evaluating a product's profit potential and how to bring it to market on Amazon. The IDFA will maintain the integrity of drug free athletics and sport through awareness programs and the promotion and sanctioning of drug free bodybuilding, fitness and figure competitions and shows.
The filter system includes a filter assembly capable of filtering particles sized 1.0 micrometers and larger and may, include a flow control device positioned to selectively provide fluid flow to the filter assembly.
PureFlo™ water treatment for humidifiers,” JS Humidifiers plc, 2 pages (Date: Known to Applicant prior to filing the present non-provisional application).
The humidifier system of claim 1, wherein the electrically activated valve is a solenoid valve.
The humidifier system of claim 1, wherein the heat source is a heating element within the reservoir. The humidifier system of claim 1, wherein the heat source is applied to the exterior of the reservoir to heat the fluid. The humidifier system of claim 1, wherein the fluid level detection mechanism includes at least a first float device that senses the level of the fluid in the reservoir to control the fluid flow from the supply source to the filter assembly. The humidifier system of claim 5, wherein the first float device includes a magnet and a reed switch. The humidifier system of claim 5, wherein the first float device is a high fluid level float that generates a signal to the electrically-activated valve to close fluid flow to the filter assembly when the fluid level is at a predetermined first height. The humidifier system of claim 5, wherein the fluid level detection mechanism includes a second float device that operates in cooperation with the first float device to control the fluid flow from the supply source to the filter assembly. The humidifier system of claim 8, wherein the second float device is a low fluid level float that generates a signal to the electrically-activated valve to open fluid flow to the filter assembly when the fluid level is at a predetermined second height. The humidifier system of claim 1, wherein the filter assembly is capable of eliminating particles sized 1.0 micrometers and larger. The humidifier system of claim 10, wherein the filter assembly is capable of eliminating particles sized 0.1 micrometers and larger. The humidifier system of claim 10, wherein the filter assembly is capable of eliminating particles sized 0.01 micrometers and larger. The humidifier system of claim 1, wherein the filter assembly comprises a reverse osmosis filter.
The humidifier system of claim 13, wherein the filter assembly comprises a chlorine filter in fluid communication with an inlet of the reverse osmosis filter. More particularly, this disclosure relates to a humidifier including a reservoir and heating element.BACKGROUNDA wide variety of arrangements have been utilized for conditioning air by increasing the air humidity. Its historical significance arises from the fact that it is the oldest surviving globe from the post-1492 period and the oldest surviving globe to illustrate any portion of the New World. Thus, in this respect, the small globe does not convey the awareness that there had to be a distinct second ocean (the Pacific) as the WaldseemA?ller map (#310) clearly does. Harrisse believed that the Lenox Globe was made in France derived from a€?an Italian modela€? and he detected what he thought were some features or nomenclature reminiscent of a sketch map allegedly from the hand of Leonardo Da Vinci (#327) now kept in the Library at Windsor Castle. He was one of the first scholars to make the astute observation about how quickly and how inevitably it was that the Europeans would connect the dots, would grasp the continuous unbroken coastline from Labrador to Argentina as seen in the Stobnicza map of 1512 (#319). He remarked in his Narrative and Critica1 History of America that a€?its date is fixed at 1510-1512, but by some as early as 1506-1507.a€? Curiously Winsor, who died in 1897, never identified which scholars favored the earlier date that would place the creation of the Lenox Globe before the WaldseemA?ller map.
When he published his critical assessment in a long article for The Magazine of American History in September 1879, he was ahead of his time.
There in fact are several other maps, globes, or globe gores - associated with the names Boulengier (#324), Green (#342.1), Hauslab-Leichtenstein (#310), Nordenskiold (#311), Stobnicza (#319), and the well-known globes and maps of Johannes SchA¶ner (#328) from the 1515-1520 period - which show this continent having a strait or cape like the African continent and also having a distinctive a€?ice cream-conea€? shape quite unlike Africa.
And this evidence should raise doubts and did in fact raise doubts among some late-19th century scholars such as De Costa, Nordenskiold, Varnhagen and Winsor concerning the conventional wisdom that everyone in Europe was in the dark prior to Magellana€™s famous expedition. And Humboldt based his conclusion in the 1830s, on the fact that the little essay Cosmographiae Introductio published to accompany WaldseemA?llera€™s world map in 1507 and which names for the first time the New World as America in Vespuccia€™s honor, also describes the new continent in the southern hemisphere as being like an a€?enormous island in it that it is found to be surrounded on all sides by watera€?. Therefore, unlike Harrisse who curiously was not willing to date the globe before 1511, De Costa was firm in his conclusion that the Portuguese must have found the strait no later than 1510. It seems probable that it was made after the publication, in 1503, of Vespuciusa€™ letter to Lorenzo de Medici, in which he gave an account of his third voyage, when he followed the Brazilian coast 34A° south latitude.
De Costa, Justin Winsor and Henry Harrisse have assigned a date of 1510-11, for the reason, amongst others, that, while several of its representations are in advance of the published knowledge of 1508, they are behind that of 1511-12. In 1508, on the map of John Ruysch (#313), Newfoundland also appears as a part of Asia, being marked Terra Nova. In its New World representation, South America appears as a large island having three regional names, Mundus Novus, Terra Sanctae Crucis, and Terra de Brazil. The ordinary observer must have perceived that the great bodies of land on the globe terminated towards the south in points. The principle in accordance with which the age of this globe is to be deduced is now therefore quite clear. The globe shows very distinctly a large island, without any name, lying in the Indian Ocean. This excuse, however, cannot be offered for those who later represented Zanzibar as a great island out in the ocean.
Acting, however, in accordance with the suggestion offered, it would prove an easy task to bring order out of the confusion. Nevertheless it is probable that Australia was known centuries before, when the Chinese, with the marinersa€™ compass, navigated those seas. Amongst these might be mentioned the peculiar configuration of the Asiatic coasts, the style of the lettering, the drawing of the ships, and the aspect of the marine monsters.
He also puts Simarum Situs on the border of the Gulf of the Ganges, where Sinarum Situs is put by Ruysch, Sinarum, like Serica, or silk, being a name applied to China, which on the globe is called East India. The globe-maker, however, should have placed the province where Polo and the Nancy Globe (#363) place it, on the Coromandel coast. Below South Africa is a grotesque monster, intended for a whale, the creature being delineated with much care. He may have heard of the Vinland of the Northmen, but the story of the Cabots had already been locked up in depositories where it was destined to lie too long; while Martyra€™s map of Beimeni, or Florida, together with the publications of 1512, 1513, 1515, had not come from the press. The word Getulia and Zamor point to the influence of the Goths and Moors in Africa, while Paludes Nile show that, in common with the geographers of that period, the globe-maker had anticipated the discoveries of Livingstone and Stanley. Cuba, on the other hand, is correctly laid down as an island, being called Isabel, in honor of Queen Isabella. The name America was first proposed in 1507 by Martin WaldseemA?ller, known under the Greek pseudonym of a€?Hylacomilus.a€? It appears in his Cosmographiae Introductio, where, having called attention to the fact that the old continents were named after women, he observes that the new one should be called after a man. Hylacomilus was entirely friendly to Columbus, as was the case with Vespucci in his relations to the Genoese; nevertheless the geographer of St.
He says that three times in his second voyage Vespucci calls the country terra del Asia, but in the third voyage calls it una€™ altro mondo and Mondo nuovo.
This map shows the separation of America from Asia, but we believe that the Lenox Globe is earlier.
Or the Lenox Globe indeed was made prior to 1507 that would or could mean that its amazing depiction of the new southern continent was derived from highly valued geographical knowledge that also made possible the brilliant synthesis that we see in the WaldseemA?ller map of 1507. The main reason for De Costaa€™s waffling is that he remained intrigued with the notion that there was a€?some connectiona€? between the Lenox Globe that refers to the New World as Mundus Novus, and Vespuccia€™s 1501-1502 voyage.
Curiously, for some reason, even though De Costa lived until 1904, there is no record of what he thought after the discovery of this map in 1901, which might well have prompted him to date the Lenox Globe prior to 1507. The Baron had no doubt that the globe was made well before Magellan since its depiction of Asia was more primitive than what one sees on the Ruysch map included the 1507-1508 Rome editions of Ptolemya€™s Geographia.
The Ruysch map was inserted in the widely available Rome editions of Ptolemya€™s Geographia which published in 1507-1508, the first such edition of this work since 1490. Instead, in sharp contrast, the Lenox Globe shows what the Cantino and Caveri maps do not show: namely, the coastline from Venezuela around Panama then upward to Honduras with no hint of a strait in the region of Panama. Ita€™s amazing depiction of the southern continent, essentially in its entirety as a land mass totally separate from Asia and surrounded like an island virtually on all sides by water makes the Lenox Globe a strange hybrid. In Spanish maritime circles, knowledge of the Caribbean, the Gulf of Mexico, Florida, and even much of the coast north of Florida (all of which fell within the Spanish maritime zone) was fairly complete by 1502-1504. At the same time, we know that in the Spring of 1501, after Cabral had found the east coast of Brazil the previous year, the Portuguese focused intensely on exploring the eastern coastline of South America in order to determine if there was a cape and if it fell within Lisbona€™s maritime zone. The globe reflects a pro-Portuguese political bias and here we come to what is perhaps the most astonishing and revealing feature of the globe. We can also see this same eastward twist of the coastline in the Cantino (#306) and Contarini (#308) maps both of which date to before the WaldseemA?ller map. Based on this evidence, Fite and Freeman felt compelled to conclude (again like De Costa and NordenskiA¶ld) that this a€?suggests a water-route around South America was known before Magellan set out in 1519a€?. In any case, the preponderance of evidence and the historical contextualization seems to validate the Fite-Freeman argument that the Lenox Globe dates to sometime between late 1503 when the first editions of Vespuccia€™s Mundus Novos were published and April 1507 when Cosmographiae Introductio and the WaldseemA?ller world map and globe gores appeared.


The globe illustrates how geographers of that time struggled to reconcile the discoveries of new lands with orthodox Ptolomaic cosmography. The discussion over this puzzle may be dated from 1786, when Alexander Dalrymple first drew attention to the resemblance between the shape of Jave la Grande on the Dauphin, or Harleian map (#378) and the shape of the coastline of New South Wales as it had been charted by James Cook in HMS Endeavour in 1770. This map, which is on parchment, appears from the characters, and other circumstances, to have been made about the beginning of the 16th century. This had been described in the 9th edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica and discussed in an article by Benjamin Franklin De Costa in the Magazine of American History.
Estreicher pointed out that the western coasts of both this continent and the MUNDUS NOVUS in the Western Hemisphere are schematic and without detail, in contrast to the eastern coasts which show bays, rivers and promontories, indicating that they are the result of actual discovery by voyagers. Diese Annahme wird zur Gewissheit, als wir auf dem Jagellonischen Globus finden, dass die Insel die Inschrift tragt: AMERICA-NOVITER-REPERTA. The Tross Gores also bear the inscription AMERICA-NOVITER-REPERTA, but in this case placed over South America (WaldseemA?llera€™s America), and there is no continental land mass in the southern part of the Eastern Hemisphere. The depiction of the continents on the globe in this clock is similar to the globe or gores made by Louis Boulengier in 1514, indicating how globe makers could persist in using cosmographical concepts that were decades out of date. Unlike the Lenox Globe, the Jagellonian Globe has engraved on it the lines of latitude and longitude with the prime meridian passing through the island of Ferro. However, as mentioned above, he oddly applies this name, not to the new fourth continent in the Western Hemisphere but instead to an unsubstantiated mythical island in the southern portion of the Indian Ocean.
For his part, Estreicher drew the sensible and logical conclusion that the use of the name America clearly indicates that the Jagellonian Globe was made after the spring of 1507. One distinct possibility consistent with the other indication of a pro-Portuguese political bias, is that the Jagellonian Globe was made by someone with that same bias and who was furious that Amerigo Vespucci had revealed far too much in Mundus Novus for Lisbona€™s liking and who may well have been dismissed in late 1504 from further service for Portugal for that reason. Hythlodaeus, the narrator, whose name perhaps recalls Hylacomylus (WaldseemA?llera€™s name in latinized form), is said to have accompanied Amerigo Vespucci on what, according to the perhaps apocryphal but widely read Soderini letter, was his fourth voyage (1503-1504). This analysis would suggest that the Jagellonian version of the Lenox Globe might have been a hostile reaction to what the mapmakers had done at St. The maker of the Jagellonian Globe who inserted this erroneous inscription with regard to Americaa€™s location on a globe was dependent on a prior cartographic projection that had to have originated elsewhere. Writing of his 1499 voyage, Amerigo Vespucci said he had hoped to reach India by sailing westward from Spain across the Atlantic around the Cape of Catigara into the Sinus Magnus, the Great Gulf that lay to the East of the Chersonese Aureus [Malay Peninsula].
Johannes SchA¶nera€™s globe of 1515 (#328), like Boulengiera€™s of 1514 (#324), depicted America but, like the Jagiellonian and Lenox, showed another continent to the South West, labeled BRASILLIE REGIA. This was a cosmographical concept, not based on actual surveys, but as Stevenson pointed out, assumed because the geographers of the time such as WaldseemA?ller, ignorant of the reality of the Pacific Ocean or of North America, thought Amerigo Vespuccia€™s newly discovered land was located in the Southern Hemisphere to the eastward of Africa. As an authentic document from the early sixteenth century incorporating and demonstrating the cosmographic concepts of that time, it deserves consideration in any discussion of how the Dieppe maps came into existence. Frederick Pohl (1889-1991) accepted the Fite-Freeman position in an essay published in the Bulletin of the New York Public Library in September 1963.
Pohl drew this conclusion in part because after he published a biography of Vespucci in 1944, Pohl seems to have become aware of the observations of German Arciniegas and Robert Levillier that the Portuguese map makers were in the habit of twisting the southern coastline of South America toward the southeast so that the cape or strait would fall on Lisbona€™s side of the Line of Demarcation established by treaty in 1494.
Although Pohl in his 1963 essay curiously did not mention Levilliera€™s essay or Arciniegasa€™ well-known Vespucci biography, he had already argued in 1944 that someone must have tampered with Vespuccia€™s letters to Soderini in various passages, especially that conspicuous alteration from a€?southwesta€? to a€?southeasta€? to give the false impression that the eastern coastline shifted abruptly in that direction a€“ as we can see illustrated in the Lenox Globe in a quite dramatic fashion. This exaggerated geographical feature strongly suggests that officials in Lisbon were quite eager as early as 1502 to spread misinformation or disinformation about the true direction of the coastline below the Tropic of Capricorn at 23 degrees latitude south. We can say this because he buried a discussion of this specific issue in a long footnote on pages 225-226 at the back of his biography of Vespucci published in London in 1944.
However, the most telling observation is that if there was no European knowledge of a cape or a strait with regard to the new southern continent prior to Magellan, why do these globes a€?twista€? the southern portion of the continent to make people believe that a cape and water fall so far to the east, in the direction of, and therefore within the Portuguese maritime zone? Hans Wolff who edited and also contributed to America: Early Maps of the New World (1992) made a passing remark about how the Lenox Globe a€?is slightly older than the Brixen-Hauslab globe of 1523a€? but his suggestion that the globe dates to around 1520 is not credible.
While it is neither signed nor dated, there is scarcely a doubt that it is as old as the Lenox globe; indeed, the geographical features of the two globes are so similar that they appear to be the work of the same globe maker, or copies of a common original, yet it is note-worthy that the nomenclature of the Jagellonicus globe is somewhat richer. At the same time, the maker of the globe evidently and curiously was still not aware of the decision at Saint-Die to baptize the New World as America in honor of Vespucci. First, the maker of this globe accepted or echoed Portuguese cartographic propaganda after 1502 concerning the configuration of the eastern coastline which was depicted as shifting or twisting in a highly exaggerated fashion in a southeasterly direction into the Atlantic. Third, despite all the evidence that the maker of the Lenox Globe was working almost exclusively with Portuguese sources, he oddly fails to provide the more accurate depiction of South Asia that we find in the Cantino, Caveri and Ruysch maps all of which were completed in the 1502-1507 time period.
Pohla€™s suspicion that this globe appeared around the time of the publication of the questionable Italian or Sodorini edition of Vespuccia€™s letters in 1505 or 1506 is a compelling argument. Magellana€™s strange decision to turn and sail due west across the Pacific after having sailed northward to a considerable extent up the Chilean coast remains an intriguing fact. Instead, Magellan seems to have been acting on the assumption or belief that this new southern land, though quite huge, was either an enormous island or a new continent totally separate from Asia, which is precisely what both the Lenox Globe and WaldseemA?ller maps clearly suggest. And surely at that time the Spanish had abandoned any hope in a strait in that region, otherwise they would not have backed Magellana€™s expedition to reach the Moluccas. In this letter, Chauncey conveys what he was able to learn about Hunta€™s discovery of the Lenox Globe and its later acquisition by Lenox from conversations with Hunta€™s widow who was Chaunceya€™s sister-in-law.
In der Jagellonischen Bibliotek, Bulletin lnternational de la€™Academie des Sciences de Cracovie, Comptes Rendus des Seances (March 1900), a€?Resumesa€?, pp. While officers may still make a statement, they now must answer questions by grand jurors and prosecutors, and cannot be present for the whole proceeding. Woodruff Professor of Law at Emory University School of Law recently joined the Smith College community as the Martha Fineman, Robert W. Those with "sincerely held religious beliefs," including businesses that provide public services, can separate themselves, or opt out of social obligations surrounding same-sex marriage.
The story details Cleaver's journey including growing up in segregated America, her work as communications secretary of the Black Panther Party and continuing career in law.Senior Lecturer in Law Kathleen Cleaver is featured in an edition devoted to alumni who came of age and distinguished themselves during the civil rights era. We cover all aspects of starting a business and making money (online and offline), including small business marketing, sales, websites, social media marketing, blogging, time management, and more. You don’t have to worry about the design, manufacturing, marketing, distribution, or anything outside an initial pitch and perhaps a prototype. He’s the author of One Simple Idea, the bestselling licensing book, and the founder of InventRight. Win a free copy of Stephen’s book, One Simple Idea, by commenting with your top takeaway from the episode below.
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The first is my friend Josh Brooks, an Army Battalion Commander and founder of The Enduring Charity Foundation.
At that time, he was earning $3-4k a month from a portfolio of different sites, and looking to expand his online empire. You win it one quarter at a time, one possession at a time, one down at a time, one yard at a time. As someone who is, shall we say, less-than-savvy when it comes to mechanics, I was impressed.
While he now focuses on his business full-time, he hit the 6-figure income mark before leaving his day job. The IDFA will have in place strict drug testing guidelines and protocols to ensure a fair playing ground at all IDFA sanctioned events. The flow control device may include an electrically actuated valve, such as a solenoid valve.
The globe was first discovered in an antiques shop on the Quai Voltaire in Paris around 1854 by a New York architect named Richard Morris Hunt. Despite this fact, what makes the Lenox globe extremely important, indeed revolutionary, is that it depicts the continent of South America as a separate island-like continent. He argued that this globe was not part of the a€?cartographical familya€? with roots in Portuguese sources a€“ such as the Cantino (#306) and Caveri (#307) maps However, closer examination requires a major reassessment of that conclusion because the historical context and other cartogcaphic evidence imbedded in the Lenox Globe suggest that it is indeed of Portuguese origin, or inspiration, or was made to convey Lisbona€™s political perspective on discoveries in the New World. Harrisse correctly predicted in 1892 that the Stobnicza map was a derivative of the WaldseemA?ller world map of 1507 and argued that if and when it could be found, it also would show this same continuous unbroken coastline. However, it is probable that among the unnamed scholars was the agent Henry Stevens himself who stated that he favored the date of 1506-1507 in an undated letter in the possession of The New York Public Library.
For example, Emerson Fite and Archibald Freeman in their folio-sized work entitled A Book of Old Maps published in 1921 by Harvard University Press essentially repeated much of what De Costa had said more than forty years earlier. These scholars were not entirely convinced that these maps and globes (including especially the Lenox Globe) were a€?provocative geographical cartoonsa€? as Lawrence Bergreen claims in his book on Magellana€™s famous voyage.
He suggested that the Lenox Globe had a€?some connectiona€? with the voyage of Vespucci in 1501-1502 to South America in the service of the Portuguese King Manuel. The western coast of South America is drawn here, as in other maps that were constructed before the news of Magellana€™s circumnavigation had arrived in Europe, laid down not by direct observation but by estimation. Of course the simple fact that an instrument of this kind represents the condition of geographical knowledge at a certain period does not infallibly prove that it was produced at that particular period.
On the Lenox Globe, however, Newfoundland appears as an island, though without any name, and at the same time no part of continental North America is laid down. In fact, the entire continent is laid down, though apart from the Lenox Globe, no analogous representation is found before that of the SchA¶ner Globe, 1520 (#328).
Nevertheless the Lenox Globe gives all of South America, the drawing alone rendering it probable that the draughtsman was not unacquainted with the configuration of Terra del Fuego.
Good reasons also exist for believing that Africa was accepted as the a€?modela€? for South America. To the northward of this island is another, called Madagascar, though the true Madagascar is laid down in its proper place without any name. This may be done by moving the great nameless island into the position occupied by Australia on the modern maps, carrying with it Certina, the so-called Madagascar, and the three islands without name. From Lelewela€™s sketch of map of Idrisi (#219) it is evident that the region including Java was perfectly well known in 1154. In fact he made too long and too sudden a stride towards the truth to be followed, though Lelewel, while severely criticizing his work, admits that some of his delineations were not equaled for many years after.
The delineation of the Asian coast using the a€?Tiger Lega€? configuration carries on the tradition also employed by the Behaim Globe, and the Marlellus, King Hamy, WaldseemA?ller, Roselli, and Contarini maps.
In this region, near the equatorial line, is seen Hc Svnt Dracones, or here are the Dagroians, described by Marco Polo as living in the Kingdom of Dagroian. In the work entitled Globus Mundus, printed at Strasburg, 1509, the suggestion occurs again, Hylacomilas, evidently repeating himself. To break the force of this, Humboldt refers to the fact that Cadamosto calls the west coast of Africa Altro mondo. The separation, however, on the map in question proves that it could not have been the work of Columbus, as it has been shown repeatedly that Columbus died in the belief that there was no separation. Third: It is the oldest instrument of any kind showing the entire continent of South America. And this connection, if correct, would suggest that a 1510-1511 date might be too conservative, especially when De Costa himself drew attention to one crucial fact.
As far as direct European knowledge of the west coast of South America which was implicit in the Lenox Globe, NordenskiA¶ld hesitated, even though in 1884 he had on his own discovered a fabulous set of globe gores very similar to the WaldseemA?ller globe gores that conveys the continenta€™s the distinctive ice cream- cone shape.
The main reason that he shifted was that he was heavily influenced by the discovery in the 1890s of four copies of the WaldseemA?ller 1507 world map made by Heinrich Loritti (Glareanus). By the time the Ruysch map appeared, the Portuguese had established a presence in South Asia (India), which this map reflects.
It conveys or mixes the sophistication of the 1507 WaldseemA?ller map with respect to the southern continent, with a retarded perception of the new lands in the northern hemisphere that lay within the Spanish maritime zone. The Maggiolo world map (#316), which dates to January 1511, is the last known map to contain this curious geographical feature. According to Robert King it offers a clue as to where Thomas More located his Utopia, and may provide a cosmographic explanation for the Jave la Grande of the Dieppe school of maps.
The names are in French, and it is adorned with Fleur de Lis, but most probably has been translated from the work of some Spanish Navigator, whose discovery being forgotten, left room for the new discoveries of the English and French Navigators. Petherick, Commonwealth Parliamentary Archivist, historian, collector of Australiana and bibliographer, whose name is commemorated in the Petherick Reading Room of the National Library of Australia. It is five inches in diameter and made of copperplate, manufactured probably in France to form the central feature of an astronomical clock or armillary sphere, like the Jagiellonian Globe. WaldseemA?llera€™s America referred to what later became known as South America, as the continental extent of the lands later known as North America was not understood in 1507.
The formula AMERICA-NOVITER-REPERTA would indicate a common authorship, and therefore a French origin, for the Tross Gores and the Jagiellonian Globe.
The relevant phrase on the Jagellonian globe is America novitert reperta [America, land newly discovered].
However, there is no way such a mistaken attribution to a island in the Indian Ocean could have been made if the maker of the Jagellonian Globe had in his possession the world map or globe gores made at St.
Amerigo set out from Lisbon in May 1503 in an unsuccessful attempt to reach Malacca (Melaka) by sailing westwards.
In sum, the Jagellonian borrowed directly from the Lenox Globe which does not refer to America.
On the earliest of the Dieppe maps, that of Jean Mallard of c.1536-1540, La Catigare is located on that part of the Terre Australe occupied on later Dieppe maps by Jave la Grande. SchA¶ner said that his source of geographical information was the Newe Zeytung auss Presillg Landt [New Tidings from the Brazilish Land], printed in Augsburg, probably in 1514 and compiled from reports on the recent discoveries sent back to the Fugger banking house in Augsburg from their agents in Madeira.
Pohl went further and also argued that the globe in all probability was made in the immediate wake of the publication in Italy in 1505 of Vespuccia€™s letters concerning his four voyages ostensibly addressed to the Florentine leader, Piero Soderini. Despite his personal fascination with European, especially Norse or Viking expeditions to the New World prior to 1492, Pohl declared in that footnote that while he was impressed by the accurate placement of the endpoint of South America at about 56 degrees latitude south in both the Lenox and Jagellonian globes, he concluded that this was a€?accidentala€? and that the depiction of a west coast was a€?imaginarya€?.
Another contributor to this volume, Professor Uta Lingren (University of Bayreuth) preferred the 1511-1512 date. We do know that Lenox Globe reflects the island-like conception or model for the new continent that in fact was articulated in Cosmographiae Introductio, in sharp contrast to Vespuccia€™s remarks in Mundus Novus. Again, when we take all the facts into account, the analysis continues to point to the time period between 1503 and 1507 for the creation of the Lenox Globe. Fourth, the maker of the Lenox Globe was still not aware of the Spanish and also English exploration of significant coastline of the North American continent which we already find reflected in the Cantino and Caveri maps made by 1504 (#306 and #307). We believe that he made that decision based on inside knowledge which suggested to him that if he took the clearly safer route and followed closely this largely barren, mountainous coastline further northward, then he was not going to reach Asia and the Moluccas.
The knowledge that the region associated with the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean was a vast a€?cul-de-saca€? or a gulf - il grand golfo as both Peter Martyr and Vespucci described it - supplied the prime motivation behind Magellana€™s attempt to reach Asia in the alternative fashion that he proposed. A copy of this letter is in the possession of the Rare Book Division (Reserve Room) of The New York Public Library.
It is now a prized possession of the New York Public Library, of which the Lenox Library now forms a part. Emory Law Associate Professor Kay Levine says some people are still worried about the close relationships between police and local prosecutors. The filter system may also include a fluid level detection mechanism operatively connected to the flow control valve. In the late 1860s Henry Stevens, an agent for James Lenox and other collectors of rare books and other historical artifacts, became aware of this special globe and recognized its historical significance.
We can even detect the suggestion of a cone-shape in the lower latitudes below the equator and a cape or water passage at the far southern end. Given his perspicacity, it remains odd that the Lenox Globe with its distinct image of the South America as a real a€?islanda€? - totally disconnected from other landmasses - and with no depiction of North America at all a€“ was still not enough to persuade Harrisse to date the globe prior to 1507.
Stevens must have taken this position by the late 1870s, because an entry under a€?Globesa€? in the Encyclopedia Britannica edition of 1879 quotes him as assigning the date of 1506-1507 to the Lenox Globe. This total separation from Asia is exactly the cartographic projection we find on the Lenox Globe.
And De Costa astutely pointed to Vespuccia€™s repeated assertion in Mundus Novus that he had reached 50 degrees below the equator which means the Italian navigator would have fallen just short of the strait by only two degrees on this voyage. Under peculiar circumstances, it would be possible for an instrument like this to possess many of the marks which indicate an early origin, simply through the failure of the designer to incorporate the results of the latest explorations, concerning which he might have been ignorant; but this suggestion, in order to have any weight in the present case, should be supported by some proof of such ignorance. In Peter Martyra€™s work (Legatio Babylonicd) of the following year, Florida appears as Beimeni, while the Stobnicza map in the Ptolemy of 1512 (#319), gives a rough view of North America, similar to that found in the Ptolemy of 1513 (#320).
This circumstance might, therefore, lead some to conclude that the globe originated at a late period.
How, then, could the globe-maker have known that South America terminated in such a form near latitude 55A° S.? But it is by no means unreasonable to suppose that the termination of South America was known in 1510, even though its circumnavigation had apparently not been accomplished.
Perhaps it is not too much to believe that this globe has some connection with the third voyage of Vespucci, which brought him to the latitude of the Straits of Magellan.
When this is done, the student will have before him a tolerable indication of the geography of that region.
In the 13th century Marco Polo traveled with a map of the world in his hand, by the aid of which he appears to have described Madagascar. The a€?Tiger Lega€? is Catigara which was the name given on earlier Ptolemaic maps to the land on the easternmost shore of the Mare Indicum, south of the equator. These people, as once charged against the Irish, feasted upon the dead and picked their bones.
That country is called TERRA SANCTO CRVCIS, as upon the Ruysch map, and MVNDVS Novvs, a name given by Sandacourt, a Canon of St.
The name occurs in SchA¶nera€™s Luculentissima, etc., 1515, but the idea that it was generally used is a mistake. It is probable that he had resolved upon this course before Columbus died, while there is nothing whatever to indicate that Vespucci took any action to secure the honor awarded to him, or even that, any more than Columbus, he was solicitous upon the subject. This, however, he confesses is a mere adaptation of the old classic use, the alter orbis of Pomponius, Mela and Strabo. The Genoese, at the end of Cuba, on his second voyage, required his companions to declare on oath that Cuba was not an island the person maintaining the contrary being liable to a fine of ten thousand maravedis, and to have his tongue cut out.
Fourth: It is the oldest instrument showing that the discoveries of Columbus formed no part of the Asiatic Continent, and that America was absolutely Mvndvs Novvs, or the New World.
That fact is the absence of America on the globe as a name for the new continent - a name which caught on quickly at least in Italy and northern Europe after Cosmographiae Introductio was published in many editions following the first edition in St Die in eastern France in April, 1507. Glareanus states that he had followed the projections of WaldseemA?ller whose large map still had not been found but whose globe gores were well known since the early 1870s. The other crucial factor that Fite and Freeman cite as in favor of an earlier date prior to 1508 is the fact that the Lenox Globe does not show any portion of the North American mainland - meaning, as observed earlier, that the maker of the little globe was still wedded to the Ptolemaic concept of only one ocean separating Europe and Asia. Although there is in fact a curl in that direction, it is quite exaggerated on the globe which is a strong hint that someone wanted to be sure that others would conclude that the cape or strait fell inside the Portuguese maritime zone as defined by the Treaty of Tordesillas of 1494.
In the interview, Petherick referred to the work of Tadeusz Estreicher, a professor at the Jagiellonian University in Krakow, Poland.
On both globes South America is shown, bearing the names MUNDUS NOVUS, TERRA SANCTAE CRUCIS and TERRA DE BRAZIL. This conclusion becomes a certainty when we find that on the Jagiellonian Globe the island bears the inscription: AMERICA-NEWLY-DISCOVERED].
The fact remains, the Lenox Globe and the Jagiellonian Globe are evidence that there was an authoritative map made around 1507-1508 that showed, albeit mistakenly, a continental land mass in the southern part of the Eastern Hemisphere. Having gone with Amerigo as far as the farthest point he reached (ad fines postremae navigationis) on the coast of the new continent, Hythlodaeus left the expedition and after passing through unknown lands proceeded on to the Portuguese base at Calicut in India by way of Taprobana (Ceylon, present day Sri Lanka) discovering the fabulous island of Utopia on the way. The reverse sequence - the notion that a€“ the Lenox Globe could appear after the Jagellonian Globe, the WaldseemA?ller map and also the many editions of Cosmographiae Introductio a€“ and deliberately drop the name America - makes no sense whatsoever.
On the Harleian mappemonde, CATIGARA is not to be found on the western coast of IAVE LA GRANDE but, as noted by Petherick, is located on the western coast of LA TERRE:DVBRESILL, indicating a pre-Magellanic lack of knowledge of the existence of the Pacific Ocean and the notional character of IAVE LA GRANDE. And last but not least, he refused to follow or more likely did not know of the decision at St.
All the foregoing analysis means that Magellana€™s main claim to fame as a navigator rests not with the discovery of the strait - an achievement which he disavowed - but to his bold decision like that of Columbus in 1492 to cross an ocean whose real breadth was unknown.
The small globe is composed of two copper-engraved hemispheric sections closely fitted along the equator, as in the case of the Ulpius Globe (#367), and pierced for an axis. North Carolina's refusal to back down on its "bathroom law" requiring transgender citizens to use restrooms aligned with their birth gender has led to a rare drawing of lines in the sand, Emory Law Professor Tim Holbrook told the Wall Street Journal. Department of Justice is investigating possible abuse of LGBT inmates in Georgia prisons, according to an 11 Alive report.
Natural Resources Defense Council affects the leeway agencies have to interpret laws passed by Congress since. In 1869, he persuaded Hunt to permit the Coast Survey Bureau in Washington DC to make an accurate facsimile projection which has been used by many subsequent scholars.
Unfortunately, we have not been able to find any explanation from Stevens as to why he chose this date. For all these reasons, De Costa at several points in his essay conveyed his strong suspicion that the Portuguese learned a great deal more about the continenta€™s configuration in the years that followed and well before Magellana€™s expedition. Respecting the points on which the globe gives no light, information was, nevertheless, so wide-spread in 1511 as to render it difficult to believe that any globe or map maker of the period could have failed to know of its existence. The very early map attributed to Leonardo da Vinci (#327) shows Florida as an island, but since the map was not published, no inference can be drawn from it. If, however, it were to be argued that the Lenox Globe belongs to a period subsequent to SchA¶ner, it might be necessary to assign its date to the 16th century.
How, in fact, could he have known that it terminated at all, especially since sketches later than 1515, with one or two unimportant exceptions, represented Terra del Fuego as joined to a great continent, supposed to cover the entire region around the south pole?
Peter Martyr, writing to the Pope in 1514, seems to have a definite view of the shape of South America quite in advance of published maps. Since, however, this part of the Indian Ocean contains no such vast island, and since Australia does not appear in its proper place, it has been suggested by De Costa that, though we do so with extreme diffidence, that Australia is represented by the great island in question, which was misplaced; while the so-called Madagascar and Certina are simply Sumatra and Java. Borneo and Celebes (called Java Minor by Ramusio), having their proper place, New Guiana, without any name, also appearing. At that period the great island of Australia, lying close to well-known islands, could hardly have remained unknown to geographers. At the same time the maker of the globe, in common with Sylvanus, in forming the outline of what we venture to offer as Australia, appear to have made a certain use of those outlines characteristic of the Java Major of the Fra Mauro map and the Behaim Globe (#249 and #258), which lay on the east coast of Asia. Loac is the Locac of Marco Polo, and Seilan is the Borneo of our day, the former name having been taken from its proper place near India to make room for Taprobana, which was often applied to Sumatra.
568), believes it necessary to refute what Sebastian Munster said in his Cosmography, to the effect that it sometimes falleth out that Mariners, thinking the Whales to be Islands, and casting out ankers vpon their backs, are often in danger of drowning.
Die, when he framed the title of the Latin version of Vespuccia€™s letter, which described Brasil.
The name was first published on a map made by WaldseemA?ller in 1507 (#310) and later by Appianus, 1520 (#331), in the work of Gamers, but the Ptolemy of 1513, in a legend on the map made by Hylocomilus himself (#320), attributes the discovery of the new world to Columbus. He then shifts the argument, and shows that Peter Martyr in 1493-4, while speaking of the novis orbis, did not recognize its separation from Asia, and that this use was long continued.
And the date of April 1510 on one of these Glareanus copies made it impossible for the Baron to support von Wiesera€™s attempt to push these maps to the 1520s. This strange level of ignorance on both points seems puzzling for any map or globe made as late as 1510- 1512, and defies a good explanation.
Professor Estreicher described a globe which he dated to between 1509 and 1511 held in the Library of the University.
De Costa noted a large land mass depicted in the southern part of the Eastern Hemisphere, unnamed on the Lenox Globe and suggested, a€?with extreme diffidencea€?, that this land represented Australia, misplaced to this location.
The Jagiellonian Globe shows that its maker believed this continent to have been the New World discovered by Amerigo.
Is it possible that this globe-maker was simply confused because he did not have the benefit of the world map and only had a copy of Cosmographiae Introductio in front of him?
This placed the land discovered by Amerigo and the island of Utopia which lay contiguous to it to the south of Taprobana and India. When we also note that the Lenox Globe was made by someone who amazingly still seems to be in the total dark about basic geographical knowledge concerning North America a€“ well-known by 1507 to many scholars, not just those involved with WaldseemA?ller - then this would lend considerable weight to the conclusion that the Lenox Globe should date to a time period prior to or no later than Cosmographiae Introductio and the WaldseemA?ller map - namely, to the 1503-1507 period as Fite and Freeman argued in 1926. In other words, the Brazilish Land, Presillg Landt, was differentiated from Brazil proper, otherwise known as America. Given her exclusively technical approach to this globe, she complained about the bending of the tip of the continent towards the east, but it never occurred to her than this feature might have been part of an attempt to deceive, an effort to spread disinformation to make persons think that a cape would fall on the Portuguese side of the maritime demarcation line established in 1494. Die that became widely known after April 1507 to baptize the New World as America in honor of Vespucci who had re-entered Spanish service in early 1505. Stange, have established the Stange Law Firm Scholarship to honor top competitors in Emory Law's moot court program.
Shapiro Writing Award winners will receive $1,000 awards, one for consumer bankruptcy writing and the other for corporate bankruptcy writing.Keith J.
Other wood furnishing can literally dehydrate and shrink, developing cracks in their finish and gaps between their joints.A proper humidity level also makes a house more comfortable for people living in it.
At the time, Stevens hoped to conclude a purchase for the British Museum and was prepared to pay Hunt the handsome sum of A?2,000, according to Hunt's widow. To get some clue as to why that date might have made sense to Stevens we need to turn to a contemporary scholar who pondered more deeply and put his thoughts in writing as to when this globe might have been made. The maps of 1511, 1512 and 1513 nevertheless must have been known to every intelligent person engaged in globe making, and if the Lenox Globe had been made during those years, or later, it would have reflected information published to the world. On his map is found a Latin legend, translated as follows: Portuguese mariners discovered this part of this territory, and proceeded as high as the fiftieth degree of South latitude, but without reaching its southern extremity.
Being secretly together in a chamber with the Bishop of Burgos, Martyr says that they examined many sea charts, one of which Vespucci was said to have set his hand, while another had been influenced by both Christopher and Bartholomew Columbus. In accordance with this view, it would be necessary to conclude that, though misplaced upon the Lenox Globe, even Australia was known to the geographers of that early period. It would appear that the Java Minor of Marco Polo, a term applied by him to Sumatra, came eventually to include the entire region. The maker of the Lenox Globe may have misunderstood his instructions, and thus pushed Australia into the Indian Ocean.
In Northern India is Sacha- vvm Regno, the sugar region described in the Ptolemy of Patavino (1596).
It would appear as though Milton found his own Leviathan on the page of Hakluyt, in whose works he had read the treatise signed Arngrimus Ionus.
This has been alluded to as very curious, though the course pursued by Hylacomilus was altogether consistent. The Lenox Globe appears to have been made at a time when geographers regarded the matter with unconcern, as neither Columbus nor Vespucci have any honor awarded.
He forgets, however, that Martyr describes South America as land never known by the ancients. 145.) Pinzon on the first voyage understood Cuba to be a city, and that the land here was a continent of great size, which extended far to the north (First Voyage of Columbus, Boston, 1827). That said, NordenskiA¶ld was still content in Periplus to give the Lenox Globe a date of about 1510 that just happened to be the same year for the Glareanus copies of WaldseemA?llera€™s work. Fortunately, it has survived the vicissitudes of the 20th century and is still held in the Treasury of the Jagiellonian Library, now the Muzeum Uniwersytetu Jagiellonskiego Collegium Maius. If so, a€?it would be necessary to conclude that, although misplaced upon the Lenox Globe, Australia was known to the geographers of that early perioda€?.
Not likely because Vespuccia€™s detailed letters concerning all his voyages were attached to Cosmographiae Introductio. This is just where Amerigoa€™s newly discovered land is shown on the Jagiellonian Globe, indicating that Sir Thomas More probably had such a globe before him when he wrote Utopia. The Zeytung described the voyagers passing through a strait, like the Strait of Gibraltar, between the southernmost point of America or Brazil, and a land to the South West, referred to as vndtere Presill (in Latin, Brasilia inferior). In sharp contrast, Rudolf Schmidt in the 1991 reprint of Konrad Kretschmera€™s famous 1892 atlas of facsimile maps underscored the crucial question in his brief commentary where he remarked: a€?How does the unknown author of the Lenox Globe arrive at a quite good representation of South America, if we disregard the eastward kink, which after all persisted for a long time in drawings of Africa as well?a€? Schmidt at the time was the President of the International Coronelli Society that promotes the study of globes. The hearing is before the House Judiciary Committee Subcommittee on Regulatory Reform, Commercial and Antitrust Law. But before Stevens could make this offer, Hunt already had already decided to give the globe as a gift to Lenox out of admiration for him.
This was the case with many of the early geographical works; but in every such instance it is easy to show that the map is not in accordance with the text, and that the map was introduced by the publisher in lieu of something better. According to this argument, this globe, therefore, takes its place in the year 1510, or the beginning of 1511. But this question is one that may be disembarrassed, for it will not prove a difficult task to show how the globe- maker may have obtained, in 1610, the knowledge which he exhibits. Speaking of South America, he says it reaches forth into the sea even as Italy doth, although not like the leg of a man, as it does. That this was so appears from the fact that names belonging to Java and the neighboring islands are given on maps of a later period.
The attention of the designer of the globe may have been directed to the subject by the voyage of Gonnville, who sailed from Honfleur in June 1503, for the East, and fell upon a great country, not far from the direct route to the Indies, which they called Southern India.
Near Persia is Carmenis, the Kermann of Marco Polo, who does not refer to the neighboring Calicut, or Calcutta. The history of this name, however, is not quite so clear as the others, though Navarrete calls attention to Muratoria€™s notice of the fact that brazil, signifying a red dye-wood, was an excisable article at Ferrara and Modena in 1193 and 1306.
The really curious thing remains to be stated, and for the special consideration of those writers who have had so much to say about the ingratitude shown to Columbus by early geographers. Certainly Vespucci never gave the impression in these letters or in the earlier publication known as Mundus Novus that he was sailing in the Indian Ocean.
A very similar globe, belonging to an astronomical clock and apparently of about the same age as the Lenox Globe, is in the library of the Jagiellon University at Cracow in Poland. A humidifier system can help lower heating bills by adding humidity, which actually makes the air feel warmer.There are many types of humidifiers, for example, drum humidifiers, flow-through humidifiers, and steam-powered humidifiers. Hunt had a close relationship with Lenox because Lenox had hired him to design a large mansion in Manhattan to house his private collection. After passing this year, and reaching 1520, the newly found lands are so well known as to be celebrated in an English poem, entitled the Four Elements.
7) calls attention to the fact that in the fourteenth chapter of the work, in which the map of Ruysch appears, there is a separate statement, to the effect that the Portuguese had surveyed the coast of South America as far as 37A° S., and that it was known as far as 50A° S.
The Globe of Ulpius (#367) illustrates this phase of the question, Java Minor appearing as a very large island, and the true Java not being laid down at all.
He also quotes from Capmanya€™s Memorias sobra la antiqua marina, commercio, y artes de Barcelona, which contains references to this wood connected with the years 1221, 1243, 1252 and 1271.


The point is this, that though Ferdinand, the son of Columbus, lived until 1539, and for many years was an owner and diligent reader of the Cosmographise Introductio, which he annotated and rebound, he is not known to have written or spoken a syllable, or to have caused any one else to write so much as a word, expressive of any sense of injustice done to his father by the naming of the New World after Vespucci. It has invariably been used by mapmakers to represent the coast of North America, whatever may have been its origin.
Winsor, neither of who had seen the WaldseemA?ller map of 1507, which was only discovered in 1901, fixed the date at 1508-11 and 1510-12, respectively. The globe consists of two gilded copperplate calottes, inscribed with the Eartha€™s principal features as understood at that time, including a continent inscribed AMERICA-NOVITER-REPERTA. The Zeytung said that Malacca was only six hundred miles from the western point of this Brazil. Whites are also more likely to have access to pensions and other retirement plans, which help build tax-free wealth for later in life.Unforeseen events and financial missteps can wreck households.
Alexander Aleinikoff, a leading scholar in immigration and refugee law, will give the annual David J. The offering of the globe as a gift was evidently timed with the completion of the construction of this mansion in 1870. The scholar Henry Harrisse, in his Life of Fernand Colomb, also calls attention to the fact that the partisan Life of the Admiral, which has been attributed to his son, while exceedingly severe upon those who detracted from the fame of Columbus, does not mention either Hylacomilus or his book. It is the earliest surviving globe on which the name America appears, a name invented by Martin WaldseemA?ller and published in his Cosmographiae Introductio, St.
In SchA¶nera€™s 1520 globe, AMERICA had evolved into TERRA NOVA, AMERICA vel BRASILIA sive PAPAGALLI TERRA [Land of Parrots], while BRASILLIE REGIO had become BRASILIA INFERIOR (a translation of vndtere Presill). Supreme Court justices following Antonin Scalia's death, a tie vote by the court may sometimes actually create more guidance on some issues, Emory Law Professor Jonathan Nash writes for The Hill. A motor rotates the pad through a reservoir of water as air is bypassed through the pad to become humidified.
Thus in 1508 there existed at Rome a general understanding of the coast to within about two degrees of the entrance to the Straits of Magellan.
Major discusses four maps with similar characteristics, belonging to same period, in the Hakluyt Societya€™s work on Australia, and the matter is also touched upon in his Prince Henry. It would appear, therefore, that the indignation referred to is, upon the whole, a modern thing, of which the immediate friends of the famous Genoese had no experience.
The Lenox Globe, though giving no lines of latitude, represents the coast as far south as about 55A° south latitude, the correct latitude of Cape Horn. SchA¶nera€™s 1533 globe showed the BRASILIAE REGIO as part of the TERRA AVSTRALIS, with an enormous peninsula, the REGIO PATALIS, attached to its southeastern part. With such facts before him, Humboldt came to the conclusion that between the years 1500 and 1508 a succession of attempts were made by the Portuguese along the coast of South America, beginning at Porto Seguro in latitude 16A° S.
Some of the geographers endeavored to set off Java, reduced to proper proportions, SchA¶ner, 1520, being amongst the number; but in the attempt Australia in some cases disappeared altogether.
Moreover, it places open water to the south of this new continent and thus suggests that the water-route around South America was known before Magellan set out in 1519. Oronce Finea€™s 1531 map exhibits this cosmography, and the Dieppe maps show its further evolution, even though it was out of date by the time they were made in the 1540s and 1550s.
McCoyd, a former DeKalb Country district attorney, notes it's the only time attorneys can speak with jurors.
With the growth of multinational corporations whose businesses are not defined by geographic boundaries, government agencies and their regional offices that enforce compliance must leverage limited resources to maintain a watchful eye and enforce the laws. Humidifier drums however need frequent maintenance, requiring cleanout every month or two to prevent evaporative water buildup in the reservoir and on the pad.Flow-through humidifiers use a portion of the air supplied by a furnace, which is sent through a bypass duct to generate airflow across a water saturated humidifier pad. Brazil appears on a map of the 15th century, but the Catalan map of 1375 (#235) also shows an island in the Atlantic bearing the name. The SchA¶ner globes of 1515 and 1520 (#328), on which South America is separated from an Antarctic continent by a strait connecting the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, give further evidence of this fact.
Today, this may mean collection of evidence abroad."The SEC, the EPA and the EEOC all have Atlanta regional offices, Professor Paul Zwier writes in an editorial co-written with Reuben Guttman 85L.
The humidified air is then routed back to the return side of the furnace where it is blended with air from the cold air return, heated, and returned to the home environment. Still the student is not justified, with such data, in declaring precisely how far the navigators knew the region by actual observation.
Perhaps, therefore, the Lenox Globe may be regarded as showing one of the earliest attempts to correct a misunderstanding. Wright retells her journey from pre-K, to running track in college, then overcoming domestic violence. The governor says the law was meant to prevent transgender persons from using bathrooms of the opposite gender in schools and public restrooms.
The inference is that the navigators who passed along that region viewed the strait afterwards discovered by Magellan as an inlet, and that they learned from the natives the configuration of Terra del Fuego.
It is reasonable, however, to conclude that the name was applied to South America, because the first navigator found there an abundance of desirable dye-wood. Now, she's preparing for Emory Law's diploma ceremony.In May, Melonie Wright 16L will walk down the aisle to receive her law degree.
But the law goes much further, says Emory Law Professor Tim Holbrook, including the right to sue for wrongful termination on the basis of discrimination. In cases where there is not enough furnace run-time, such as in a climate with a mild winter, proper levels of humidity are not maintained.Steam powered humidifiers are an alternative that provides more consistent humidity because they deliver rated humidification on demand, independent of the furnace run time. A steam powered humidifier typically mounts under a supply or return air duct and has a heating element that boils water in a reservoir when a humidistat calls for additional humidity. Bloomberg quotes GoldfederMelissa Stanzione1edfd7e20ae7232f46522d4b2d3c1405Emory Law Senior Lecturer Mark Goldfeder says he doubts the U.S. If humidity is called for, the system will turn on the furnace fan to distribute the humidity. Kenyatta Greer 77df60ae0ae7232f50cf3a76910ad36cA profile of Will Eye 16L who graduates with the class of 2016 on Monday, May 9, 2016. Supreme Court would accept an appeal involving a Muslim inmate in Michigan who sued prison officials for violating his First Amendment free exercise rights.
Similar to the drum humidifiers, however, conventional steam powered humidifiers require frequent cleanout maintenance to eliminate evaporative water buildup in the reservoir and on the heating element.Whole house residential humidifiers that incorporate water reservoirs are susceptible to multiple modes of failure due to contaminants in the supply water.
The Hudsona€™s Bay Company possess at their House important sketches made by the Indians; while Balboa, called the a€?Discoverer of the Pacifica€? had the Pacific discovered for him by the Cacique of Zumaco, who, upon the arrival of the Spaniard in the Bay of Panama, figured for him the coasts of Quito, and described the riches of Peru. Cohen Professor of International Law and Human Rights Johan Van der Vyver delivered a lecture on the Islamic State crisis and the rise of international humanitarian law. Systems that use direct immersion heating elements or rotating evaporative drums, act as collectors for solid content, since the water quality on the supply side is uncontrolled.
Speaking at the University of Pretoria's law department, he explained how the laws around terrorism changed after the Sept. The solid content can accumulate and lead to premature failure of, for example, the heating element in steam humidifiers, or loss of absorptive capacity of the evaporative elements.Periodic flushing can mitigate the solid content accumulation problem. There are a number of reasons why flushing does not, however, fully address the accumulation of solids.
This was all that the Spanish and Portuguese navigators needed to have done for them by the natives of Terra del Fuego. A Christian Science Monitor story referenced a CNN op-ed by Emory Law Professor Tim Holbrook, which notes a religious freedom law passed in Indiana last year cost the state about $60 million in tourist and convention revenue. Reservoir and drain configurations do not always allow solids to leave the device even when water is flushed through the device. In addition, the quality of water supply varies greatly between municipalities, which makes the application and maintenance of conventional systems difficult unless specific water conditions at the installing location are known.One of the bigger product issues for steam humidifiers is the failure of the internal heating element. This failure is predominantly attributed to poor water quality causing a residue build-up on the heating element. That might not be a bad thing: 33,000 Americans die annually in automobile accidents, 93 percent of which are caused by human error.
Goldfeder examines the rise of Google's driverless cars and how they may affect the present legal standard of a "reasonable driver.""Human drivers will soon be one of those things--like the rotary phone or the typewriter--that you will have to tell your grandkids about," Emory Law Senior Lecturer Mark Goldfeder writes in a CNN op-ed.
The humidifier system includes a filter assembly capable of filtering particles sized 1.0 micrometers and larger.
The filtering system includes a fluid level detection mechanism having first and second float devices to detect the fluid level in a reservoir. Representative John Lewis's biographic documentary, Get in the Way: The Journey of John Lewis, will be screened Saturday, Mar. The filtering system includes a fluid level detection mechanism having a magnet and reed switch to detect the fluid level in a reservoir. The filtering system further includes a flow control valve positioned to selectively provide fluid flow from a supply source to the filter assembly.In still another aspect, the present invention relates to a humidifier system including a heat source configured to heat fluid with a reservoir. The prize, $10,000, was the top in the contest in which TI:GER teams swept first, second, and third places. Nathan Deal says a campus carry gun bill may be softened in the next few days to accommodate concerns by the Board of Regents.
The humidifier system further includes an electrically activated valve positioned to selectively permit fluid flow from a supply source to the filter assembly, and a fluid level detection mechanism.A variety of aspects of the invention are set forth in part in the description that follows, and in part will be apparent from the description, or may be learned by practicing various aspects of the disclosure. Campus Carry overwhelmingly passed the House last week despite concerns from parents and educators. The aspects of the disclosure may relate to individual features as well as combinations of features. Emory Law Professor Frank Vandall spoke during a state Senate Judiciary Committee hearing on the matter.
It is to be understood that both the foregoing general description and the following detailed description are exemplary and explanatory only, and are not restrictive of the claimed invention.BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGSFIG. 1 is a schematic representation of one embodiment of a humidifier system in accord with the principles disclosed;FIG. 2 is a bottom perspective view of one embodiment of a reservoir of the humidifier system that is schematically represented in FIG. The company has a decent shot at winning, but it's not altogether clear, Emory Law Professor Tim Holbrook tells the AJC.
Article V of the Constitution allows a minimum of two-thirds of the states to call for a convention to propose amendments and go around Congress. Cleaver isn't surprised some of the same battles the Panthers fought 50 years ago still exist, Blake writes. I'm not surprised that it hasn't ended now."CNN's John Blake interviewed Emory Law Senior Lecturer Kathleen Cleaver about the continuing influence of the Black Panther Party, a half century since its founding. 7, including another embodiment of a fluid level detection mechanism.DETAILED DESCRIPTIONReference will now be made in detail to exemplary aspects of the present disclosure that are illustrated in the accompanying drawings.
Wherever possible, the same reference numbers will be used throughout the drawings to refer to the same or like parts.I. 1–9 illustrate a humidifier system 10 having features that are examples of how inventive aspects in accordance with the principles of the present disclosure may be practiced. The system 10 includes a filter assembly 12, a tank or reservoir 14 configured to produce steam, and a control system 16.
The control system 16 includes a fluid level detection mechanism 18 and a flow control device 20 that controls the flow of a supply fluid, such as water, from a fluid supply pressure source 28 to the reservoir 14.The system 10 is used to humidify air within a home, for example.
22, a portion of the Starbucks near the new Ponce City Market in Atlanta will become a law office for veterans.
Humidifier system 10 allows the homeowner to keep their furnishing at home in good condition and to live in a consistently comfortable environment with a system that requires low maintenance.
The Emory Law Volunteer Clinic for Veterans will offer Military Mondays, free legal advice to veterans looking for representation on everything from service-related disability claims to pension issues.Every other Monday beginning Feb. It is contemplated the present system can be used in a variety of applications, other than a home, where it is desirable to humidify the environment.FIG. Other mounting configurations are contemplated, such as mounting the reservoir 14 to the side of an air duct or an extension of an air duct. 3) can be mounted adjacent to the reservoir 14 or may be mounted a distance from the reservoir in an area where the filter assembly 12 is more easily accessible, or plumbing is available. Typically the filter assembly 12 is mounted between two exposed wall studs on a wall surface.II.
Filter AssemblyThe most common type of filtration systems in water treatment is the “normal” mechanical filter where all influent passes through a filter medium that removes contaminants to produce higher quality water. Mechanical filtration systems are effective in removing suspended solids from water, although suspended solids only account for a portion of the total solid contaminants.The humidifier system 10 of the present disclosure offers a two-stage filtration arrangement or filter assembly 12 that eliminates chlorine, particulates, and other dissolved solids from the water before it passes through to the reservoir 14. The filter assembly 12 prevents residue buildup on system components, dramatically reducing maintenance and component failures that can result in areas with poor water quality.Referring generally to FIGS.
How can she be so sure?"Adjunct Professor Reuben Guttman 85L wrote recently on the New Hampshire primary and presidential candidate Hillary Clinton's acceptance of $675,000 in speaking fees from Goldman Sachs. 3 and 5, the filter assembly 12 of the present disclosure includes a first filter 40 or pre-filter and a second filter 50. It is contemplated that the filter assembly could incorporate a greater number of filters to provide a multi-stage filtration arrangement (i.e. Alternatively, the filter assembly 12 could include only one filter component.The first filter 40 is arranged in series with the second filter 50. The institute is affiliated with Emory Law, where the program lectures will be held, delivered by Distinguished Scholar in Residence, Professor Y.
The filter assembly 12 is arranged in series with the reservoir 14 and can be mounted adjacent to the reservoir 14 or a distance from the reservoir 14.
In the illustrated embodiment, a bracket 62 is provided to mount the filter assembly 12 at a desired location. Lee.In May 2016, the Law and Development Institute will offer a weeklong certificate program that outlines the role of law, legal frameworks and institutions for economic development.
A filter assembly having the capability of filtering 1.0-sized particles may be referred to as a high-filtration assembly. In another embodiment, the filter assembly is capable of eliminating particles having a size of 0.1 micrometers and larger.
A filter assembly having the capability of filtering 0.1-sized particles may be referred to as a micro-filtration assembly.
In yet another embodiment, the filter assembly is capable of eliminate particles having a size of 0.01 micrometers and larger. A filter assembly having the capability of filtering 0.01-sized particles may be referred to as a ultra-filtration assembly.
In another embodiment, the filter assembly includes a reverse osmosis filter element and the filter assembly is capable of eliminating particles having a size of 0.001 micrometers and larger. 6, the first filter 40 includes a filter cartridge 42, a filter housing 44, and an end cap 46. The inlet 48 of the end cap 46 is in selective fluid communication with the fluid pressure source 28 (FIG. 5, the filter assembly 12 includes mounting structures 66 to mount the end cap 46 of the first filter 40 to the mounting bracket 62. The mounting structures 66 can include fasteners that extend through holes in the bracket 62 and engage with the end cap 46 to secure the end cap in position. The housing can detachably secure to the end cap by a snug interference fit, or can include threads that engage with corresponding threads of the end cap.
A Emory Law's Black Law Students Association (BLSA) chapter received highest honors this past weekend when they were named National BLSA Large Chapter of the Year at the NBLSA 48th Annual National Convention.
5, a specially-adapted hand tool 96 may be used to connect and disconnect the filter housing 44 to and from the endcap 46.In one embodiment, the first filter can include a particulate filter cartridge 42 designed to remove large suspended solids, along with an adsorbent material to remove chlorine. Such particulate filters include standard carbon pre-filter elements that filter chlorine from supply water as well as roughly filter suspended solids.
These standard filters can include cartridges or bag filters that remove residual insoluble material of up to 0.5 microns.
Many other types of particulate filter cartridges can be used in accordance with the principles disclosed. In an alternative embodiment chemical pumps can inject acid or antiscalants to keep salt soluble, or biocontrol agents to prevent biofouling.2. 6, the second filter 50 of the filter assembly 12 includes a filter membrane assembly 52, a second filter housing 54, a first end cap 56, and a second end cap 57.
The inlet 58 of the second filter 50 is in fluid communication with the outlet 49 of the first filter 40. The first outlet 59 of the second filter 50 is in fluid communication with the reservoir 14 of the humidifier system 10.
The second outlet 60 of the second filter 50 is plumbed to drain 36 (shown schematically in FIG. The nature of the spiral wound, parallel-flow membrane provides for the flushing of the membrane to remove rejected contaminants from the membrane's surface, thereby extending the life of the filter element.In particular, the second filter arrangement provides parallel flow and cross flow through the second filter. In RO filtration, a portion of the incoming feed water (the parallel flow) is used to carry away contaminants. The rejection water or parallel flow continuously sweeps the membrane surface, minimizing buildup of rejected impurities to allow free flow of purified water into the reservoir.
This provides consistent performance and reduces the need for frequent membrane assembly replacement.
In general, the two-stage filter assembly 12 of the disclosed humidifier system 10 removes particulate, chlorine, and virtually all other contaminants from the water. Therefore, the components of the system 10 remain clean, resulting in decreased maintenance and failure.
1, is configured to operate on water line pressure typical of residential systems (less than 125 psi). In one application, the flow control device 20 of the humidifier system is linked to a fluid pressure source 28 rated at about 50–60 psi so that a sufficient pressure differential is provided across the second filter 50 of the filter assembly. The filter assembly 12 is sized accordingly to provide flow capacity to process and deliver a sufficient volume of purified feed water to the reservoir 14 to keep up with the system's delivery rate of humidity. For example, the first and second filters 40, 50 are sized for consideration of allowing for declining output due to cartridge 42 or membrane assembly 52 fouling. In typical applications, the filter assembly 12 is sized to provide purified water output of approximately 50 gallons per day.The filter assembly 12 is designed such that contaminants not discharged in the wastewater (rejection water) are captured by the first and second filters 40, 50. The first and second filters 40, 50 are arranged so that they are easily replaceable by a homeowner. The average life of the pre-filter or first filter 40 is about one year (six months of operating time). It is not mechanical filtration, such as you would find in conventional filter assemblies having only a single cartridge filter.
In such mechanical filtration arrangements, all the solution passes through the filter media and some of the suspended material in solution is caught by direct interception or inertial impaction on the filter media.
Rather, in the reverse osmosis second filter, the pre-filtered feed water passes over the membrane, and pressure forces a percentage of the feed water, in purified form, through the membrane. At the same time, the remaining percentage of the feed water, carries away contaminates in the form of rejection water.Pressure is provided by the fluid pressure source 28 when fluid communication is permitted to the filter assembly 12. The restrictor creates a constrained flow to drain 36 so that feed water is directed through the membrane assembly 52 of the second filter 50, while still permitting flushing of rejected contaminants.Conventional reverse osmosis water treatment systems that employ a rejection water configuration to flush contaminants from a filter element generally use an automatic shutoff assembly to turn off the feed water and conserve water when there is no demand for purified water. Generally, automatic shutoff assemblies include a simple mechanical diaphragm valve mechanism, activated by the pressure of the fluid that has not yet passed through the filter.
In order to promote water conservation if this condition exists, a device for rapidly and positively shutting off water to the filter assembly is needed.B.
The check valve 24 permits one-way fluid flow from the filter assembly 12 to the reservoir 14.
The check valve is arranged so that purified water leaving the second filter 50 is not permitted to back flow into the second filter 50. In the illustrated embodiment, the check valve 24 is positioned at the first outlet 59 of the second filter 50. It is contemplated that the check valve 24 can be located at any point along the fluid pathway 78 between the second filter 50 and the reservoir 14.As shown in FIG. The overflow bulkhead 70 can be connected to drain (not shown).The reservoir 14 is sized to keep up with the demand for humidity within the home.
In one embodiment, the reservoir is of a seamless drawn metal construction having a height h1, a width w1 and a depth d1. Other reservoir sizes and constructions, configured to meet the operating requirements of the humidifier system, can be used.The humidifier system 10 includes a heat generation source 25 (FIG.
The heat source 25 may be positioned within the reservoir 14 or external to the reservoir 14. A gas-fired heater is an example of an external heating source that may be used in one embodiment.
In another embodiment, the heat source 25 includes a heating element 26 located within the reservoir 14. In use, the heating element 26 is immersed within the water and heats the water to a temperature at which steam is produced. The heating element 26 is sized in accordance with the reservoir 14 to keep up with the demand for humidity within the home. In one embodiment, the heating element 26 is rated to expend about 1,500 to 2,000 watts of electricity. The immersed heating element can include, for example, a nickel-plated brass sheath element.C. 1, the control system 16 includes a fluid level detection mechanism 18 and a flow control device 20 that controls the flow of a supply fluid, such as water, from a fluid supply pressure source 28 to the reservoir 14. In the alternative, the control system can be mounted at an area located away from the reservoir 14 provided the proper electrical connections are available.1. Flow Control DeviceThe flow control device 20 of the control system 16 includes a valve arrangement 30 (FIG. In one embodiment, the valve arrangement 30 is an electrically actuated valve arrangement 31 (FIG. The electrically actuated valve arrangement 31 provides the advantage of rapid, positive actuation. Other types of valves, other than electrically actuated valves, operating with rapid and positive actuation can be used. For example, in alternative embodiments, a rapid-actuating ball valve or spring-assisted mechanical arm could be used.
In the remainder of the present disclosure, the system 10 will be described with use of an electrically actuated valve arrangement 31.In one embodiment, the electrically actuated valve arrangement 31 includes a solenoid valve 100 having an inlet 102 and an outlet 104. The outlet 104 is in selective fluid communication with the inlet 48 of the first filter 40.In the illustrated embodiment, the solenoid valve 100 is a normally-closed solenoid valve. The normally-closed solenoid valve 100 closes fluid communication between the fluid pressure source 28 and the filter assembly 12 when the valve 100 is de-energized. In accord with the previously described filter assembly 12, rejection water is thereby expended only when the solenoid valve 100 is energized.Because the filter assembly 12, in particular the second filter 50, has a performance rating which is a function of the pressure differential across the membrane assembly 52, it is recommended to operate the humidifier system 10 in a fully open state or a fully closed state only.
The electrically activated solenoid valve 100 ensures a rapid and reliable change in state from a fully open position to a fully closed position, even against a wide range of supply line pressures.Unlike conventional shutoff valve assemblies previously described, the control system 16, including the solenoid valve 100 and the fluid level detection mechanism to sense the water level at which the solenoid valve 100 should be activated, maintains the proper water level and positively stops rejection water from being generated.
By providing the desired fully open and fully closed positions, the solenoid valve 100 increases the performance, efficiency, and life of the humidifier system 10.An added benefit of the disclosed control system 16 is that the normally-closed solenoid valve 100 allows for system maintenance, such as filter replacement, without the need to manually close a line to the fluid pressure source 28 to prevent inadvertent water discharge. In an alternative embodiment, the solenoid valve may be normally open when not energized, and may close when energized.2. Fluid Level Detection MechanismThe operation of the solenoid valve is controlled by the fluid level detection mechanism. In one embodiment the fluid level detection mechanism provides a large switch differential to minimize the number of solenoid valve cycles, thereby extending the life of the valve. In addition, when the system is providing purified water to a steam humidification system, the water surface can become severely agitated during times of steam generation or boiling. This large switch differential eliminates the possibility of rapid cycling of the solenoid valve due to the unstable water surface condition.The large switch differential can be accomplished through the use of multiple water level sensors that define an upper water level limit and a lower water level limit for a normal fill cycle. The height between the upper water level and the lower water level define an operating range.The illustrated fluid level detection mechanism 18, shown in FIG. The illustrated float assembly includes a first float 122 mounted on a first stem 126, and a second float 124 mounted on a second stem 128. The first and second stems 126, 128 are mounted to the reservoir 14 at connections 136, 138, shown in FIG. In operation, the reed switches change position to either open or close a contact when the float changes height relative to the reed switch. The humidifier is ideally positioned in a location where an electrical cord 90 of the humidifier system 10 can be plugged in without an extension cord. 7) between the humidifier and the filter assembly, and wiring 89 between the humidifier and the fan of the home furnace.
The filter assembly 12 can be mounted adjacent to the reservoir 14 or mounted at a location providing more convenient access to the filter assembly 12 by a homeowner.A connection is made into an existing water line to access the fluid pressure source 18.
1 and 3, the feed water supply line 72 is coupled to the inlet 102 of the solenoid valve 100. A first feed line 76 is attached between the outlet 104 of the solenoid valve 100 and the inlet 48 of the first filter 40. A second feed line 77 is attached between the outlet 49 of the first filter 40 and the inlet 58 of the second filter 50.
A third feed line 78 is attached between the first outlet 59 of the second filter 50 and the fluid input port 68 of the reservoir 14. A rejection water line or drain line 74 is attached to the second outlet 60 of the second filter 50 and routed to drain 36.In one embodiment, the feed water supply line 72 running from the saddle valve 38 to the solenoid valve 100 can include one-fourth inch OD polypropylene or copper tubing.
The first feed line 76 running from the solenoid valve 100 to the first filter 40 can include one-fourth inch OD polypropylene or copper tubing.
The second feed line 77 running from the first filter 40 to the second filter 50 can include one-fourth inch OD polypropylene or copper tubing. The third feed line 78 running from the second filter 50 to the reservoir 14 can include one-fourth inch OD copper tubing.
The drain line 74 can include one-half inch ID drain line, made of polypropylene or PVC, for example. Normal Humidification OperationsHumidifiers operate under the principle that as dry air and vapor mix, the relative humidity of the air rises.
In general, when the humidistat 92 calls for humidity, the heating element 26 starts heating the water in the reservoir 14. A thermal sensor switch 84 on the reservoir senses the temperature of the water in the reservoir 14.
When the water is heated to a predetermined first temperature, the thermal sensor switch 84 activates the relay assembly 82 that turns on the furnace fan (not shown).The warm dry air is routed through the humidifier system 10.
Water vapor from the humidifier is picked up by the air and the humidified air is then circulated throughout the home by the furnace fan.
When the humidistat 92 determines that the desired level of humidity in the home has been reached, the heating element 26 in the reservoir 14 is turned off. The fan continues to circulate the air until the water in the reservoir 14 cools to a second predetermined temperature. To illustrate, as the heating element 26 generates steam, the water level in the reservoir 14 decreases.
The system 10 refills the reservoir 14 with cold water when the water level reaches a certain point, as is described in greater detail hereinafter. If the replenished water is cooled to a temperature at or below the second predetermined temperature, the thermal sensor switch 84 would shut off the furnace fan until the water temperature again reaches a steam-producing temperature, assuming the call for humidity from the humidistat 92 is unchanged.When the water level in the reservoir decreases, the fluid level detection mechanism 18 electrically communicates with the flow control device 16 to refill the reservoir. The float assembly 102 operates to maintain the water level in the reservoir 14 between a first predetermined height H1 and a second predetermined height H2, shown in FIG. 8.In the illustrated embodiment, the second float 124 of the float assembly 120 is configured as a low fluid level float 124. The low level float 124 generates a signal when the water level in the reservoir 14 is at the second predetermined height H2.
As illustrated, the second predetermined height H2 is less than or lower than the first predetermined height H1, generally at a level where it is desirable to begin filling the reservoir 14.When the water level is at the second predetermined level H2, the second float 124 correspondingly floats or follows the water level to a position where the magnet in the second float 124 causes the reed switch in the second stem 128 to change states and generate a begin-fill or low-water signal.
The low-water signal is sent to the relay assembly 82, which energizes the solenoid valve 100 to open fluid communication between the fluid pressure source 28 and the filter assembly 12.The first float 122 of the float assembly 120 in the illustrated embodiment is configured as a high fluid level float 122. The high level float 122 generates a signal when the water level in the reservoir 14 is at the first predetermined height H1.
As illustrated, the first predetermined height is generally at a fill level not to be exceeded.
When the water level is at the first predetermined level H1, the first float 122 correspondingly floats or follows the water level to a position where the magnet in the first float 122 causes the reed switch in the first stem 126 to change states and generate a stop-fill or high-water signal.
The high-water signal is sent to the relay assembly 82, which de-energizes the solenoid valve 100 to close fluid communication between the fluid pressure source 28 and the filter assembly 12.In the illustrated embodiment shown in FIG. 8, the first predetermined height H1, the position at which the first reed switch (not shown) is positioned within the first stem 126 to switch or generate a high-water signal, is approximately 80 mm from the bottom of the reservoir 14. The second predetermined height H2, the position at which the second reed switch (not shown) is positioned within the second stem 128 to switch or generate a low-water signal, is approximately 65 mm from the bottom of the reservoir 14. This provides an operating height differential of approximately 15 mm within which water can be heated to generate steam, prior to the addition of non-heated water.Referring back to FIG.
1, it can be understood that that humidifier system 10 is only pressured in the region from the fluid pressure source 28 to the inlet 102 of the solenoid valve 100, which includes the feed water supply line 72. The remaining components—the outlet 104 of the solenoid valve, the filter assembly 12, the first, second, and third feed lines, the restrictor 34, and the drain line 74—are non-pressurized when the solenoid valve is de-energized.C. The bulkhead 70 is sized to drain a volume of water at a rate equivalent to or greater than the rate at which water can be added to the reservoir 14.In contrast, the humidifier system 10 is configured to detect a situation when the water level becomes too low. 8, the first float 122 of the float assembly can also be configured as a heater-shutoff float. The heater-shutoff float 122 generates a power-cutoff signal when the water level in the reservoir is at a third predetermined height H3. As illustrated, the third predetermined height H3 is less than or lower than the second predetermined height H2, generally at a level where operation of the heater could be unsafe. When the water level is at the third predetermined level H3, the first float 122 correspondingly floats or follows the water level to a position where the magnet in the first float 122 causes a third reed switch (not shown) in the first stem 126 to change states and generate the power-cutoff signal. The shutoff signal is sent to the relay assembly 82, which powers down the heating element until maintenance is performed on the humidifier system 10.
In the illustrated embodiment, the third predetermined height H3, at which the reed switch (not shown) of the first float 122 is configured to switch or generate a power-cutoff signal, is approximately 50 mm from the bottom of the reservoir 14.It is contemplated that the power-cutoff configuration could also be incorporated into the second float 124 and second stem 128. That is, the second float 124 could be configured to generate a shutoff signal so that the relay assembly 82 powers down the heating element when the water level reaches the third predetermined height H3. 9, the float assembly 120? could include a first float and stem configuration 122?, 126? that function only to generate the shutoff signal, and a second float and stem configuration 124?, 128? that operates to generate both the begin-fill and stop-fill signals.The above specification, examples and data provide a complete description of the manufacture and use of the composition of the invention.
Since many embodiments of the invention can be made without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention, the invention resides in the claims hereinafter appended.



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