## Law of universal gravitation vocabulary,jyotish chart interpretation,free online english novels by indian authors fiction - New On 2016

06.01.2015
One of the most important scientific breakthroughs of all times is Sir Isaac Newton's universal law of gravitation, all thanks to the falling apple.

Gravity is the weakest of all and has an unlimited range, but in cases where matter is involved in massive quantities (for example: a black hole), it is the strongest and most dominant one. Ever since it was discovered, the working process of gravity has been explained by numerous theories, which have been explained below.Newton's Theory of Gravity Sir Isaac Newton studied the reason behind the falling apple, and defined it as the law of universal gravitation. The interactive forces occur in object pairs of the same type and magnitude, in opposite directions, and have different effects.

Inertial Mass x Acceleration = Gravitational Field Intensity x Gravitational MassThis principle was demonstrated for the first time on the moon by astronaut David Scott of the Apollo 15 mission, when he dropped a hammer and a feather.

In recent times, attempts have been made to explain the phenomenon of gravitation by the combination several theories, mainly those of Einstein's theory of relativity and quantum mechanics.

Superfluid vacuum theory: The basic and fundamental entity of vacuum is regarded as a superfluid (Bose-Einstein condensate), which mediates the working of gravity through space. Gravity as an entropic force: This theory consists of an association between gravity and thermodynamics, and states that gravity is purely an entropic force, and does not exist due an interaction between a quantum field and the subatomic particles. Non-symmetric gravitational theory: It explains gravity on the basis of the flat rotational curves of galaxies, and consists of a symmetric part (gravity) and an antisymmetric part (electromagnetic field). Induced gravity: On a microscopic level, the Bose-Einstein condensates of gravitational forces are represented as a mean field approximation in association with fluid mechanics.

Self-creation cosmology theory of gravity: This concept states that the Universe has been created from a self-established gravitational field in association with other scalar fields. Brans-Dicke theory: The gravitational forces are coordinated by tensor and scalar fields of general relativity, and the gravitational constant 'G' is not constant. Aristotelian theory of gravity: This concept states that all the elements and entities of the Universe ultimately move towards the geocentric region of the Universe, and all the elements are present in their natural states, forming a shield around the others. NA¶rdstrom's theory of gravitation: Also known as the effective theory of gravitation, it states that the effects of gravity totally depend on the geometrical framework of the curved spacetime fabric. Whitehead's theory of gravitation: Along the geodesic lines, the gravitational waves travel along a flat background, and are controlled by the metric tensor of Minkowski spacetime, and hence, the gravitational potential can be represented by these tensors.

The above-mentioned alternative theories do not have much experimental basis, and hence, are not considered extensively.

We're the largest and most active group of non-believers and progressive believers in the Philippines. Every human being has the same rights regardless of race, religion, sex, and sexual orientation. Promoting critical thinking and the scientific method; debunking fallacies and superstition.

DISCLAIMER: The opinions in this post do not necessarily represent the position of the Filipino Freethinkers. Newton's Universal Law of Gravitation states that all objects attract each other with a certain amount of gravitational force. As we can see from the formula, if the mass of an object doubles, the force will also double.

In the case of planetary motion, since the comet is much smaller then the Sun, the mass of the Sun is approximately the same as the mass of the Sun and comet combined. Usually finding the position of a planet with respect to time is not that difficult if the orbit is circular. Given that the orbit is elliptical, with semi-major axis a and semi-minor axis b, draw a circle from the origin with radius a. By using Kepler's Equation and the information we know about Halley's Comet (period and eccentricity) we can plot the position of Halley's Comet at different time intervals. Kepler's Second Law states that a line joining a planet and its stars sweeps out equal areas during equal intervals of time. When a smaller planetary body like a comet, comes in close contact to a much larger planet, the comet gains speed from the planet's orbital speed. If however the planet is spinning with orbital speed U, the comet would gain speed from the planet's orbital speed and exit at speed 2U+V.

Similarly, if a comet approaches the planet at velocity V1 and at an angle , with zero planet orbital speed, the comet exits at velocity V2 where V2x = -V1*cos , and V2y = V1*sin .

If however, the comet is entering at velocity V1 and the planet's orbital speed is U, the comet would gain velocity in the V2x direction and exit with velocity V2 where V2x = -V1*cos + 2U, and V2y = V1*sin. This gain in comet's speed from a planet's orbital speed is called a Gravitational Slingshot. By using Kepler's Second Law, Kepler's Equation, Newton's Universal Law of Gravitation, and the Gravitational Slingshot, I have tried to explain Halley's orbit.

Gravity is a non-contact force (a force that can be exerted on a body without touching it), one of four fundamental non-contact forces we know of. The latter two are active only at distances as small as those present between protons and neutrons in the nuclei of atoms.

Isaac Newton and others determined, mostly from astronomical data — observations of the motions of planets in the sky — that the gravitational attraction is a property of mass, that it is proportional to the product of the two masses involved, and that it is inversely proportional to the square of the distance between their centers of mass. The graph on the right shows how the force of gravity (Fg) varies as one of the masses is increased from zero and the other is held constant. We generally think of gravity in terms of one variable mass and one fixed mass, like a planet. The universal law of gravitation is called an inverse-square law because the force is inversely proportional to the square of the distance between two masses. The important thing about this feature of gravity is that if we double the distance between objects, the force of gravity is reduced by a factor of four (22), not two. Orbiting is a perfect balance between inertia, the tendency of a body to move in a straight line (not a curve) until acted upon by a force, and the attractive force of gravity. As the Moon orbits Earth, it has inertia, which always moves it in a direction tangential to the orbital path (nearly a circle).

Only a centripetal (center-seeking) force, like gravity, is required to keep bodies in orbit around one another.

Here's another way to think about it: Imagine you've got quite an arm (QUITE an arm), and can throw a baseball very fast. Look at these two scenarios (left) First, you throw the ball at a velocity that produces a forward distance in a given time (let's say a second) that does not keep up with the downward distance caused by the pull of gravity. Now imagine that you throw the ball with sufficient speed that the curvature of Earth gives it enough extra height in any given period of time that the amount of distance it falls due to gravity is just enough to keep it a fixed distance away from the ground.

That's really quite a speed, and it partly explains why it's so difficult to get objects to orbit Earth. A 3 Kg newborn baby at the surface of Earth is gravitationally attracted to Earth with a force of about 30N. Calculate the weight, in Newtons and in pounds, of the Mars curiosity rover, which has a mass of 899 Kg, on both Earth and Mars.

How far apart (in meters) must two 1000 Kg spherical masses be in order to exert a 0.01 N force on each other?

We can use the universal law of gravitation to find the acceleration of gravity near the surface of Earth (below).

This is a good derivation to practice your skills with scientific notation and cancelling units. Notice that 9.8 mA·s-2 is the acceleration of gravity near the surface of Earth, where r = the radius of Earth. In ancient times, Aristotle and others believed that stars, planets, and the Moon moved in divine circles, free from forces of Earth.

The Moon maintains a tangential velocity, which ensures a nearly circular motion around and around Earth rather than into it.

A projectile is any object that moves through the air or through space under the influence of gravity.

For equal launching speeds, the same range is obtained from two different projection angles—a pair that add up to 90°. To become an Earth satellite, the projectile’s horizontal velocity must be great enough for its trajectory to match Earth’s curvature.

The Earth’s curvature drops a vertical distance of 5 meters for each 8000 m tangent to the surface. Example: Swim twice as deep and the pressure due to the weight of water above you is twice as much. Archimedes's Principle states that an immersed body (completely or partially) is buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the fluid it displaces. Displacement rule: A completely submerged object always displaces a volume of liquid equal to its own volume. Volume of fluid that flows past any cross-section of a pipe in a given time is the same as that flowing past any other section of the pipe even if the pipe widens or narrows.

Gravity Probe B, a satellite, was launched in 2004 to measure the curvature or warping of space around our planet.

Gravity is the reason everything gets attracted towards the Earth's surface, and also for the formation and movement of all the planets and other heavenly bodies.

Due to the absence of air resistance in the Moon's atmosphere, both objects reached the surface at the same time.Einstein's General Theory of RelativityThis theory was developed by Albert Einstein between 1907 and 1915.

Also, as several aspects are still on a theoretical level, this concept is right only if gravity is understood on a subatomic scale.A German physicist called Max Planck originated the quantum theory, in 1900, while studying the phenomenon of black body radiation. On a subatomic scale, gravitons are spin-2 interactive particles, which do not have any mass.

This fluid is composed of fermion and anti-fermion pairs, which impart a wave function to the medium for the propagation of gravitational waves. This concept states that all the materialistic objects are hit by tiny microscopic particles (ultra-mundane corpuscles) from all directions. This force is directly proportional to the mass of the object and inversely proportional to the square of their distances. In this situation, the comet doesn't exert enough gravitational force to move the Sun, but the Sun have enough gravitational force to move the comet. The program contain within the picture below is an actual working example of the orbit of Halley's Comet around the Sun. An analogy would be to roll a small steel ball (comet) towards a spinning magnet (planet).

If the planet has zero orbital speed, and the comet is approaching the planet with a speed V, it would be pulled in by its gravity, not gaining any additional speed, and exit with the same speed V but in the opposite direction it came from.

This will have an impact on the orbit of Halley's Comet as every time Halley's Comet comes in proximity with another spinning planet, it would gain speed from the planet and slingshot off at a different trajectory.

If we bring a negative and a positive charge together, the electrostatic force is attractive (brings them together). You can think of such constants as fixed numbers that are there for us to get the units correct. The force of gravity is greater on a more massive person than a less massive person, therefore the more massive person weighs more — weight, unlike mass, is a measure of force. The graph shows that when r, the distance between masses, is small, the gravitational force is high, but as r is increased, the force drops non-linearly.

This idea underscores the notion that for a long time observers were stuck on the idea that there must be some force pushing in the direction of the motion.

But for every bit of tangential motion, there is some inward motion that keeps the path bent exactly to the orbital path.

How fast would you need to throw it so that as it travels, the bending away of the spherical Earth below it is just balanced by the downward distance it is pulled by gravity — it orbits just above the surface?

The forward inertia of the ball keeps it moving forward and gravity bends that path into a curve (an ellipse, actually). Generally when we fire off a satellite, the rocket that carries it accelerates straight upward until it clears most of the friction-producing atmosphere, then turns over to accelerate to a tangential velocity that is fast enough to achieve a stable orbit. Remember that ever body in the universe exerts a mass-proportional amount of gravity on every other body. The location of the center of mass of the Earth-Moon system (the point where the two, if joined by a stick, would balance) is somewhere inside of Earth because Earth has about 6 time the mass of the moon. The dashed circle stays where it was at the beginning to help you see the circular motion of the larger planet. If we travel a substantial distance from the surface of Earth (it has to be big because r is so large), we would expect the acceleration of gravity to be smaller. Jeff Cruzan is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. When he sees the skeptical look on your face, he says that you’ll experience a greater buoyant force if you fall overboard than your friends who wear Styrofoam-filled preservers. Your life preserver will submerge and displace more water than those of your friends who float at the surface. The fundamental forces of the universe include the electromagnetic, strong nuclear, weak nuclear, and gravitational forces. He explained that gravity is a property of spacetime itself, and it is a force that results from the geometry of spacetime and interaction of matter with space, and vice versa. He also presented the idea that energy is composed in the form of small packets called quanta. These bosons form the crux of this theory and are responsible for imparting the force of gravity to any mass-based object.

If any two objects cover each other from these particles, a net imbalance results due to their pressure exerted during impact, and both the bodies are attracted towards each other. Provided below is a bit of extra information about the working mechanism of gravity with regard to plants.Effect of Gravity on PlantsIn 1806, a British physiologist called A. Last spotted in 1986, and with a period of 76 years, Halley's Comet is expected to be spotted again in 2061. If done correctly, the steel ball would be pulled in by the magnet (Newton's Universal Law of Gravitation), and be thrown out at a faster speed then what the ball was initially going in with.

Another aspect in determining a comet's orbit would be that the comet loses some mass every time it approaches the sun.

But if we bring two positive charges or two negative charges together, they repel one another (opposites attract, likes repel).

That makes sense, of course: If there's a baby carriage moving down the street, we pretty much expect the force to be applied from behind, not from the side. Thus while Earth exerts a force on the Moon that keeps it in orbit, the Moon also exerts a force on Earth. Think of a seesaw: Where does the light person need to be in order to balance the weight of a heavy person? For example, all objects will fall in the same manner and will hit a surface, when the air resistance (or friction of the medium) is negligible or absent.In other words, if two objects of different masses and compositions are dropped at the same time, they will be attracted by gravity towards the ground at the same rate, regardless of their differing characteristics. He developed this theory through a hypothetical experiment that involved the effect of gravity on a free-falling elevator, and then predicted warping and the subsequent attraction of objects with different masses, which was later confirmed experimentally.The concept of relativity solved several of Newton's theoretical flaws and became more applicable for modern research. It explains the working process of gravity on a dominantly microscopic scale, as compared to the theory of relativity.

The source of gravitons is called stress-energy tensors, which induce them to form the force of gravity. Knight demonstrated through an experiment, the control of gravity on the direction of a plant's root growth.

This is because the steel ball (comet) gained speed from the spinning of the magnet (orbital speed). This is due to the release of gases and other solids from the surface being heated up by the sun. There is no such repulsive component to the gravitational force; you never see someone walking down the street suddenly be ejected from the planet by gravity.

The slight discrepancy in Mercury's orbit, the apparent bending of light rays due to gravity, several calculations involving astronomical values, etc., are some of the flaws or problems, which can be explained with the help of the general theory of relativity.

Two major theories that work on similar lines of the unifying quantum field theory (standard model) with gravity are string theory and loop quantum gravity.

As this particle type has still not been discovered, this theory lacks in importance regarding gravity, as much as the previous two theories.Developed in the 1960s, string theory is a concept that substitutes the subatomic particles by 1D objects called strings, and various quantum states of these strings are used to distinguish between the elementary particles.

This is because they are mostly black in color and are mainly made up of frozen gases, ice, and dust with a small amount of other solids embedded inside. This change in mass would create a different gravitational force from the comet and therefore changing the comet's path.

All text and images on this website not specifically attributed to another source were created by me and I reserve all rights as to their use. From Kepler's second law, we know that it takes equal times for the planet to travel along the red arcs labelled A, B, & C. Einstein stated that all objects tend to curve or warp the space around them, which leads to the appearance of a 4D space framework. Attempts have been made to unify all the theories into one single concept known as The Theory of Everything (TOE). The strings can vibrate and oscillate in numerous manners, and they are of two types: open and closed strings. Though the orbit of Halley's Comet is not covered in its entirety, hopefully, this project has covered some of the major explanations of a comet's orbit. Since the time to travel arc A is the same as to travel arc C, but arc A is shorter than arc C, then the planet must be moving faster as it follows arc C than when it is following arc A.

Thus, the spacetime fabric allows the motion of free falling objects around the curved or warped space, along locally straight lines called geodesics. The former ones have two separate points, whereas the latter ones are present in a closed loop.One of the oscillatory modes produces the theoretical subatomic particles called gravitons, which in turn are responsible for the mediation of gravity, at least on a microscopic level.

This causes the release of gas and other particles from the comet surface which creates a tail behind the comet that is visible from far away. By finding E, we will be able to calculate the position P of the planet through Kepler's Equation. This condition is caused by the resistance of gravitational force on the body, and it's also called Zero gravity or Free Fall. Though the lines are straight, they get curved in a 4D fabric that includes time.For example, place a heavy iron ball at the center of a trampoline. Thus, the string theory always exists in combination with the quantum field mechanics of gravity, and as the strings exist as the sources of these elementary particles, their different modes of vibration, depending upon the mass and frequency, can give rise to numerous types of other subatomic particles.Another concept that is modeled on quantum mechanics, loop quantum theory results in the formation of a compact and granular structure of the spacetime fabric. The orbit of Halley's Comet is highly eccentric and does not follow the orbits of normal planets. Now, imagine the trampoline to be the space fabric, and the ball to be a large heavenly body.

Positive geotropism is shown by the roots that grow in a downward direction, and negative geotropism is shown by the stem that grows upwards. We shall further explore the orbit of Halley’s Comet using Kepler's Second Law, Kepler's Equation, Newton's Universal Law of Gravitation, and the Gravitational Slingshot.

Now, place a small marble ball on the trampoline surface, and observe as it travels along a curved path, but at the same time, a locally linear path towards the heavier ball.

Galileo's theory, which stated that all things will fall with the same acceleration in the absence of air, was demonstrated by himself, when he released a ball of wool and a cannonball from the Leaning Tower of Pisa. This is exactly how gravity works in the universe according to general theory of relativity.

Though it is the weakest fundamental force in the Universe, the effects of gravity are felt by all living beings more than the other remaining three forces (electromagnetism, strong nuclear, and weak nuclear). Both the objects hit the surface at the same time.Every body continues in its state of rest or of uniform motion in a straight line, unless it is compelled to change that state by external forces impressed upon it. The heavy ball can be considered to be the Sun of our Solar System, and the marble ball as one of the planets. Throughout the last few centuries, numerous scientists, researchers, and physicists have explained the phenomenon of gravitation with as much clarity as possible. This curving of spacetime allows the revolution of planets in their orbits, the motion of comets and other heavenly bodies, the loss in intensity of light waves as they travel through space, gravitational lensing, gravitational waves, etc.Supportive TestsVarious tests were performed to validate this theory, mainly for explaining the process of working of gravity. Technically speaking, explaining its working at the most fundamental level has not been possible as compared to the other universal forces. The orbit of planet Mercury shows an anomalous precession of its perihelion position, which indicates that not only does the planet revolve around the Sun, but the orbit too undergoes a revolution, due to the curvature of spacetime under the influence of the Sun's gravity.

Gravitational deflection and delay of light rays also explain the working mechanism of gravity, especially when such rays pass around large heavenly objects like the Sun.

This test measures the redshift (low frequency) or blueshift (high frequency) of an object, which follows a path of motion due to gravity.

Gravitational waves or radiation have been indirectly studied and confirmed from binary star systems, white dwarfs, neutron stars, black holes, etc.EquationsEinstein developed a set of simultaneous, non-linear, and differential field equations that explain the relationship between objects and the spacetime fabric curvature.

Gravity is the weakest of all and has an unlimited range, but in cases where matter is involved in massive quantities (for example: a black hole), it is the strongest and most dominant one. Ever since it was discovered, the working process of gravity has been explained by numerous theories, which have been explained below.Newton's Theory of Gravity Sir Isaac Newton studied the reason behind the falling apple, and defined it as the law of universal gravitation. The interactive forces occur in object pairs of the same type and magnitude, in opposite directions, and have different effects.

Inertial Mass x Acceleration = Gravitational Field Intensity x Gravitational MassThis principle was demonstrated for the first time on the moon by astronaut David Scott of the Apollo 15 mission, when he dropped a hammer and a feather.

In recent times, attempts have been made to explain the phenomenon of gravitation by the combination several theories, mainly those of Einstein's theory of relativity and quantum mechanics.

Superfluid vacuum theory: The basic and fundamental entity of vacuum is regarded as a superfluid (Bose-Einstein condensate), which mediates the working of gravity through space. Gravity as an entropic force: This theory consists of an association between gravity and thermodynamics, and states that gravity is purely an entropic force, and does not exist due an interaction between a quantum field and the subatomic particles. Non-symmetric gravitational theory: It explains gravity on the basis of the flat rotational curves of galaxies, and consists of a symmetric part (gravity) and an antisymmetric part (electromagnetic field). Induced gravity: On a microscopic level, the Bose-Einstein condensates of gravitational forces are represented as a mean field approximation in association with fluid mechanics.

Self-creation cosmology theory of gravity: This concept states that the Universe has been created from a self-established gravitational field in association with other scalar fields. Brans-Dicke theory: The gravitational forces are coordinated by tensor and scalar fields of general relativity, and the gravitational constant 'G' is not constant. Aristotelian theory of gravity: This concept states that all the elements and entities of the Universe ultimately move towards the geocentric region of the Universe, and all the elements are present in their natural states, forming a shield around the others. NA¶rdstrom's theory of gravitation: Also known as the effective theory of gravitation, it states that the effects of gravity totally depend on the geometrical framework of the curved spacetime fabric. Whitehead's theory of gravitation: Along the geodesic lines, the gravitational waves travel along a flat background, and are controlled by the metric tensor of Minkowski spacetime, and hence, the gravitational potential can be represented by these tensors.

The above-mentioned alternative theories do not have much experimental basis, and hence, are not considered extensively.

We're the largest and most active group of non-believers and progressive believers in the Philippines. Every human being has the same rights regardless of race, religion, sex, and sexual orientation. Promoting critical thinking and the scientific method; debunking fallacies and superstition.

DISCLAIMER: The opinions in this post do not necessarily represent the position of the Filipino Freethinkers. Newton's Universal Law of Gravitation states that all objects attract each other with a certain amount of gravitational force. As we can see from the formula, if the mass of an object doubles, the force will also double.

In the case of planetary motion, since the comet is much smaller then the Sun, the mass of the Sun is approximately the same as the mass of the Sun and comet combined. Usually finding the position of a planet with respect to time is not that difficult if the orbit is circular. Given that the orbit is elliptical, with semi-major axis a and semi-minor axis b, draw a circle from the origin with radius a. By using Kepler's Equation and the information we know about Halley's Comet (period and eccentricity) we can plot the position of Halley's Comet at different time intervals. Kepler's Second Law states that a line joining a planet and its stars sweeps out equal areas during equal intervals of time. When a smaller planetary body like a comet, comes in close contact to a much larger planet, the comet gains speed from the planet's orbital speed. If however the planet is spinning with orbital speed U, the comet would gain speed from the planet's orbital speed and exit at speed 2U+V.

Similarly, if a comet approaches the planet at velocity V1 and at an angle , with zero planet orbital speed, the comet exits at velocity V2 where V2x = -V1*cos , and V2y = V1*sin .

If however, the comet is entering at velocity V1 and the planet's orbital speed is U, the comet would gain velocity in the V2x direction and exit with velocity V2 where V2x = -V1*cos + 2U, and V2y = V1*sin. This gain in comet's speed from a planet's orbital speed is called a Gravitational Slingshot. By using Kepler's Second Law, Kepler's Equation, Newton's Universal Law of Gravitation, and the Gravitational Slingshot, I have tried to explain Halley's orbit.

Gravity is a non-contact force (a force that can be exerted on a body without touching it), one of four fundamental non-contact forces we know of. The latter two are active only at distances as small as those present between protons and neutrons in the nuclei of atoms.

Isaac Newton and others determined, mostly from astronomical data — observations of the motions of planets in the sky — that the gravitational attraction is a property of mass, that it is proportional to the product of the two masses involved, and that it is inversely proportional to the square of the distance between their centers of mass. The graph on the right shows how the force of gravity (Fg) varies as one of the masses is increased from zero and the other is held constant. We generally think of gravity in terms of one variable mass and one fixed mass, like a planet. The universal law of gravitation is called an inverse-square law because the force is inversely proportional to the square of the distance between two masses. The important thing about this feature of gravity is that if we double the distance between objects, the force of gravity is reduced by a factor of four (22), not two. Orbiting is a perfect balance between inertia, the tendency of a body to move in a straight line (not a curve) until acted upon by a force, and the attractive force of gravity. As the Moon orbits Earth, it has inertia, which always moves it in a direction tangential to the orbital path (nearly a circle).

Only a centripetal (center-seeking) force, like gravity, is required to keep bodies in orbit around one another.

Here's another way to think about it: Imagine you've got quite an arm (QUITE an arm), and can throw a baseball very fast. Look at these two scenarios (left) First, you throw the ball at a velocity that produces a forward distance in a given time (let's say a second) that does not keep up with the downward distance caused by the pull of gravity. Now imagine that you throw the ball with sufficient speed that the curvature of Earth gives it enough extra height in any given period of time that the amount of distance it falls due to gravity is just enough to keep it a fixed distance away from the ground.

That's really quite a speed, and it partly explains why it's so difficult to get objects to orbit Earth. A 3 Kg newborn baby at the surface of Earth is gravitationally attracted to Earth with a force of about 30N. Calculate the weight, in Newtons and in pounds, of the Mars curiosity rover, which has a mass of 899 Kg, on both Earth and Mars.

How far apart (in meters) must two 1000 Kg spherical masses be in order to exert a 0.01 N force on each other?

We can use the universal law of gravitation to find the acceleration of gravity near the surface of Earth (below).

This is a good derivation to practice your skills with scientific notation and cancelling units. Notice that 9.8 mA·s-2 is the acceleration of gravity near the surface of Earth, where r = the radius of Earth. In ancient times, Aristotle and others believed that stars, planets, and the Moon moved in divine circles, free from forces of Earth.

The Moon maintains a tangential velocity, which ensures a nearly circular motion around and around Earth rather than into it.

A projectile is any object that moves through the air or through space under the influence of gravity.

For equal launching speeds, the same range is obtained from two different projection angles—a pair that add up to 90°. To become an Earth satellite, the projectile’s horizontal velocity must be great enough for its trajectory to match Earth’s curvature.

The Earth’s curvature drops a vertical distance of 5 meters for each 8000 m tangent to the surface. Example: Swim twice as deep and the pressure due to the weight of water above you is twice as much. Archimedes's Principle states that an immersed body (completely or partially) is buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the fluid it displaces. Displacement rule: A completely submerged object always displaces a volume of liquid equal to its own volume. Volume of fluid that flows past any cross-section of a pipe in a given time is the same as that flowing past any other section of the pipe even if the pipe widens or narrows.

Gravity Probe B, a satellite, was launched in 2004 to measure the curvature or warping of space around our planet.

Gravity is the reason everything gets attracted towards the Earth's surface, and also for the formation and movement of all the planets and other heavenly bodies.

Due to the absence of air resistance in the Moon's atmosphere, both objects reached the surface at the same time.Einstein's General Theory of RelativityThis theory was developed by Albert Einstein between 1907 and 1915.

Also, as several aspects are still on a theoretical level, this concept is right only if gravity is understood on a subatomic scale.A German physicist called Max Planck originated the quantum theory, in 1900, while studying the phenomenon of black body radiation. On a subatomic scale, gravitons are spin-2 interactive particles, which do not have any mass.

This fluid is composed of fermion and anti-fermion pairs, which impart a wave function to the medium for the propagation of gravitational waves. This concept states that all the materialistic objects are hit by tiny microscopic particles (ultra-mundane corpuscles) from all directions. This force is directly proportional to the mass of the object and inversely proportional to the square of their distances. In this situation, the comet doesn't exert enough gravitational force to move the Sun, but the Sun have enough gravitational force to move the comet. The program contain within the picture below is an actual working example of the orbit of Halley's Comet around the Sun. An analogy would be to roll a small steel ball (comet) towards a spinning magnet (planet).

If the planet has zero orbital speed, and the comet is approaching the planet with a speed V, it would be pulled in by its gravity, not gaining any additional speed, and exit with the same speed V but in the opposite direction it came from.

This will have an impact on the orbit of Halley's Comet as every time Halley's Comet comes in proximity with another spinning planet, it would gain speed from the planet and slingshot off at a different trajectory.

If we bring a negative and a positive charge together, the electrostatic force is attractive (brings them together). You can think of such constants as fixed numbers that are there for us to get the units correct. The force of gravity is greater on a more massive person than a less massive person, therefore the more massive person weighs more — weight, unlike mass, is a measure of force. The graph shows that when r, the distance between masses, is small, the gravitational force is high, but as r is increased, the force drops non-linearly.

This idea underscores the notion that for a long time observers were stuck on the idea that there must be some force pushing in the direction of the motion.

But for every bit of tangential motion, there is some inward motion that keeps the path bent exactly to the orbital path.

How fast would you need to throw it so that as it travels, the bending away of the spherical Earth below it is just balanced by the downward distance it is pulled by gravity — it orbits just above the surface?

The forward inertia of the ball keeps it moving forward and gravity bends that path into a curve (an ellipse, actually). Generally when we fire off a satellite, the rocket that carries it accelerates straight upward until it clears most of the friction-producing atmosphere, then turns over to accelerate to a tangential velocity that is fast enough to achieve a stable orbit. Remember that ever body in the universe exerts a mass-proportional amount of gravity on every other body. The location of the center of mass of the Earth-Moon system (the point where the two, if joined by a stick, would balance) is somewhere inside of Earth because Earth has about 6 time the mass of the moon. The dashed circle stays where it was at the beginning to help you see the circular motion of the larger planet. If we travel a substantial distance from the surface of Earth (it has to be big because r is so large), we would expect the acceleration of gravity to be smaller. Jeff Cruzan is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. When he sees the skeptical look on your face, he says that you’ll experience a greater buoyant force if you fall overboard than your friends who wear Styrofoam-filled preservers. Your life preserver will submerge and displace more water than those of your friends who float at the surface. The fundamental forces of the universe include the electromagnetic, strong nuclear, weak nuclear, and gravitational forces. He explained that gravity is a property of spacetime itself, and it is a force that results from the geometry of spacetime and interaction of matter with space, and vice versa. He also presented the idea that energy is composed in the form of small packets called quanta. These bosons form the crux of this theory and are responsible for imparting the force of gravity to any mass-based object.

If any two objects cover each other from these particles, a net imbalance results due to their pressure exerted during impact, and both the bodies are attracted towards each other. Provided below is a bit of extra information about the working mechanism of gravity with regard to plants.Effect of Gravity on PlantsIn 1806, a British physiologist called A. Last spotted in 1986, and with a period of 76 years, Halley's Comet is expected to be spotted again in 2061. If done correctly, the steel ball would be pulled in by the magnet (Newton's Universal Law of Gravitation), and be thrown out at a faster speed then what the ball was initially going in with.

Another aspect in determining a comet's orbit would be that the comet loses some mass every time it approaches the sun.

But if we bring two positive charges or two negative charges together, they repel one another (opposites attract, likes repel).

That makes sense, of course: If there's a baby carriage moving down the street, we pretty much expect the force to be applied from behind, not from the side. Thus while Earth exerts a force on the Moon that keeps it in orbit, the Moon also exerts a force on Earth. Think of a seesaw: Where does the light person need to be in order to balance the weight of a heavy person? For example, all objects will fall in the same manner and will hit a surface, when the air resistance (or friction of the medium) is negligible or absent.In other words, if two objects of different masses and compositions are dropped at the same time, they will be attracted by gravity towards the ground at the same rate, regardless of their differing characteristics. He developed this theory through a hypothetical experiment that involved the effect of gravity on a free-falling elevator, and then predicted warping and the subsequent attraction of objects with different masses, which was later confirmed experimentally.The concept of relativity solved several of Newton's theoretical flaws and became more applicable for modern research. It explains the working process of gravity on a dominantly microscopic scale, as compared to the theory of relativity.

The source of gravitons is called stress-energy tensors, which induce them to form the force of gravity. Knight demonstrated through an experiment, the control of gravity on the direction of a plant's root growth.

This is because the steel ball (comet) gained speed from the spinning of the magnet (orbital speed). This is due to the release of gases and other solids from the surface being heated up by the sun. There is no such repulsive component to the gravitational force; you never see someone walking down the street suddenly be ejected from the planet by gravity.

The slight discrepancy in Mercury's orbit, the apparent bending of light rays due to gravity, several calculations involving astronomical values, etc., are some of the flaws or problems, which can be explained with the help of the general theory of relativity.

Two major theories that work on similar lines of the unifying quantum field theory (standard model) with gravity are string theory and loop quantum gravity.

As this particle type has still not been discovered, this theory lacks in importance regarding gravity, as much as the previous two theories.Developed in the 1960s, string theory is a concept that substitutes the subatomic particles by 1D objects called strings, and various quantum states of these strings are used to distinguish between the elementary particles.

This is because they are mostly black in color and are mainly made up of frozen gases, ice, and dust with a small amount of other solids embedded inside. This change in mass would create a different gravitational force from the comet and therefore changing the comet's path.

All text and images on this website not specifically attributed to another source were created by me and I reserve all rights as to their use. From Kepler's second law, we know that it takes equal times for the planet to travel along the red arcs labelled A, B, & C. Einstein stated that all objects tend to curve or warp the space around them, which leads to the appearance of a 4D space framework. Attempts have been made to unify all the theories into one single concept known as The Theory of Everything (TOE). The strings can vibrate and oscillate in numerous manners, and they are of two types: open and closed strings. Though the orbit of Halley's Comet is not covered in its entirety, hopefully, this project has covered some of the major explanations of a comet's orbit. Since the time to travel arc A is the same as to travel arc C, but arc A is shorter than arc C, then the planet must be moving faster as it follows arc C than when it is following arc A.

Thus, the spacetime fabric allows the motion of free falling objects around the curved or warped space, along locally straight lines called geodesics. The former ones have two separate points, whereas the latter ones are present in a closed loop.One of the oscillatory modes produces the theoretical subatomic particles called gravitons, which in turn are responsible for the mediation of gravity, at least on a microscopic level.

This causes the release of gas and other particles from the comet surface which creates a tail behind the comet that is visible from far away. By finding E, we will be able to calculate the position P of the planet through Kepler's Equation. This condition is caused by the resistance of gravitational force on the body, and it's also called Zero gravity or Free Fall. Though the lines are straight, they get curved in a 4D fabric that includes time.For example, place a heavy iron ball at the center of a trampoline. Thus, the string theory always exists in combination with the quantum field mechanics of gravity, and as the strings exist as the sources of these elementary particles, their different modes of vibration, depending upon the mass and frequency, can give rise to numerous types of other subatomic particles.Another concept that is modeled on quantum mechanics, loop quantum theory results in the formation of a compact and granular structure of the spacetime fabric. The orbit of Halley's Comet is highly eccentric and does not follow the orbits of normal planets. Now, imagine the trampoline to be the space fabric, and the ball to be a large heavenly body.

Positive geotropism is shown by the roots that grow in a downward direction, and negative geotropism is shown by the stem that grows upwards. We shall further explore the orbit of Halley’s Comet using Kepler's Second Law, Kepler's Equation, Newton's Universal Law of Gravitation, and the Gravitational Slingshot.

Now, place a small marble ball on the trampoline surface, and observe as it travels along a curved path, but at the same time, a locally linear path towards the heavier ball.

Galileo's theory, which stated that all things will fall with the same acceleration in the absence of air, was demonstrated by himself, when he released a ball of wool and a cannonball from the Leaning Tower of Pisa. This is exactly how gravity works in the universe according to general theory of relativity.

Though it is the weakest fundamental force in the Universe, the effects of gravity are felt by all living beings more than the other remaining three forces (electromagnetism, strong nuclear, and weak nuclear). Both the objects hit the surface at the same time.Every body continues in its state of rest or of uniform motion in a straight line, unless it is compelled to change that state by external forces impressed upon it. The heavy ball can be considered to be the Sun of our Solar System, and the marble ball as one of the planets. Throughout the last few centuries, numerous scientists, researchers, and physicists have explained the phenomenon of gravitation with as much clarity as possible. This curving of spacetime allows the revolution of planets in their orbits, the motion of comets and other heavenly bodies, the loss in intensity of light waves as they travel through space, gravitational lensing, gravitational waves, etc.Supportive TestsVarious tests were performed to validate this theory, mainly for explaining the process of working of gravity. Technically speaking, explaining its working at the most fundamental level has not been possible as compared to the other universal forces. The orbit of planet Mercury shows an anomalous precession of its perihelion position, which indicates that not only does the planet revolve around the Sun, but the orbit too undergoes a revolution, due to the curvature of spacetime under the influence of the Sun's gravity.

Gravitational deflection and delay of light rays also explain the working mechanism of gravity, especially when such rays pass around large heavenly objects like the Sun.

This test measures the redshift (low frequency) or blueshift (high frequency) of an object, which follows a path of motion due to gravity.

Gravitational waves or radiation have been indirectly studied and confirmed from binary star systems, white dwarfs, neutron stars, black holes, etc.EquationsEinstein developed a set of simultaneous, non-linear, and differential field equations that explain the relationship between objects and the spacetime fabric curvature.

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