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19.10.2015
With a mobile phone (or as my American friends call it, cell phone) you have two main options when choosing how to pay for your minutes, internet and texts.
If you love to use your phone, and it rarely leaves your side then you probably have it on a contract. Like with pay as you go SIMs, it can often pay to research all the deals on offer, as there are different contracts for different people.
The only problem with contracts is that the more you want, unfortunately, often the more you have to pay.
Founder and editor of Technology Bloggers, Christopher likes learning and enjoys writing on the blogs diverse range of topics. I have always stuck to pay as you go method since I only use the phone about once or twice a day. Mobile Network Comparison helps you pick the best mobile phone network in the UK, get free SIM cards or find unlimited data offers. Although O2 are refusing to answer press questions about what exactly went wrong, we know that you are a curious bunch so we looked into it a bit more to try and work out all we can about the background to the outage. Too start with, we have to explain a little about the workings and structure of modern GSM mobile networks. Connected to the MSC are complicated pieces of hardware like the base station subsystem (BSS) which allows 2G mobile phones to communicate with the NSS. The most relevant part to us is the Home Location Register (HLR) which holds information about each subscriber of the network. It seems the problem was that the O2 HLR was not working properly or completely unreachable and hence people couldn’t get a connection to a cell tower as they could not be authenticated. We don’t know all the details about how O2 sets up its HLR but internal documents confirm that the HLR includes information on supplementary services, authentication credentials and subscriber profile information such as details about APN (Access Point Names) which provide data access.
What seems to have happened with the O2 outage is that the database was being transitioned and consolidated into a new Centralized User Database (CUDB).
It offers all of Apple's best features, but for a few that made their debut on the iPhone 6s, and boasts one of the best designs ever to make its way onto a mobile phone.
The iPhone 6 sports an entirely new generation of Retina screen with Ion-strengthened glass and a liquid crystal display.
With an 8 megapixel camera, the iPhone 6 looks remarkably similar to its predecessors on paper. So if you love photography, the iPhone 6 could be the perfect camera for you - even though it might not look all that flashy compared to other handsets. Apple showed off its newest version of iOS earlier on in 2015, along with a few hints here and there about the more recently launched iPhone 6s. In fact, with iOS 9, Apple has opened up the technology to mobile payment services, meaning that users can do more with Touch ID than ever before.
Still one of the most popular phones on the market, with plenty of mobile networks supplying numerous deals for the device - you have plenty of decisions to make.
As more and more users are choosing data-heavy tariffs to satisfy their internet fix, it won't be surprising to see more tariffs offering unlimited data. The iPhone 6 doesn't avoid this trend, and is designed to work with the 4G network in mind. Given that the iPhone 6 is no longer the most recent handset from Apple, it's now quite easy to get your hands on the device without parting with any cash right away. For all the latest information about the iPhone 6, pop your details into the box below and we'll keep you informed. GSM (Global System for Mobile Telecommunication) is the standard or protocol that is used for transferring voice and data (SMS) in the mobile phone network. In circuit switching, a dedicated path is established for a particular session of data transfer from source to destination.
Circuit switching has been used in landline telephone networks as well as in mobile phone networks. In GSM (2G), the available set of frequencies are divided into slots (FDMA - Frequency Division Multiple Access).
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Talking to an industry gathering in Brussels this week, Ed Richards, the UK Telecoms Regulator, claimed that mobile phone networks were “holding back innovation and hampering growth” with continuing threats of litigation, which is preventing the auction for 4G from going ahead.
The original auction date for 4G bandwidth rights was delayed in 2009 by legal battles and now it is being held up again as, according to the Guardian, O2 and Vodafone claim that Three and Everything Everywhere are getting preferential treatment. The hope for Ofcom is that the 4G auction will raise around ?3bn for the Treasury, which will be a huge addition to the income already brought in by mobile networks, overseas calls providers and UK landline telecoms companies, but with the continuing legal battles delaying proceedings, they may have to consider handing back the 4G rights to politicians and further delaying the release of the service in the UK. Frustrated with the continuing delay of the 4G auction, Richards was quoted saying “I think some major companies will have to reflect upon whether they have inadvertently jeopardised the benefits of objective, independent regulation in this area by virtue of their willingness to game the system”.
The current auction rules are now being scrapped after the latest round of protests and the hope is that an auction all networks can agree to will take place in 2012, but with so many companies jockeying for position in the 4G market, it is hard to see a quick resolution.
A mobile phone network or cellular phone network as it is also known, is made up of a large number of signal areas called cells. Within each cell you will find a base station or mobile phone tower, which sends and receives the mobile transmissions. Cells will often be smaller in size throughout large towns and cities due to the number of users in the area.
Communication over the mobile network can be made up of voice, data, images and text messages. Some pay as you go providers are targeted towards those who use their phone more for calling, whilst others focus on those who text a lot. If you spend less than ?10 a month on your phone, Pay As You Go is probably the cheaper option for you. Yes you can have unlimited monthly calls, texts and internet usage, along with the latest phone, however it can cost you the earth!
They enchant you with their advertising, and soon as they have you in chains, they give you the bait and switch. I saw different subscription plans on my mobile carrier and I was surprised to see the different combinations of services they offer on each plan.
Most of my work communication is done through internet means like Skype, chat or email so the phone is just there for anyone who can’t be contacted via those means mostly. I think the pay-as-you-go option is often incorrectly viewed as always being more expensive, though; a lot of people seem to go for a contract when in reality they would be best served with a pay-as-you-go plan.
The beauty of that approach is that if he ever starts to use his phone more we can easily make a change to something that makes more sense.
The internet was awash with unfounded supposition (a pre-Olympics volume update was a favourite theory) and the lack of any firm statement from the networks only served to encourage things. As promised previously, here’s all we know about the cause of the problem informed by our sources, statements from industry insiders and some educated guesses. The core of all mobile networks is the Network Switching Subsystem (NSS) which handles all aspects of call switching (think of it like a modern day operator, connecting users to each other). It has the details of all the registered SIM cards and mobile numbers as well as other information used to identify users. For example, when you try to use the internet on your phone, O2 checks with the HLR to see whether you have permission to use the APN which provides web access.
More specifically, we are pretty sure that the problem was with the database part of the HLR. CUDB node is based on a Distributed Cluster Architecture which guarantees high capacity with an optimal footprint and real time availability. Ericsson’s big rival Alcatel Lucent supplied Orange France with HLR systems that broke down and caused a 12 hour outage for 26 million users earlier in July. With a range of top rate specs, features and an impeccable design, there’s only a few handsets that can come close. But in practice, the handset promises to be the best iPhone camera yet, with an enhanced dual-tone flash, anti-shake technology and a range of built-in features including Time Lapse (the HTC Zoe for Apple, if you like). Our iPhone comparison tool allows you to check out all of our deals to find the best 4G tariff money can buy, so even if you're the most internet connected user on the planet, we should find a deal to suit you. Deals can be found in numerous varieties, with tariffs varying in price and plan, but if you're eager to get the iPhone without it costing you an arm and a leg then it could be the perfect move for you. While the landlines had a physical path established for a call, the mobile phone calls were allotted a specific range of frequencies from the available bandwidth.


In the mobile phone network, the MSC is equivalent to a telephone exchange in the fixed line network. Likewise if you really love having the latest model, there are contracts where you can get new phones as they come out, for free! Whereas pay as you go, you will find these offers from startups who are committed to building goodwill with their customers. More and more plans and types of subscriptions are in the offer, and they’re all for our benefit really.
Central to this is the Mobile Switching Centre (MSC) which effectively sets and and releases all connections – it routes all services across the network.
Some of its functions are updating the VLRs with mobile phones’ locations (each phone can only be on one VLR at a time), and communicating with the MSC. For example, if a caller from London calls another person in Edinburgh, a path is chosen for this particular call, depending on available resources (free base stations) at that particular time. This BSC is in charge of allocating radio channels, administrating the frequencies, handing over the call from one BTS to another if the mobile phone user is travelling. The base stations are connected to a digital exchange where the communication is sent to other telephone or data networks. Think of it a bit like your router at home which lets you connect your PCs, laptops, games consoles and smartphones to the internet through one broadband connection. Mainly, it has to handle the conversion of the wireless radiowaves sent to and from phones into a form that can be understood by the computerised digital systems at the core of the network.
Core provisioning systems were first outsourced to them by O2 in 2009 and they run large portions of the network’s backend.
And knowing that it was due to an error with the authentication database also should make it clearer why people were affected randomly – it all depended on whether you were already connected to the HLR or whether you could get through rather than how close you were to a cell tower or what type of phone you had.
But anyway, there you have it – a bit more of an insight into how mobile networks actually operate and a straightforward answer to what went wrong in the huge O2 outage. Say, the call got routed through the base stations in the following areas - London-Birmingham-Manchester-Darlington-Edinburgh.
In TDMA, the frequency slots are divided again into time slots for supporting more number of calls simultaneously.
The calls usually got dropped, when the internet was being used at a particular access point.
Though these cells are circular in structure, for theoretical and analytical purposes, they are considered to be hexagonal.
It is concerned with location management, handovers, routing calls to roaming mobile stations, authentication and so on. There is also a 3G equivalent of the BSS called the UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network (UTRAN). Some network providers gave the option of putting the internet connection on stand-by and answering the call, and resuming the internet activity after the call.
It also routes calls between the PSTN (landline telephone) and the cellular (mobile phone) network. Another important piece of equipment is the Visitor Location Register (VLR) which stores information about the physical location of each subscriber so the network knows where to find each phone.
In case all paths are used up in serving calls, a new call that needs to be set up, must wait for a path to get freed up. Therefore the voices will sound continuous to the caller and callee (However, a slight delay might be present).
A set of frequencies have been allotted to 3 calls - Call 1, Call 2 and Call 3 (indicated by their respective colours). The next 10 milliseconds have been allotted to Call 2, and the third 10 milliseconds, to Call 3.



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