Number one according to numerology,how to name baby by numerology,numerology number 3 in 2012 in hindi youtube - PDF 2016

03.04.2016
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Then five months after that announcement, news of another high-profile breach emerged—this one another sophisticated hack targeting prominent Belgian cryptographer Jean-Jacques Quisquater. Now it appears that security researchers have found the massive digital spy tool used in all three attacks.
The threat has been known since at least 2011, around the time the EU was hacked and some of the attack files made their way to Microsoft, who added detection for the component to its security software. The researchers have no doubt that Regin is a nation-state tool and are calling it the most sophisticated espionage machine uncovered to date—more complex even than the massive Flame platform, uncovered by Kaspersky and Symantec in 2012 and crafted by the same team who created Stuxnet. Though no one is willing to speculate on the record about Regin’s source, news reports about the Belgacom and Quisquater hacks pointed a finger at GCHQ and the NSA.
Targets include entire networks, not just individuals, among them telecoms in multiple countries, as well as government agencies, research institutes and academics (particularly those doing advanced mathematics and cryptography, like Quisquater).
But perhaps the most significant aspect of Regin is its ability to target GSM base stations of cellular networks. Kaspersky won’t identify the telecom or country where this GSM attack hack occurred, but it must be either Afghanistan, Iran, Syria or Pakistan, as out of Kaspersky’s list of countries with Regin infections, only those four are in the Middle East. Earlier this year, news reports based on documents leaked by Edward Snowden revealed two NSA operations codenamed MYSTIC and SOMALGET that involved hijacking the mobile network of several countries to collect metadata on every mobile call to and from these nations and, in at least two countries, to covertly record and store the full audio of calls.
The Regin platform made its first public appearance in 2009 when someone uploaded components of the tool to the VirusTotal web site. Guido Vervaet, the EU Commission’s director of security who helped investigate the breach, wouldn’t discuss it other than to say it was “quite” extensive and very sophisticated, with a “complex architecture.” He says the attackers used a zero-day exploit to get in but wouldn’t say what vulnerability they attacked.
Vervaet wouldn’t say when the intrusion began or how long the invaders had been in the EU network, but documents released by Snowden last year discussed NSA operations that had targeted the EU Commission and Council.
Liam O’Murchu, senior manager in Symantec’s threat response group, says the threat landscape in 2008 was much different than it is today and this likely contributed to Regin remaining stealth for so long.
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The intrusion into the EU’s legislative body was sophisticated and widespread and used a zero-day exploit to get in.
Dubbed “Regin” by Microsoft, more than a hundred victims have been found to date, but there are likely many others still unknown.
Researchers with Kaspersky Lab only began tracking the threat in 2012, collecting bits and pieces of the massive threat. Kaspersky confirms that Quisqater was infected with Regin, and other researchers familiar with the Belgacom attack have told WIRED that the description of Regin fits the malware that targeted the telecom, though the malicious files used in that attack were given a different name, based on something investigators found inside the platform’s main file.
Kaspersky has found them in Algeria, Afghanistan, Belgium, Brazil, Fiji, Germany, Iran, India, Malaysia, Syria, Pakistan, Russia and the small Pacific island of Kiribati.
The malicious arsenal includes a payload that Kaspersky says was used in 2008 to steal the usernames and passwords of system administrators of a telecom somewhere in the Middle East. Armed with these credentials, the attackers would have been able to access GSM base station controllers—the part of a cellular network that controls transceiver stations—to manipulate the systems or even install malicious code to monitor cellular traffic. Afghanistan stands out among the four, having been cited in recent news stories about government hacking of GSM networks. The countries where metadata was collected were identified as Mexico, Kenya, the Philippines and the island nation of the Bahamas. It wasn’t until March 9, 2011 that Microsoft appeared to take note, around the time that more files were uploaded to VirusTotal, and announced that the company had added detection for a trojan called Regin.A to its security software. Version 1.0 dates back to at least 2008 but disappeared in 2011 the same year Microsoft released signatures to detect its trojan. These go inside the margin space, one-half inch from the top of the page, next to the right margin.
When the elements require this form of elaboration it is more common to set them under their own subheadings in the text, perhaps following sentence seriation in a transition paragraph under a major heading. The source is formatted with a hanging indent, table notes are formatted as indented paragraphs (MLA 119).


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Acknowledging the source of the copyrighted material does not substitute for obtaining permission. Once the attackers established a stronghold on the network, they were in for the long haul. That’s because the espionage tool—a malicious platform capable of taking over entire networks and infrastructures—has been around since at least 2008, possibly even earlier, and is built to remain stealth on a system for years. These are likely targeted for their reservation systems, which can provide valuable intelligence about visiting guests. They could also conceivably have shut down the cellular network—for example, during an invasion of the country or other unrest. Countries where full audio was being recorded were identified as the Bahamas and Afghanistan. Researchers, and anyone else who finds a suspicious file on their system, can upload the file to the site to see if the scanners consider it malicious. Asked if the attackers used the same malware that struck Belgacom, Vervaet couldn’t say for sure. They scouted the network architecture for additional victims and covered their tracks well. According to published news reports and documents leaked by Edward Snowden, the attackers targeted system administrators working for Belgacom and used their credentials to gain access to routers controlling the telecom’s cellular network.
Putting together information from each, it’s clear the platform is highly complex and modulated and can be customized with a wide range of capabilities depending on the target and the attackers’ needs. Some in the security community believe the files uploaded to VirusTotal in 2011 might have come from the European Commission or from a security firm hired to investigate its breach. Researchers have found some Regin files with timestamps dating to 2003 and 2006, though it’s not clear if the timestamps are accurate.
Prose works cite the page followed by a semicolon, then additional identifying information. Eventually, they infected numerous systems belonging to the European Commission and the European Council before being discovered. Researchers have found 50 payloads so far for stealing files and other data, but have evidence that still more exist. Everything else is of an uncertain quality, something to keep in mind when drawing on casual sources from the Internet. According to published news reports and documents leaked by Edward Snowden, the attackers targeted system administrators working for Belgacom and used their credentials to gain access to routers controlling the telecom’s cellular network.
Then five months after that announcement, news of another high-profile breach emerged—this one another sophisticated hack targeting prominent Belgian cryptographer Jean-Jacques Quisquater. Researchers with Kaspersky Lab only began tracking the threat in 2012, collecting bits and pieces of the massive threat. The Most Sophisticated Spy Tool Yet The researchers have no doubt that Regin is a nation-state tool and are calling it the most sophisticated espionage machine uncovered to date—more complex even than the massive Flame platform, uncovered by Kaspersky and Symantec in 2012 and crafted by the same team who created Stuxnet. Though no one is willing to speculate on the record about Regin’s source, news reports about the Belgacom and Quisquater hacks pointed a finger at GCHQ and the NSA. A pedestrian walks outside Berlaymont, the headquarters of the European Commission in Brussels, Belgium. Countries where full audio was being recorded were identified as the Bahamas and Afghanistan.
It wasn’t until March 9, 2011 that Microsoft appeared to take note, around the time that more files were uploaded to VirusTotal, and announced that the company had added detection for a trojan called Regin.A to its security software. Neither Symantec nor Kaspersky has uncovered a dropper component (a phishing email containing an exploit that drops the malware onto a machine or entices victims to click on a malicious link), but based on evidence in one attack from 2011, Symantec thinks the attackers might have used a zero-day vulnerability in Yahoo Instant Messenger. But Chien says the attackers probably used multiple techniques to get into different environments. Reports about the hack of Belgacom describe a more sophisticated man-in-the-middle technique that involved using a rogue server to hijack the browser of Belgacom system administrators and redirect them to web pages the attackers controlled that infected their machines with malware.
Extended Attributes is a storage area for metadata associated with files and directories, such as when a file was created or last altered or whether an executable program was downloaded from the internet (and therefore needs a prompt warning users before opening). Extended Attributes limits the size of data blocks it can store, so Regin splits the data it wants to store into separate encrypted chunks to hide them.
When it needs to use this data, the conductor links the chunks together so they can execute like a single file. They call the infection “mind-blowing” and say in their report that it consisted of an elaborate web of networks the attackers infected and then linked together. These include networks for the office of the president of the country, a research center, an educational institute that from its name appears to be a mathematics institute, and a bank. In this case, instead of having each of the infected networks communicate with the attackers’s command server individually, the attackers set up an elaborate covert communication web between them so that commands and information passed between them as if through a peer-to-peer network.
All of the infected networks then interfaced with one system at the educational institute, which served as a hub for communicating with the attackers. The log shows commands going to 136 different GSM cell sites—cell sites with names like prn021a, gzn010a, wdk004, and kbl027a. In addition to commands, the log also shows usernames and passwords for the telecom’s engineer accounts. As news of the Regin attack spreads and more security firms add detection for it to their tools, the number of victims uncovered will no doubt grow.



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