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It can be deduced that women on average live longer than their men counterparts in almost all countries, except Lesotho, Zimbabwe, Swaziland and Afghanistan.
This content was accessible as of December 29, 2012, and it was downloaded then by Andy Schmitz in an effort to preserve the availability of this book.
PDF copies of this book were generated using Prince, a great tool for making PDFs out of HTML and CSS. For more information on the source of this book, or why it is available for free, please see the project's home page. helps people like you help teachers fund their classroom projects, from art supplies to books to calculators. List the potential problems associated with the growing proportion of older individuals in poor nations. When we look historically and cross-culturally, we see that old age is a relative term, since few people in many of the societies we have discussed reach what most Americans would consider to be old, say 65 or older (or perhaps 50 or older, which entitles someone to membership in AARP, formerly called the American Association of Retired Persons). These differences mean that few people in these societies reach the age of 65 that Western nations commonly mark as the beginning of old age. Despite the international disparities we see in life expectancy, overall it has been increasing steadily around the world. In wealthy nations, older people (65 or older) now constitute 15% of the population but will account for 26% by 2050.
Older people now constitute 15% of the combined population of wealthy nations, but they will account for 26% by 2050. By 2050, the percentage of older people in poor nations will equal the percentage of older people in rich nations today. A major problem will obviously involve paying for the increase in health care that the increase of older people in these nations will require. During the next few decades, the numbers of the elderly will increase rapidly thanks to the large baby boom generation born after World War II (from 1946 to 1964) that is now entering its mid-60s. For gender the inequality is in favor of women, who for both biological and social reasons (see Chapter 13 "Health and Medicine") outlive men across the globe. In most countries, race and ethnicity combine with social class to produce longer life expectancies for the (wealthier) dominant race, which in the Western world is almost always white. Life expectancy differs widely around the world and is much higher in wealthy nations than in poor nations.
Life expectancy has also been increasing around the world, including in the United States, and the increasing number of older people in the decades ahead will pose several serious challenges. Inequality in life expectancy exists within a given society along gender, race and ethnicity, and social class lines.
As our nation and the world both a€?gray,a€? what do you think is the most important problem that will stem from the increasing number of older people?
Write a short essay in which you discuss the problems that an elderly person you know, perhaps a grandparent, has experienced related to being older. Since 2012, the Sustainable Development Solutions Network (SDSN), a global initiative for the United Nations, has produced the World Happiness Report.

SDSN highlight that their rankings are not an index like the longer running Human Development Index (HDI) and more recent Happy Planet Index (HPI). SDSN stress that their findings draw heavily on data from population samples in each country who assess happiness through a life evaluation, producing subjective wellbeing data. Unsurprisingly, there is a strong correlation between unhappiness and the poorest, most fragile countries.
Also rather predictably, North American and European (particularly Scandinavian) countries feature highly in the rankings. AdvertiseMatador specializes in building native content + high impact display for some of the world's biggest brands and destinations.
See the license for more details, but that basically means you can share this book as long as you credit the author (but see below), don't make money from it, and do make it available to everyone else under the same terms.
However, the publisher has asked for the customary Creative Commons attribution to the original publisher, authors, title, and book URI to be removed. When we compare societies, we find that life expectancyThe average age to which people can be expected to live., or the average age to which people can be expected to live, varies dramatically across the world. The major factor is the wealth or poverty of a nation, as the wealthiest nations have much longer life expectancies than the poorest ones. Figure 9.4 "Percentage of Population Age 65 or Older, 2007" depicts the percentage of each nationa€™s population that is 65 or older. Because so many people die so young, poor nations historically have had very low percentages of older people, but this percentage is expected to increase from about 6% now to 15% in 2050. Because these nations are so poor, they will face even greater problems than the industrial world in paying for such care and for other programs and services their older citizens will need. Inequality in life expectancy also exists within a given society along gender, race and ethnicity, and social class lines. SDSN employs an international group of economists, neuroscientists, and statisticians to survey citizens on their subjective wellbeing and produce a comprehensive list of the happiest countries in the world. Troubled African states along with countries suffering under conflict and instability such as Syria, Afghanistan and Myanmar account for the vast majority of the lowest rankings.
Although, spare a thought for Bulgaria, by far the unhappiest country in Europe at number 134 — well below its neighbours. I know for a fact that the swiss, Finish, and Australian general public are amongst the most stressed and unhappy people on the globe and the Israeli top the list…ha haaa ok say no more READ AGENDA! You may also download a PDF copy of this book (61 MB) or just this chapter (4 MB), suitable for printing or most e-readers, or a .zip file containing this book's HTML files (for use in a web browser offline).
As Figure 9.3 "Average Life Expectancy Across the Globe (Years)" illustrates, life expectancy in North America, most of Europe, and Australia averages almost 75 years or more, while life expectancy in most of Africa, where the San live, averages less than 55 years.
This is true because, as Chapter 6 "Social Stratification" noted, the poorest or least developed nations by definition have little money and few other resources. Another problem stems from the fact that many poor nations are beginning or continuing to industrialize and urbanize. It rose rapidly in the first half of the 20th century and has increased steadily since then.

A century ago, many Americans lacked proper sanitation and good nutrition and lived before the advent of modern medicine, when many deadly diseases were rampant. Population Age 65 or Older, 1900a€“2050" shows the rapid rise of older Americans (65 or older) as a percentage of the population that is expected to occur. Economic and social influences are considered along with the survey (namely GDP per capita, social support, life expectancy, freedom to make life choices, generosity and perceptions of corruption), but the focus is on how happy citizens say they are; not how happy statisticians think they should be.
In some African nations, the average life expectancy is under 45 years (Population Reference Bureau, 2009).Population Reference Bureau. They suffer from hunger, AIDS, and other diseases, and they lack indoor plumbing and other modern conveniences found in almost every home in the wealthiest nations.
In Uganda, for example, only 3% of the population is at least 65, compared to 13% of Americans and 20% of Germans and Italians. First, as in wealthy nations, life expectancy is increasing due to better health care and diets along with other factors, even if conditions in poor nations continue otherwise to be miserable overall. As they do so, traditional family patterns, including respect for the elderly and the continuation of their roles and influence, may weaken. Many infants died before age 1 and many children died before age 10, lowering overall life expectancy.
As a result, they have high rates of infant and childhood mortality, and many people who make it past childhood die prematurely from disease, starvation, and other problems. Second, poor nations are experiencing declining fertility; because fewer births means that a lower percentage of their populations will be young, a larger percentage of their populations will be older. One reason for this is that urban families have smaller dwelling units in which to accommodate their elderly relatives and lack any land onto which to build new housing. Americans born in 2010 will thus be expected to live about 31 years longer (a gain of almost 66%) than those born 110 years earlier.
Improved public sanitation and the development of new drugs such as antibiotics helped greatly to reduce infant and childhood mortality in the first half of the 20th century and, in turn, to increase life expectancy (Haines, 2008).Haines, M. The large increase in older Americans overall has been called the graying of America and will have important repercussions for elderly care and other aspects of old age in the United States, as we discuss later. The average African American male will die about 11.3 years earlier than the average white woman. As a result, families in poor nations will find it increasingly difficult to accommodate their elders. Moreover, elders in poor nations have not had a chance to acquire the financial assets enjoyed by many of their counterparts in the industrial world, making them more dependent on their children and grandchildren than the industrial worlda€™s elderly. Yet in sort of a Catch-22, their children and grandchildren typically have few assets of their own and thus have trouble affording to care for their elders.
Despite international differences in life expectancy and the elderly percentage of the population, the world as a whole is decidedly a€?graying,a€? with important implications for the cost and quality of elder care and other issues (Hayutin, 2007).Hayutin, A.

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