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For centuries, philosophers and theologians have almost unanimously held that civilization as we know it depends on a widespread belief in free will—and that losing this belief could be calamitous. Today, the assumption of free will runs through every aspect of American politics, from welfare provision to criminal law. In 2006, Donald Trump made plans to purchase the Menie Estate, near Aberdeen, Scotland, aiming to convert the dunes and grassland into a luxury golf resort.
The city is facing a housing crisis, but despite its progressive reputation, it’s done little to ensure affordability for longtime residents. PORTLAND—This city that prides itself on being different has been experiencing a problem all too common of late.
Companies including Google, eBay, Airbnb, and Amazon have opened outposts here; Simple, an online-banking and consumer-finance company, moved operations here in 2011 after having offices in New York and San Francisco and has grown to more than 300 people. The NTSB concludes that the engineer in a deadly 2015 crash in Philadelphia was distracted by radio traffic, following rocks striking another train.
In the aftermath of Amtrak 188’s deadly derailment one year ago, investigators, journalists, passengers, and the public all sought some explanation for how Brandon Bostian, an experienced, skilled, and meticulous engineer, crashed his train in Philadelphia. But the National Transportation Safety Board, in findings revealed Tuesday morning, has concluded the cause of the crash was far simpler: Investigators believe Bostian was distracted by radio traffic about rocks striking another train at the worst possible moment, leading him to run the train far too fast through a curve and derail.
In the time of the Facebook thumbs up, what does it mean to “like” something? What determines people’s preferences is a fuzzy, hard-to-pin-down process, but Tom Vanderbilt takes a stab at it in his new book, You May Also Like.
The small Vermont liberal-arts college will close up shop this month, and a controversial real-estate deal made by Jane Sanders, Bernie Sanders’s wife, may be to blame.
The end of the school year doesn’t just mark graduation at Burlington College, the small Vermont institution led by Jane Sanders from 2004 to 2011. The New York Times caused debate over the weekend with a report detailing interactions between Trump and a variety of women. The complacency and inaction of school administrators following incidents of racism isn’t confined to colleges campuses.
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PS: We take your privacy very seriously, and will never sell or pass your data to any 3rd party. This content was accessible as of December 29, 2012, and it was downloaded then by Andy Schmitz in an effort to preserve the availability of this book. PDF copies of this book were generated using Prince, a great tool for making PDFs out of HTML and CSS.
For more information on the source of this book, or why it is available for free, please see the project's home page. DonorsChoose.org helps people like you help teachers fund their classroom projects, from art supplies to books to calculators. Identify when and how to summarize, paraphrase, and directly quote information from research sources. Research papers generally follow the same basic structure: an introduction that presents the writera€™s thesis, a body section that develops the thesis with supporting points and evidence, and a conclusion that revisits the thesis and provides additional insights or suggestions for further research. Your writing voice will come across most strongly in your introduction and conclusion, as you work to attract your readersa€™ interest and establish your thesis. There are several approaches to writing an introduction, each of which fulfills the same goals.
Jorge decided to begin his research paper by connecting his topic to readersa€™ daily experiences. Over the past decade, increasing numbers of Americans have jumped on the low-carb bandwagon. No matter when you compose the conclusion, it should sum up your main ideas and revisit your thesis.
If your job involves writing or reading scientific papers, it helps to understand how professional researchers use the structure described in this section.
One of the challenges of writing a research paper is successfully integrating your ideas with material from your sources. In the body paragraphs of your paper, you will need to integrate ideas carefully at the paragraph level and at the sentence level. In his draft, Jorge summarized research materials that presented scientistsa€™ findings about low-carbohydrate diets.
Over the past few years, a number of clinical studies have explored whether high-protein, low-carbohydrate diets are more effective for weight loss than other frequently recommended diet plans, such as diets that drastically curtail fat intake (Pritikin) or that emphasize consuming lean meats, grains, vegetables, and a moderate amount of unsaturated fats (the Mediterranean diet). In three recent studies, researchers compared outcomes for obese subjects who followed either a low-carbohydrate diet, a low-fat diet, or a Mediterranean diet and found that subjects following a low-carbohydrate diet lost more weight in the same time (Howell, 2010). A summary restates ideas in your own wordsa€”but for specialized or clinical terms, you may need to use terms that appear in the original source. On a separate sheet of paper, practice summarizing by writing a one-sentence summary of the same passage that Jorge already summarized.
When you paraphraseTo restate ideas or information from sources using onea€™s own words and sentence structures.
Again, it is important to check your paraphrase against the source material to make sure it is both accurate and original. Dieters nearly always get great results soon after they begin following a low-carbohydrate diet, but these results tend to taper off after the first few months, particularly because many dieters find it difficult to follow a low-carbohydrate diet plan consistently.
People usually see encouraging outcomes shortly after they go on a low-carbohydrate diet, but their progress slows down after a short while, especially because most discover that it is a challenge to adhere to the diet strictly (Heinz, 2009). After reviewing the paraphrased sentence, Jorge realized he was following the original source too closely. Because it is hard for dieters to stick to a low-carbohydrate eating plan, the initial success of these diets is short-lived (Heinz, 2009). Most of the time, you will summarize or paraphrase source material instead of quoting directly.
Less experienced writers, however, sometimes overuse direct quotations in a research paper because it seems easier than paraphrasing. Jorge interviewed a dietician as part of his research, and he decided to quote her words in his paper. Personally, I dona€™t really buy into all of the hype about low-carbohydrate miracle diets like Atkins and so on.
Notice how Jorge smoothly integrated the quoted material by starting the sentence with an introductory phrase. Throughout the writing process, be scrupulous about documenting information taken from sources.
You will cite sources within the body of your paper and at the end of the paper in your bibliography. In-text citationsInstances in which use of source material is documented in the body text of the research paper.
Within a paragraph, this information may appear as part of your introduction to the material or as a parenthetical citation at the end of a sentence. Leibowitz (2008) found that low-carbohydrate diets often helped subjects with Type II diabetes maintain a healthy weight and control blood-sugar levels.
The introduction to the source material includes the authora€™s name followed by the year of publication in parentheses. Low-carbohydrate diets often help subjects with Type II diabetes maintain a healthy weight and control blood-sugar levels (Leibowitz, 2008).
The parenthetical citation at the end of the sentence includes the authora€™s name, a comma, and the year the source was published.
Each of the sources you cite in the body text will appear in a references listA list of sources used in a research paper that provides detailed bibliographical information. Additional information may be included for different types of sources, such as online sources. As you write your draft, be mindful of how you are using primary and secondary source material to support your points.
Some types of research papers must use primary sources extensively to achieve their purpose.
For some assignments, it makes sense to rely more on secondary sources than primary sources.
As much as possible, use secondary sources that are closely linked to primary research, such as a journal article presenting the results of the authorsa€™ scientific study or a book that cites interviews and case studies. Even if your paper is largely based on primary sources, you may use secondary sources to develop your ideas. Jorge knew he did not have the time, resources, or experience needed to conduct original experimental research for his paper. Some sources could be considered primary or secondary sources, depending on the writera€™s purpose for using them. Your research paper presents your thinking about a topic, supported and developed by other peoplea€™s ideas and information. PlagiarismThe practice of using someonea€™s words or ideas without acknowledging the source. Any idea or fact taken from an outside source must be cited, in both the body of your paper and the references list. In recent years, issues related to the fair use of sources have been prevalent in popular culture. Writers may quote from or paraphrase material from previously published works without formally obtaining the copyright holdera€™s permission. As he worked on his draft, Jorge was careful to cite his sources correctly and not to rely excessively on any one source. Low-carbohydrate diets may indeed be superior to other diet plans for short-term weight loss. As Jorge revised the paragraph, he realized he did not need to quote these sources directly. Carefully organizing your time and notes is the best guard against these forms of plagiarism. Citing other peoplea€™s work appropriately is just as important in the workplace as it is in school. The concepts and strategies discussed in this section of Chapter 12 "Writing a Research Paper" connect to a larger issuea€”academic integrity.
Ideas and information taken from outside sources must be cited in the body of the paper and in the references section. A paraphrase restates ideas from a source using the writera€™s own words and sentence structures. Given all the time and effort you have put into your research project, you will want to make sure that your final draft represents your best work.
When writing a research paper, it is easy to become overly focused on editorial details, such as the proper format for bibliographical entries.
When you revise to improve organization, you look at the flow of ideas throughout the essay as a whole and within individual paragraphs.
Do I need to add or revise topic sentences or transitions to make the overall flow of ideas clearer? Read the following paragraphs twice, the first time without Jorgea€™s changes, and the second time with them. Using the thesis and topic sentences as starting points, outline the ideas you presenteda€”just as you would do if you were outlining a chapter in a textbook.
Writers choose transitions carefully to show the relationships between ideasa€”for instance, to make a comparison or elaborate on a point with examples. When you revise to improve cohesion, you analyze how the parts of your paper work together. In a research paper, problems with cohesion usually occur when a writer has trouble integrating source material. Do I need to add to or revise parts of the paper to help the reader understand how certain information from a source is relevant? As Jorge reread his draft, he looked to see how the different pieces fit together to prove his thesis. Jorge decided that his comment about pizza and birthday cake came across as subjective and was not necessary to make his point, so he deleted it. Print out a hard copy of your paper, or work with your printout from Note 12.33 "Exercise 1". Identify places where you need to revise your writing so that readers understand the significance of the details cited from sources. Skim the body paragraphs once more, looking for any paragraphs that seem packed with citations. Understanding cohesion can also benefit you in the workplace, especially when you have to write and deliver a presentation. Once you are certain that the content of your paper fulfills your purpose, you can begin revising to improve styleThe unique way a writer uses language, which encompasses choices about sentence structure and word selection.
Although accepted writing styles will vary within different disciplines, the underlying goal is the samea€”to come across to your readers as a knowledgeable, authoritative guide. To help prevent being overly formal or informal, determine an appropriate style and tone at the beginning of the research process.

A strong research paper comes across as straightforward, appropriately academic, and serious. I have used clear, straightforward language whenever possible and avoided unnecessary jargon. My paper states my point of view using a balanced tonea€”neither too indecisive nor too forceful. Using plural nouns and pronouns or recasting a sentence can help you keep your language gender neutral while avoiding awkwardness. Gender-biased: When a writer cites a source in the body of his paper, he must list it on his references page. Awkward: When a writer cites a source in the body of his or her paper, he or she must list it on his or her references page. Improved: Writers must list any sources cited in the body of a paper on the references page.
On reviewing his paper, Jorge found that he had generally used an appropriately academic style and tone.
If you prefer to work with an electronic document, use the menu options in your word-processing program to enlarge the text to 150 or 200 percent of the original size. After revising your paper to address problems in content or style, you will complete one final editorial review. For in-depth information on these two topics, see Chapter 2 "Writing Basics: What Makes a Good Sentence?" and Chapter 13 "APA and MLA Documentation and Formatting". Given how much work you have put into your research paper, you will want to check for any errors that could distract or confuse your readers.
My paper is free of grammatical errors, such as errors in subject-verb agreement and sentence fragments. My paper is free of errors in punctuation and mechanics, such as misplaced commas or incorrectly formatted source titles.
When editing a research paper, it is also important to check that you have cited sources properly and formatted your document according to the specified guidelines. Within the body of my paper, each fact or idea taken from a source is credited to the correct source. Each in-text citation includes the source authora€™s name (or, where applicable, the organization name or source title) and year of publication. Each source cited in the body of my paper has a corresponding entry in the references section of my paper.
Each entry in my references section is indented on the second line and all subsequent lines.
Each entry in my references section includes all the necessary information for that source type, in the correct sequence and format. For detailed guidelines on APA and MLA citation and formatting, see Chapter 13 "APA and MLA Documentation and Formatting". During the process of revising and editing, Jorge made changes in the content and style of his paper. Organization in a research paper means that the argument proceeds logically from the introduction to the body to the conclusion. In a cohesive research paper, the elements of the paper work together smoothly and naturally.
An effective research paper uses a style and tone that are appropriately academic and serious.
Editing a research paper involves checking for errors in grammar, mechanics, punctuation, usage, spelling, citations, and formatting.
In this chapter, you learned strategies for generating and narrowing a topic for a research paper.
Working with one of the topics you just identified, use the research skills you learned in this chapter to locate three to five potentially useful print or electronic sources of information about the topic. In real-life and work-related contexts, people consult a wide range of different information sources every day, without always making conscious judgments about whether the source is reliable and why. In addressing the latter point, be sure to consider details that help you evaluate the sourcea€™s credibility and reputability, as well as the presence or absence of bias. Different professional communities develop their own standards about the writing style people in that community use when creating documents to share with others. How does the writing style function to fulfill the purpose, appeal to a particular audience, and convey a message? Young learners will have blast tooting their own horns by filling in favorite animals, foods, colors, books, writing a self portrait, and more.
Our codes of ethics, for example, assume that we can freely choose between right and wrong. It permeates the popular culture and underpins the American dream—the belief that anyone can make something of themselves no matter what their start in life. It used to be unique, people say, a utopia where people could get tattoos and ride their bikes everywhere and just be weird. The problem was that, amid deepening shortages of virtually all basic products (from rice and milk to deodorant and condoms) finding even one roll of toilet paper was nearly impossible in Venezuela—let alone finding enough for hundreds of workers. What is it that makes humans decide they prefer one thing over another, so that you click replay on one song all day and cover your ears whenever you hear another in public? The school announced on Monday that it will shut down later this month, facing insurmountable financial difficulties.
She has been a frequent presence alongside her husband, Senator Bernie Sanders, on the presidential campaign trail.
The story notes that Trump elevated some women to powerful positions in the world of business, even when doing so was unheard of at the time. It was the Edo Period that was known as the a€?Floating Worlda€?, partly because Japan was cut off from the outside world, and partly because the people of Japan experienced a greater degree of freedom than the average Westerner does today. They did not have any in stock, so I am very grateful to be able to get your colour version of the book Haiku Illustrated poems on line. See the license for more details, but that basically means you can share this book as long as you credit the author (but see below), don't make money from it, and do make it available to everyone else under the same terms. However, the publisher has asked for the customary Creative Commons attribution to the original publisher, authors, title, and book URI to be removed. The introduction should get readersa€™ attention, provide background information, and present the writera€™s thesis. From there, the writer builds toward a thesis, which is traditionally placed at the end of the introduction. Some studies estimate that approximately 40 million Americans, or about 20 percent of the population, are attempting to restrict their intake of food high in carbohydrates (Sanders and Katz, 2004; Hirsch, 2004).
If you find yourself struggling to write an engaging introduction, you may wish to write the body of your paper first. The conclusion should not simply echo the introduction or rely on bland summary statements, such as a€?In this paper, I have demonstrated that.a€¦a€? In fact, avoid repeating your thesis verbatim from the introduction. Your paper must explain what you think, or it will read like a disconnected string of facts and quotations.
You will use topic sentences in your paragraphs to make sure readers understand the significance of any facts, details, or quotations you cite.
In the next few sections, you will learn how to use these techniques in the body of your paper to weave in source material to support your ideas. Identify the main idea and restate it as concisely as you cana€”preferably in one sentence. Read the following passage from a trade magazine article and Jorgea€™s summary of the article. For instance, Jorge used the term obese in his summary because related words such as heavy or overweight have a different clinical meaning.
Inexperienced writers sometimes use the thesaurus method of paraphrasinga€”that is, they simply rewrite the source material, replacing most of the words with synonyms.
At times, he needed to rewrite a sentence more than once to ensure he was paraphrasing ideas correctly. He did not want to quote the full passage verbatim, so he again attempted to restate the idea in his own style. Doing so shows that you understand your research well enough to write about it confidently in your own words. If an authora€™s words are especially vivid, memorable, or well phrased, quoting them may help hold your readera€™s interest.
Omit or replace words only when absolutely necessary to shorten the text or to make it grammatically correct within your sentence.
Sure, for some people, they are great, but for most, any sensible eating and exercise plan would work just as well. For this assignment, you will use the citation format used by the American Psychological Association (also known as APA style). For a detailed guide to APA or MLA citations, see Chapter 13 "APA and MLA Documentation and Formatting". Any paper that analyzes a primary text or presents the writera€™s own experimental research falls in this category.
If you are writing about a work (including nonprint works, such as a movie or a painting), it is crucial to gather information and ideas from the original work, rather than relying solely on othersa€™ interpretations. If you are not analyzing a text or conducting your own field research, you will need to use secondary sources extensively.
These sources are more reliable and add more value to your paper than sources that are further removed from primary research. For instance, an analysis of Alfred Hitchcocka€™s films would focus on the films themselves as a primary source, but might also cite commentary from critics. Because he was relying on secondary sources to support his ideas, he made a point of citing sources that were not far removed from primary research. For instance, if a writera€™s purpose is to inform readers about how the No Child Left Behind legislation has affected elementary education, a Time magazine article on the subject would be a secondary source. It is crucial to always distinguish between the twoa€”as you conduct research, as you plan your paper, and as you write. Plagiarism may be deliberate or may occur unintentionally through careless use of source material.
Recording artists, for example, may disagree about the extent to which one has the right to sample anothera€™s music.
Fair useA legitimate use of brief quotations from source material to support and develop a writera€™s ideas. In a study comparing low-carbohydrate diets and low-fat diets, Heinz (2009) found that subjects who followed a low-carbohydrate plan (30% of total calories) for 4 months lost, on average, about 3 kilograms more than subjects who followed a low-fat diet for the same time. For instance, a writer may be unable to provide a complete, accurate citation if he didna€™t record bibliographical information. Maintain a detailed working bibliography and thorough notes throughout the research process. If you need to consult outside sources to research a document you are creating, follow the general guidelines already discussed, as well as any industry-specific citation guidelines. You maintain your integrity as a member of an academic community by representing your work and othersa€™ work honestly and by using other peoplea€™s work only in legitimately accepted ways. Even when cheating and plagiarism go undetected, they still result in a studenta€™s failure to learn necessary research and writing skills. Ellipses and brackets must be used to indicate words that were omitted or changed for conciseness or grammatical correctness.
To avoid accidental plagiarism, keep research materials organized, understand guidelines for fair use and appropriate citation of sources, and review the paper to make sure these guidelines are followed. That is understandablea€”but leave yourself with enough time to complete this important stage of the writing process. OrganizationIn writing, a quality that describes the paper proceeding logically from the introduction to the body paragraphs to the conclusion. You check to see that your essay moves logically from the introduction to the body paragraphs to the conclusion, and that each section reinforces your thesis. As he read, he highlighted the main idea of each paragraph so he could see whether his ideas proceeded in a logical order. Identify places where adding a transition or recasting a sentence would make the ideas flow more logically. If facts or quotations have been awkwardly dropped into a paragraph, they distract or confuse the reader instead of working to support the writera€™s point.
Make sure any new questions or suggestions in the conclusion are clearly linked to earlier material. He realized that some of his supporting information needed to be integrated more carefully and decided to omit some details entirely. He also realized that the quotation at the end of the paragraph was awkward and ineffective. Each time you come to a place that cites information from sources, ask yourself what purpose this information serves. Speakers sometimes rely on cute graphics or funny quotations to hold their audiencea€™s attention. It is generally best to avoid writing in the first person, as this can make your paper seem overly subjective and opinion based. In addition to checking the points noted on Checklist 12.3, review your paper to make sure your language is precise, conveys no unintended connotations, and is free of biases. Look for instances where a word, phrase, or sentence just does not seem to fit with the rest of the writing.
It is often difficult to evaluate onea€™s own style objectivelya€”especially in the final phase of a challenging writing project. You may even wish to use a sheet of paper to cover everything on the page except the paragraph you are editinga€”that forces you to read slowly and carefully.
On a separate piece of paper, note places where the essay does not seem to flow or you have questions about what was written. Using the spell-checking feature in your word-processing program can be helpfula€”but this should not replace a full, careful review of your document.
I have proofread my paper for spelling in addition to using the spell-checking feature in my word-processing program.
However, it is good practice for learning how to follow accepted conventions in any professional field. He also gave the paper a final review to check for overall correctness and, particularly, correct APA or MLA citations and formatting. Brainstorm to create a list of five general topics of personal or professional interest to you that you would like to research. Identify one media source of information you use at least once a weeka€”for instance, a website you visit regularly, or a newspaper or magazine to which you subscribe. In some cases, these standards may apply to a very broad group of professionalsa€”for example, researchers in many different social sciences use APA style in academic writing. Consider elements of style, such as word choice, the use of active or passive voice, sentence length, and sentence structure.

Griffin recalls that Trump was a hard-nosed negotiator, reluctant to give in on even the tiniest details. In announcing the closure, the school blamed the "crushing weight of the debt" from the purchase of a new campus in 2010, during Sanders’s tenure.
Boston schools superintendent Tommy Chang called for systemwide professional development to train school officials to respond to and handle complaints of racism.
An unscientific analysis by Slate found similar patterns in other districts, such as New Orleans and Fairfax County, Virginia. This freedom was a mix of cross cultural fertilization between artists, craftsmen and women, poets, writers, the merchant and samurai classes. I have had so much pleasure reading your Haiku book and always recommend this to my friends as the most collectable haiku book available. My husband has started reading it now, which is wonderful, as he has never expressed an interest in poetry before. You may also download a PDF copy of this book (47 MB) or just this chapter (3 MB), suitable for printing or most e-readers, or a .zip file containing this book's HTML files (for use in a web browser offline). Think of your thesis as a signpost that lets readers know in what direction the paper is headed. Proponents of low-carb diets say they are not only the most effective way to lose weight, but they also yield health benefits such as lower blood pressure and improved cholesterol levels.
For this reason, some writers prefer to write their conclusions soon after they have written their introduction.
Restate it in different words that reflect the new perspective gained through your research.
The introduction explains the purpose of the research, briefly summarizes previous research, and presents the researchersa€™ hypothesis. However, you also need to support your ideas with research, or they will seem insubstantial. You will also include sentences that transition between ideas from your research, either within a paragraph or between paragraphs.
This technique is appropriate when only the major ideas are relevant to your paper or when you need to simplify complex information into a few key points for your readers. Depending on your purpose, you may also add another sentence or two condensing any important details or examples.
Two 2010 studies that measured weight loss for obese adults following these same three diet plans found similar results.
A paraphrased source differs from a summarized source in that you focus on restating the ideas, not condensing them. Direct quotations from an interviewee or an eyewitness may help you personalize an issue for readers. At worst, it results in a paper that seems haphazardly pasted together from outside sources. For information on the format used by the Modern Language Association (MLA style), see Chapter 13 "APA and MLA Documentation and Formatting". For more information about in-text citations for other source types, see Chapter 13 "APA and MLA Documentation and Formatting". While in-text citations provide the most basic information about the source, your references section will include additional publication details.
A sample reference list is provided with the final draft of Jorgea€™s paper later in this chapter. And, of course, if you take the time to design and conduct your own field research, such as a survey, a series of interviews, or an experiment, you will want to discuss it in detail.
For instance, a popular magazine article on junk-food addiction might be several steps removed from the original scientific study on which it is loosely based. A paper that presents an original experiment would include some discussion of similar prior research in the field.
However, suppose the writera€™s purpose is to analyze how the news media has portrayed the effects of the No Child Left Behind legislation.
Common-knowledge facts or general statements are commonly supported by and found in multiple sources. For academic purposes, however, the guidelines for fair use are reasonably straightforward. In those instances, he highlighted the paragraph in question so that he could go back to it later and revise. Although Jorge had enclosed the material in quotation marks, he knew it was not an appropriate way to use the research in his paper. Heinz concluded that these plans yield quick results, an idea supported by a similar study conducted by Johnson and Crowe (2010).
He also made sure to include a topic sentence stating the main idea of the paragraph and a concluding sentence that transitioned to the next major topic in his essay. A writer may cut and paste a passage from a website into her paper and later forget where the material came from.
For more extensive use of othersa€™ worka€”for instance, requesting permission to link to another companya€™s website on your own corporate websitea€”always follow your employera€™s established procedures. Students who are found guilty of academic integrity violations face consequences ranging from a failing grade to expulsion from the university. The body of the paper develops the thesis and related points with information from research. However, before you begin to address them, it is important to spend time reviewing and revising the content of the paper. You may write in the margins of your draft or create a formal outline on a separate sheet of paper. Then proceed to minor revisions, such as adding a transitional phrase or tweaking a topic sentence so it connects ideas more clearly. Revision may involve deleting unnecessary material or rewriting parts of the paper so that the out-of-place material fits in smoothly. Check that it helps support a point and that it is clearly related to the other sentences in the paragraph.
If you choose to use these elements, make sure they work well with the substantive content of your presentation. Together, your style and tone create the voice of your paper, or how you come across to readers. For example, a paper on new breakthroughs in cancer research should be more formal than a paper on ways to get a good nighta€™s sleep. Use Checklist 12.3 on style to review your paper for other issues that affect style and tone.
It is best to reread for style after you have completed the other revisions so that you are not distracted by any larger content issues. Another reader may be more likely to notice instances of wordiness, confusing language, or other issues that affect style and tone. Mark any areas where you notice problems in style or tone, and then take time to rework those sections. He realized there were places where his overly informal writing could come across as unserious or, worse, disparaging. Check for the issues noted on Checklist 12.3, as well as any other aspects of your writing style you have previously identified as areas for improvement. First and foremost, citing sources correctly ensures that you have given proper credit to other people for ideas and information that helped you in your work.
Many large corporations create a style manual with guidelines for editing and formatting documents produced by that corporation.
When revising a research paper, evaluate the organization of the paper as a whole and the organization of individual paragraphs.
In particular, check that information from research is smoothly integrated with your ideas. Then use freewriting and preliminary research to narrow three of these topics to manageable size for a five- to seven-page research paper. The great Enlightenment philosopher Immanuel Kant reaffirmed this link between freedom and goodness. Black and Latino youngsters were vastly underrepresented in selective high schools as compared to their numbers districtwide, and Asian students were significantly overrepresented—underscoring the complexities among student-of-color groups. In this section, you will learn strategies for handling the more challenging aspects of writing a research paper, such as integrating material from your sources, citing information correctly, and avoiding any misuse of your sources. Note how Jorge progresses from the opening sentences to background information to his thesis.
Meanwhile, some doctors claim that low-carb diets are overrated and caution that their long-term effects are unknown.
The body provides details about the study, such as who participated in it, what the researchers measured, and what results they recorded. At the sentence level, you will need to think carefully about how you introduce paraphrased and quoted material. Over three months, subjects on the low-carbohydrate diet plan lost anywhere from four to six kilograms more than subjects who followed other diet plans. Then read Jorgea€™s initial attempt at paraphrasing it, followed by the final version of his paraphrase. And when you analyze primary sources, such as a historical speech or a work of literature, quoting extensively is often necessary to illustrate your points.
These include two vital pieces of information: the authora€™s name and the year the source material was published.
For example, the interviews may provide interesting responses that you want to share with your reader. As a result, the article may distort, sensationalize, or misinterpret the scientistsa€™ findings. In that case, articles about the legislation in news magazines like Time, Newsweek, and US News & World Report would be primary sources. Sometimes a writer plagiarizes work on purposea€”for instance, by purchasing an essay from a website and submitting it as original course work.
For example, a writer would not need to cite the statement that most breads, pastas, and cereals are high in carbohydrates; this is well known and well documented. For instance, a columnist may excerpt a few sentences from a novel when writing a book review.
What remains to be seen, however, is whether this initial success can be sustained for longer periods. A writer who procrastinates may rush through a draft, which easily leads to sloppy paraphrasing and inaccurate quotations.
Employees may be fired for plagiarism and do irreparable damage to their professional reputation. CohesionIn writing, a quality that describes the elements of a paper working together smoothly and naturally. Adding an introductory phrase helped Jorge integrate this quotation smoothly and establish the credibility of his source.
For example, if you are asked to give a financial presentation, and the financial report shows that the company lost money, funny illustrations would not be relevant or appropriate for the presentation.
Style refers to the way you use language as a writera€”the sentence structures you use and the word choices you make. Too much informality or humor can make readers wonder whether the tour guide really knows what he or she is talking about.
Revising his word choice and omitting a humorous aside helped Jorge maintain a consistent tone. Highlight any areas where you notice problems in style or tone, and then take time to rework those sections. Second, using correct formatting establishes your paper as one studenta€™s contribution to the work developed by and for a larger academic community. Employees follow the style manual when creating internal documents and documents for publication.
Save your list of topics in a print or electronic file and add to it periodically as you identify additional areas of interest.
Sometimes they pretend to like movies they never really watch or music they don’t actually listen to.
Although following a low-carbohydrate diet can benefit some people, these diets are not necessarily the best option for everyone who wants to lose weight or improve their health. You may have a better sense of how to introduce the paper after you have drafted some or all of the body. Other writers prefer to write their conclusion at the end of the paper, after writing the body paragraphs. An effective writer might conclude a paper by asking a new question the research inspired, revisiting an anecdote presented earlier, or reminding readers of how the topic relates to their lives. The conclusion presents the researchersa€™ interpretation of the data, or what they learned. When quoting a print source, also include in the citation the page number where the quoted material originally appears. How you balance primary and secondary source material in your paper will depend on the topic and assignment. In other cases, a writer may commit accidental plagiarism due to carelessness, haste, or misunderstanding. However, if a writer explained in detail the differences among the chemical structures of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats, a citation would be necessary. However, quoting or paraphrasing anothera€™s work at excessive length, to the extent that large sections of the writing are unoriginal, is not fair use. Any of these actions can create the appearance of plagiarism and lead to negative consequences. Tone is the attitude toward your subject and audience that you convey through your word choice. Increasingly, American Psychological Association (APA) style guidelines are the standard for many academic fields. Find a document, such as a newsletter or brochure, that was produced by an organization to which you belong. In a cohesive research paper, information from research is seamlessly integrated with the writera€™s ideas. During revision, Jorge added a topic sentence that clearly connected the paragraph to the one that had preceded it.
Page numbers are necessary only when content has been directly quoted, not when it has been summarized or paraphrased.

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