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However, these bone marrow cells produce a bone marrow-specific variant of BDNF, one that is different from that produced by the regular microglial cells already in the hypothalamus.
Mice that are born lacking the ability to produce blood cells that make BDNF overeat, become obese and develop insulin resistance (a lack of response to insulin that affects the ability to metabolize glucose).
When normal bone marrow cells that produce BDNF are injected into the third ventricle (a fluid-filled cavity in the brain) of mice that lack BDNF, they no longer have the urge to overeat, said Chan. All in all, the studies represent a new mechanism by which these bone-marrow derived cells control feeding through BDNF and could provide a new avenue to attack obesity, said Chan. He and his colleagues hypothesize that the bone marrow cells that produce BDNF fine tune the appetite response, although a host of different appetite-controlling hormones produced by the regular nerve cells in the hypothalamus do the lion’s share of the work.
While many people associate musculoskeletal pain with Arthritis primarily, there are literally dozens of diagnoses that can result in joint and muscle pain.
While most doctors furiously prescribe pain killer medications to suppress pain-signaling pathways to their suffering patients, this does not necessarily treat the root causes.   Yes, these meds are necessary in a certain time and place.
I’m not saying I never enjoy a glass of wine or fine tequila on the rocks, but moderation is everything. Canola, soy, and corn oils (often referred to as vegetable oil) are largely genetically modified.  These oils are well documented to contribute to inflammation and pain.
This site is designed for educational purposes only and is not engaged in rendering medical advice, legal advice, or professional services.
The light then passes through a clear fluid that fills your eyeball, and lands on the back surface, which is called the retina. An interesting aside about the structure of the eye is that all of these light-sensitive cells need a supply of oxygen, which is delivered by the bloodstream. You can see the blood vessels on your retina for yourself if you look at a dark background, shine a (not too bright) light into your eye from the side, and wiggle the light around a bit. If the pit then partially closes over, leaving a small hole for the light to come in, it then effectively becomes a pinhole camera (which I've discussed before). And thus we have arrived at the vertebrate eye, by following this evolutionary process in which a series of small changes, produced by random mutation between generations, each lead to a specific advantage over the preceding organs. Okay, aside over, let's get back to the light-sensitive cells themselves: the rods and cones. Furthermore, this standard RGB (red-green-blue) system for colour displays only works to mimic other colours because it is carefully tuned to match the human visual system.
So it's possible to have a TV or monitor show a photo of a scene that appears essentially perfect to human eyes, but if you showed it to our hypothetical four-coned animal, it would see completely the wrong colours. On the other hand, it's reasonably common for humans to have impaired cone cells or to be missing one of the types of cone cells completely.
There are a couple of other interesting things about human colour vision I want to mention briefly today. Secondly, again looking at Figure 1, you can notice that there is no single colour of light that can stimulate both the L and S cones without also stimulating the M cones. So now, if you ever see a magenta, pink, or suspiciously purple laser beam in some science fiction, you can call it out as unrealistic. This work is copyright and is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 Unported Licence by David Morgan-Mar.
However, a careful scrutiny showed that the branching nature of these cells allow them to come into contact with a whole host of brain cells. A bone marrow transplant that restores the gene for making the cells that produce BDNF can normalize appetite, said Chan. She is a speaker, writer, and provides nutritional consulting services to local and international clients. We ALL know someone who suffers from a chronic pain condition, many of us likely experiencing it currently or have at some in our lives.
Sadly, many doctors are slow to address the one major link to many cases of joint and muscle pain – FOOD. Keep in mind that too much alcohol can damage your gut flora, promote yeast overgrowth, and hinder your body’s ability to detoxify.
Granted, not everyone reacts the same to grains, however many people ARE reacting to grains but are completely unaware.
Like processed oils, pasteurized dairy is best left on the grocery shelf because pasteurized dairy is one of the worst foods for pain. If you feel that you have a medical problem, you should seek the advice of your physician or health care practitioner. This opens and closes around a hole in the middle, called the pupil, to let in different amounts of light: wide open at night time, and narrow in daylight. Because of the focusing of the lens, the light forms an image that resembles what is in the outside world. Arteries lead into the back of your eyeballs to deliver this blood, then fan out into a network of tiny capillaries to carry it to all the rods and cones scattered across your retina. If they'd been engineered in the same way as we build modern electronic sensor chips for digital cameras, all of the necessary circuitry (the blood vessels and nerves) would be behind the light sensitive parts where it wouldn't get in the way.[1] But evolution doesn't always come up with the best solutions for problems. It arose because the skin of pre-vertebrates without a sense of vision was, quite naturally, covered with a network of capillaries to supply the cells there and nerves to provide a sense of touch.
The light-sensitive cells on the inside of the cavity can then detect an image of the outside world. If you look at Figure 1, you'll see that both L and M cones are sensitive to yellow light, so both of these cone cells will send signals to your brain. You can imagine an animal with four types of cone cells, which detect, for example, red, green, blue, and yellow. This condition is inherited via genetic mutations passed on by parents, and causes what we call colour blindness.
Firstly, if you check Figure 1, you can see that pure green light stimulates not only the "green detecting" M cones, but also the "red detecting" L cones. You can, however, stimulate both the L and S cones without also stimulating the M cones (much) if you look at a mixture of red light and blue-violet light.

Older sensor chips were actually built with the circuitry in front of the light-detecting elements, because it was easier to build them that way.
These snakes have pits or dimples, at the back of which are cells sensitive to infra-red light, and which give them a good directional sense for heat sources.
This is because molluscs evolved eyes independently of vertebrates and somewhere along the way this advantageous mutation appeared for them where it failed to appear for us.
Hideto Kojima, current and former postdoctoral fellows in Chan’s laboratory respectively, looked for BDNF in the brains of mice who had not been fed for about 24 hours. However, a transplant of bone marrow that does not contain this gene does not reverse overeating, obesity or insulin resistance. We may even be able to deliver medication that goes to the brain,“ crossing the blood-brain barrier. He is currently hosting the esteemed Mental Wellness Summit with some of the world’s leading health practitioners. In fact, pain killer prescriptions are currently the most frequently prescribed medication – and there does not appear to be any sign of this trend slowing. Even though these oils are advertised as ‘healthy’ – DO NOT BELIEVE THE HYPE.  They rank as one of the 5 worst foods for pain.
John Dempster, ND, FAAFM, ABAAHP – He is a leader in Functional Medicine and biochemical diagnostics in Canada and is recognized for addressing the root causes of chronic illness.
The front parts of our eyes are essentially equivalent to the lens assembly on a camera - something to focus the incoming light into an image. Special nerve cells in your retina are sensitive to light, in a similar way to how special nerve cells in your fingers are sensitive to touch, or ones in your nose are sensitive to smell. We inherited the layout of our eyes from generations of ancestors stretching back millions of years. This is clearly better then mere direction sensitivity, and is in fact the structure of the eyes of the nautilus - these animals' eyes have a small hole in the front and are filled with sea water. It would have been sensible, from an engineering viewpoint, to have a mutation somewhere along the line reverse the layering of the blood vessels being above the light-sensitive cells. Based on a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike image by Wikimedia Commons user Vanessaezekowitz.
They detect light of all wavelengths, which is great if you're in a dark place and need all the sensitivity you can get. If a certain shade of yellow light strikes an area on your retina, it stimulates both the L and M cones equally, and your brain senses the stimulus as "yellow".
For such an animal yellow light would stimulate the yellow cones mostly, and perhaps the red and green ones a bit. The most common form of colour blindness is impairment of the M cones, which results in shades of green providing stimulus mainly to the red-detecting L cones. In fact, it's impossible to stimulate only the M cones with any particular colour of light.
This mixture produces the colour sensation we know as magenta, or hot pink, or purple, depending on the proportions of red and violet.
If our eyes were built differently, our TVs and computer monitors and digital cameras and all sorts of other things would need to be built differently too. The bone marrow-derived cells had been marked with a fluorescent protein that showed up on microscopy.
Even a few of these cells can have an effect because their geometry means that they have contact with many different neurons or nerve cells. The best test on the planet currently to understand if this is you is a simple genetic test. He is the Founder and Medical Director of The Dempster Clinic for Integrated Health in Toronto, ON with patients in over 18 countries worldwide, and completed an advanced fellowship in Anti-Aging, Regenerative, and Functional Medicine (FAAFM) at the American Academy of Anti-Aging Medicine.
In fact, there is a lot of subtlety and nuance in the coloured world that we humans are missing out on.
The iris performs the same job as the aperture iris on a camera lens, adjusting the amount of light that enters. The physical principles of how all these special nerve cells work differs, since they detect very different stimuli, but the overall result is the same: they detect the presence of something and send an electrical impulse into connecting nerves, which conduct the signal to your brain.
The most sensible arrangement for all this would be to have the blood vessels and nerves connect to the back of the rods and cones, so they don't get in the way of the incoming light that the rods and cones detect.
So our eyes clearly sense the shadows caused by this network of blood vessels on the front of our retinas. We share the basic anatomy of our eyes, including the backwards structure of our retinas, not only with all mammals, but also birds, reptiles, and fish. The next step is to close the hole with a transparent membrane, and the cavity can then be filled with a clear body fluid, which provides structural advantages. If this mutation had happened anywhere along the evolutionary chain from the first vertebrates to modern mammals, then some or even all vertebrates today would have more efficient eyes. The problem is, all a rod cell can do is send a nerve signal saying, "I've detected some light!" It can't tell which colour it is.
Your brain collects this information, combines it, and creates the colour sensation you know as "yellow". On the other hand, if an equal mixture of red and green light, with no yellow light in it whatsoever, strikes your retina, it also stimulates both the L and M cones equally, and your brain again senses the stimulus "yellow". The extra type isn't sensitive to yellow, though, it provides sensitivity to violet and ultraviolet light. To such a person, greens and darker shades of red appear to be very similar colours, and this is called red-green colour blindness. These colours around magenta and purple are known as non-spectral colours, because they are not single-wavelength colours that appear in the familiar rainbow spectrum. To their surprise, they found cells producing BDNF in a part of the brain’s hypothalamus called the paraventricular nucleus. The medical community is starting to agree on the fact that chronic inflammation often starts in your gut, the biggest part of your immune system.

He has authoured 2 ebooks, is a regular health and wellness contributor for the Huffington Post, and guest lectures at The University of Toronto. Rather than focus by moving the lens back and forth as a camera does, we focus our eyes by stretching the shape of the lens with tiny muscles. And so your fingers tell you when you touch something, your nose tells you when you smell something, and your eyes tell you when you see something.
The L, M, and S stand for long, medium, and short, though this does not describe the length of the cone cells - we'll get to what that's all about in a little while.
It's just that our nervous systems have adapted by editing them out, presenting a cleaned up ("Photoshopped") image of what our eyes really see to our brains. Common earthworms have this ability, from light-sensitive cells distributed throughout their skin.
The transparent membrane can then thicken and become shaped to better focus the incoming light, allowing the eye to grow larger and become more sensitive to low light levels.
You'll notice this whenever you're in a dark room, with just enough light to see shapes and not bump into things.
If you look at an orange instead, the L cones will send a stronger signal and the M cones a weaker signal. Your brain cannot tell the difference between these two very different mixtures of light, because your cone cells respond in exactly the same way. But by producing equal amounts of red and green light so close together that they hit your retina in essentially the same spot, they can stimulate your L and M cones at the same time, and make your brain interpret the colour as yellow. But if you show it "yellow" on a display screen, this is composed of red and green light only. So any time you see what your brain thinks of as "pure green", it's interpreting the stimulation of multiple types of cones. They are only constructions of our brain when stimulated with light of at least two different wavelengths. These muscles are largely involuntary and respond automatically to focus our eyes on whatever we happen to be looking at. Instead, the main artery and the optic nerve both punch right through the retina and then spread out into broad networks on the surface, in front of the light-sensitive rods and cones. Although our brains fill in the gaps for us, the end result is that our eyes are less sensitive, both to light and to fine detail, than they could be if the blood vessels and nerves were behind the rods and cones.
Once you can detect light, the sense becomes better if the light-sensing cells are clustered on the inside of a pucker in the skin.
They tell your brain, "this object is strongly red and weakly green", which your brain interprets as the colour orange.
This mixture would stimulate the red and green cones in the same way as yellow light, but it would not stimulate the yellow cones as much. Pigeons and a few other birds, and also butterflies, have five different types of colour sensitive cells. A more severe form is the lack of M cones altogether, which renders reds and greens completely indistinguishable. If there was a way to stimulate only the M cones, then you could sense a colour that is in some sense a more intense and pure green than anything your brain has ever experienced. Dempster garners national and international media attention for his individualized, progressive approach to patient care. If you move your gaze between objects nearby and objects far away, you can see the effect of your focusing muscles.
So there is a considerable fraction of your retina covered by blood vessels and nerves, where you are not sensitive to light.
You can also detect the hole in your retina where the optic nerve and the main artery enter your eye, which produces a distinct blind spot in your vision. The walls of the pucker give some directionality to the incoming light that can be sensed, and so the animal can now tell roughly which direction the light is coming from. In fact the colours of light that the three different types of cones detect overlaps quite a lot, as shown in Figure 1.
It is generated in your brain by a precisely controlled mixture of different amounts of red, green, and blue light, which stimulate your cone cells in the same proportions of actual light of the desired colour.
In other words, the animal's brain would not interpret this as "yellow", but would see it as some other colour. In some people, the lens shape is slightly wrong, or the muscles don't work as well as they should, resulting in an inability to focus on objects at certain distances. And it's this overlap that gives us the ability to detect what we perceive as millions of different colours, despite the fact that we only have three different types of colour-sensitive cells. It's also possible that through mutation, a few humans have more than three types of cones. Very rarely, the S cones can be impaired or missing, resulting in problems at the blue end of the spectrum, which makes blues and yellows indistinguishable, and is called blue-yellow colour blindness. But you can sort of get a feel for it by staring at a bright red object for a minute or so, to adapt your L cones, then switching your gaze suddenly to a bright green object. There is some anecdotal evidence of this in some cases, but it has not been reliably proven. Your L cones will provide a weaker response than normal for a few seconds, and you can briefly experience this über-green sensation. As we get older, the lens stiffens up and the muscles weaken, so we may end up needing glasses then too. In extremely rare cases, two types, or even all of the cones be dysfunctional, leaving the person with no ability to perceive colour differences at all.

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