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Introduction Just as animals can be classified into phylum and then further into species, data collected in a statistical study can be classified into different categories. Level of Measurement Four levels of measurement – Nominal – Ordinal – Interval – Ratio The higher the level of measurement, the more mathematical calculations that can be performed on that data. Examples Determine if the following qualitative or quantitative and then determine the level of measurement 9)The free throw shooting percentage of a basketball player 10) A survey response to are you predominantly left- handed or right-handed?
Section 1.1 Statistics Is the science of conducting studies to collect, organize, summarize, analyze and draw conclusions from data. Probability & Statistics – Bell Ringer ? Make a list of all the possible places where you encounter probability or statistics in your everyday life. Section 2.1 ~ Data Types and Levels of Measurement Introduction to Probability and Statistics Ms.
1 ? Specific number numerical measurement determined by a set of data Example: Twenty-three percent of people polled believed that there are too many polls.
A small-area census of micro-enterprises in Cape Town townships reveals that informal enterprises are located throughout the township, including in the residential areas.
The revitalisation of township economies and of the informal sector appear to have gained traction in some policy circles at national, provincial and metropolitan levels in South Africa.[1] While much research has been done on the informal sector over the past decades, there are still many knowledge gaps relating to the ways in which to support the informal sector and township economies in order to stimulate employment and income growth.
Little is known about the layout and spatial context of local township economies and the factors that make certain businesses more active (and successful) in certain locations in the township than in others. In our understanding of the informal sector and township economy, there is a gap between knowledge derived from national surveys (such as the quarterly labour force survey, or QLFS) and from small-scale, sector-specific case studies. The research involved a so-called small-area census in each of five residential townships around Cape Town (see Charman et al. Across the five sites the researchers found 3 985 individual micro-enterprises that are engaged in 4 273 micro-enterprise activities. There are broadly similar patterns in the occurrence of micro-enterprises in the five sites. In terms of absolute numbers, retail sales of liquor and grocery shops are the most common micro-enterprise sectors in the sites surveyed – respectively 20% and 15% of businesses are in these two categories. For the five sites together there are on average 32 micro-enterprises per 1 000 people (and approximately 10 per 100 households). Overall, the results indicate higher rates of informal business activities in informal settlements than in more formally established settlements (such as Delft South and Vrygrond). In typical ‘first-world’ cities and towns, one observes a fairly clear demarcation of residential areas, core commercial areas (city centre or mega-mall areas) and shops and shopping centres along major roads (‘high streets’) that feed into residential areas. As Plate 1 illustrates, in the township economy there is likely to be much less spatial differentiation: informal enterprises are found throughout the township, notably including residential areas – and not just in commercial areas or along the ‘high street’. In essence, a conventional city suburb usually reflects the fact that the area has been planned as one in which there are motorised transport, roads and utilities – on a scale designed to match and accommodate a particular population density. Amidst the overall low spatial differentiation, there is a second layer of differentiation.
Of those businesses on the high street, the most frequently-occurring ones are: hair care services (15%), grocery retail (spaza) (12%), take-away food (9%), liquor (8%), house shops (7%) and green grocers (6%). Perhaps surprisingly, the majority of liquor stores, spaza shops and house shops are located away from high streets. Liquor retailers and spaza shops are situated largely in residential areas in response to highly localised demand, with people preferring to consume liquor and purchase groceries in their own neighbourhoods.
The localised-demand dynamic implies that liquor stores, spaza shops and house shops are not much influenced or restricted by the area’s infrastructure or pedestrian and traffic volumes. The residential enterprises in particular reflect the consumers’ need for day-to-day products – a requirement which is both practical (e.g.
The great number of enterprises in residential areas is one of the most significant characteristics of the informal economy in townships and reflects the way in which it has emerged and grown organically to meet local demand. This comment facility is intended for considered commentaries to stimulate substantive debate. The different categories group data based on the type of statistical analysis that can be performed on the data. Objective 3: Identify types of Data In this section we will detail the types of data and nature of variables.
Section 1.2 Objectives 2 Distinguish between qualitative data and quantitative data Classify data with respect to the. 2 Levels of Measurement When we observe and record a variable, it has characteristics that influence the. Descriptive Statistics Descriptive statistics provide procedures to organize data we have collected from studies, summarize sample. GOALS When you have completed this chapter, you will be able to: ONE Define what is meant by statistics.
This article reports on research that seeks to address that knowledge gap (Charman & Petersen 2014). For the small-area census, a team of researchers traversed these areas on bicycles and recorded all identified business activity (regardless of size or nature) within an area of 6 000–10 000 households. These were categorised as 35 types, which are illustrated by the legend of the map of micro-enterprises at Brown’s Farm (see Plate 1, which also shows the spatial distribution of the enterprises). Most township businesses respond to the local population’s needs for food (groceries and takeaways), liquor, household necessities, airtime, hair-care services and entertainment. Together, the top three categories (liquor, spaza shops[4] and house shops) make up 46% of the identified enterprises.
The occurrence of these types of businesses varies between sites, reflecting the particular context of both the site and the settlement. This variation is due to various factors, including the dynamics in a specific settlement, the proximity to formal businesses in commercial or industrial areas, the local infrastructure and demographic factors such as the cultural demand for traditional medicines.On the other hand, there is little variation in spaza shops, with similar numbers (approximately 4 to 5 per 1 000 people) in most of the sites.
Typically there is a mild degree of spatial differentiation that is seen in the form of a clustering of enterprises around one or more ‘high streets’ (while there rarely is a ‘township centre’ as such). In contrast, the township environment has developed more spontaneously and on a much smaller, walking-distance scale – rather than being a reflection of town-planning principles or urban infrastructure considerations.

This regards the types of enterprises found mostly in residential areas versus in the ‘high street’. In the five sites surveyed, more than three-quarters of enterprises were located outside the high-street areas in other streets and in broadly residential areas – as demonstrated in the picture of Brown’s Farm (Plate 1).
This means that the most numerous types of enterprises actually are not situated in what one would expect to be the prime business area, i.e. These neighbourhood shops tend to be roughly equidistant from each other, with each shop serving a small local market without much competition from similar shops close by. This has many implications for policies that intend to promote economic development in the townships.
At the provincial government level, Gauteng and the Western Cape have recently launched new policy initiatives, while the Cape Town, Johannesburg, Durban and Bloemfontein metropolitan areas have active (if still small) initiatives in place to stimulate informal enterprises. To qualify as a spaza shop, it had to be open five days or more per week, have a dedicated refrigerator, signage, and sell at least eight of ten core products, including bread, milk, cigarettes, cool drinks, maize meal and rice. This phenomenon is apparent in the high number of liquor retailers in the informal settlements.
Therefore, knowing the classification of a set of data is the first step in any statistical process.
Quantitative Data A qualitative variable is one in which the “true” or naturally occurring levels or categories taken by. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.AbstractA species of Streptomyces, Streptomyces ginsengisoli, a river isolate, was evaluated for production of an enzyme, L-asparaginase, with multiple functions mainly anticancer activity. The most common enterprises (liquor and spaza shops) are not situated in what one would expect to be the prime business area with its considerable pedestrian traffic, but are in residential areas. It quantifies as well as qualifies the diversity, frequency and vibrancy of the informal economy in the townships through a comprehensive investigation of five townships around Cape Town. It can generate new insights into the informal economy in townships and especially the spatial dynamics of the distribution and functioning of micro-enterprises in urban townships. The investigation, done between November 2010 and February 2013, aimed to identify and record all economic activities and micro-enterprises, even those that were not necessarily recognisable businesses as such but which were run for economic survival or to supplement household income. A much smaller proportion of businesses responds to needs relating to home improvement, furniture or other types of goods and services. Hair care, takeaway food, religious services, street traders, mechanical repair services, green grocers and recycling follow in that order; other notable sectors are educare and healthcare services. The highest number of informal micro-businesses (51 per 1 000 people) was recorded in Sweet Home Farm, an informal settlement on the Cape Flats. The prevalence of enterprises in residential areas is one of the most pertinent characteristics found in the ‘layout’ of the townships; it has many implications for policies intended to promote township economic development (see below). In a township community, high population densities are served by enterprises that locate in the immediate proximity.
The high streets are identified as arterial roads and streets in which much activity takes place, but excluding local residential streets.[7] High streets sustain different kinds of business in scale and scope compared to the overall distribution. The township economy of micro-enterprises has evolved in a relative absence of state or planning considerations.
In particular, efforts to ‘streamline’ the township economy into resembling that of a ‘first-world’ town – by driving enterprises from residential areas – are likely to be counterproductive and will greatly disrupt the lives of township consumers as well as owners and employees of informal enterprises.
Informal micro-enterprises in a township context: A spatial analysis of business dynamics in five Cape Town localities.
Should the enterprise not meet these criteria, it was considered a much smaller ‘house shop’. Azmi, “Microbial L-asparaginase: a potent antitumour enzyme,” Indian Journal of Biotechnology, vol.
The sites surveyed – Brown’s Farm, Delft South, Imizamo Yethu, Sweet Home Farm and Vrygrond – comprise a range of formal and informal residential settings. It is followed, at 39 businesses per 1 000 people, by Imizamo Yethu (a settlement in Hout Bay which has both an informal and a formal section). Rather, policy efforts to support informal enterprises in townships should fully take into account the way that various demand, supply and other factors determine the locational choices of entrepreneurs.
The lowest rate, at 21 per 1 000 people, was found in Delft South – a  mainly residential township with formal housing on the Cape Flats. The effect of various culture conditions on L-asparaginase production was studied by adopting a method of variation in one factor at a time. Of the various conditions tested, glucose (followed by starch) and peptone served as good carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively, for maximal production of enzyme at pH 8. Dhevagi, “L-asparaginase production and molecular identification of marine Streptomyces sp strain EPD 27,” International Journal of Integrative Biology, vol.
PEG-asparaginase, a form of Escherichia coli L-asparaginase covalently linked to polyethylene glycol, was rationally synthesized to decrease immunogenicity of the enzyme and prolong its half-life [1].Actinomycetes are recognized as comparatively less explored source for L-asparaginase and therefore act as candidates for the production of L-asparaginase [15, 16]. Lingappa, “Production, purification and characterization of L-asparaginase from Streptomyces gulbargensis,” Brazilian Journal of Microbiology, vol. Further analysis deals with optimization of different parameters for L asparaginase production.2.
Isolation and Screening of Actinomycetes for Production of L-Asparginase by Plate AssayThe actinomycetes were isolated from river sediment samples collected from various locations in India. The principle on which this screening was based is as follows: The medium contained phenol red indicator which turns pink in colour under alkaline conditions. The enzyme L-asparaginase will act on the substrate L-asparagine leading to production of ammonia which shifts the pH towards alkaline.
Barrett, “DNA methylation patterns associated with asparagine synthetase expression in asparagine-overproducing and -auxotrophic cells,” Molecular and Cellular Biology, vol. The pink zone around the colony indicates that the organism is able to produce L-asparaginase.
Anand, “L-asparaginase: a promising chemotherapeutic agent,” Critical Reviews in Biotechnology, vol.
Enzyme activity was determined on the basis of liberation of ammonia calculated with reference to a standard curve of ammonium sulphate.

Durden, “Glutaminase-free asparaginase from Vibrio succinogenes: an antilymphoma enzyme lacking hepatotoxicity,” International Journal of Cancer, vol. Enrichment, Isolation, and Screening for L-Asparaginase Production by Plate AssayIsolates obtained were screened for the production of the enzyme L-asparaginase by using plate assay method (qualitative method).
Naik, “Fermentative production and isolation of L-asparginase from Erwinia caratovora EC-113,” Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry, vol. Identification of the Selected Strain of ActinomycetesIdentification of the selected strain was carried out by 16s r-RNA sequencing and the isolate was identified as Streptomyces ginsengisoli. Use of Different Media for Growth and Production of EnzymeComparative analysis was carried out by inoculating the culture in different media in order to obtain increased growth and production of the enzyme. Results revealed that higher enzyme activity was observed in ADS broth as compared to other media used (Table 1).
Good correlation between cell growth and enzyme activity was observed when daywise analysis of dry weight and enzyme activity was carried out. Maximum activity was observed on the fifth day of incubation from the day of inoculation of the culture (Figure 2). Lambert, “Production of intracellular L-asparginase from Erwinia caratovora and its statistical optimization using response surface methodology,” International Journal of Chemical Sciences and Application, vol. A positive correlation between cell dry weight (bar chart) and enzyme activity (line) was observed.There are few reports on actinomycetes producing predominantly extracellular L-asparaginase, while majority of bacterial species and few actinomycetes like Streptomyces.
Comparison of extracellular and intracellular enzyme activity of Streptomyces ginsengisoli revealed that enzyme produced by the culture is predominantly extracellular. Rajan, “L-lysine alpha oxidase from fungi as an anti tumor enzyme agent,” Advanced Biotechnology, vol. Actinomycetes like Streptomyces albidoflavus have been reported to produce L-asparaginase within the temperature range of 30–35 [6]. Carbon SourcesDifferent carbon sources like starch, mannitol, lactose, sucrose, and glucose were amended in asparagine dextrose salt broth to determine their impact on L-asparaginase production (Table 3) (Figure 5).
As compared to other carbon sources tested, L-asparaginase production was high in presence of glucose. Wray Jr., “Bacillus subtilis 168 contains two differentially regulated genes encoding L-asparaginase,” Journal of Bacteriology, vol.
Maximum L-asparaginase production has been reported by Amycolatopsis CMU-H002 when ADS broth was amended with starch as the carbon source [23].
Biosynthesis of L-asparaginase by Streptomyces albidoflavus has been reported to be higher when the basal medium was supplemented with starch [27].
Nitrogen SourcesEffect of nitrogen compounds on production of L-asparaginase by Streptomyces ginsengisoli was studied by incorporating different nitrogen sources to ADS Broth containing 1% glucose. Among them culture medium amended with peptone favored maximum enzyme production by this strain (Table 4) (Figure 6). For production of L-asparaginase by Streptomyces albidoflavus, yeast extract has been reported as a good nitrogen source [27].
Effect of AerationConsiderable decrease in enzyme activity was observed when culture was allowed to grow under stationary conditions as compared to the one kept on shaker at 120 rpm (Figure 7).
Enzyme activity of the optimized media was found to be 28% more than the unoptimized media (Table 5). A correlation between agitation speed and enzyme production has still been reported by Jain et al.
Maximum enzyme production was achieved when asparagine dextrose salt broth was supplemented with glucose and peptone as carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively. Thus, use of optimized asparagine dextrose salt broth increased enzyme activity by 28%. Gupta, “Extraction, purification and characterization of L-asparginase from Penicillium sp. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report on production of L-asparaginase enzyme by Streptomyces ginsengisoli.
The present work was aimed at evaluation of the parameters for its production and not at isolation and characterization of the enzyme. Priyadarshini, “Isolation, production and anti tumor activity of L-asparginase of Penicillium sp,” International Journal of Microbiological Research, vol.
Park, “Extraction of extracellular L-asparaginase from Candida utilis,” Bioscience, biotechnology, and biochemistry, vol.
Poorani, “Isolation and characterization of L-asparaginase from marine actinomycetes,” Indian Journal of Biotechnology, vol. Saxena, “L-Asparginase: a promosing enzyme for treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia,” People's Journal of Scientific Research, vol. Gupta, “A rapid plate assay for screening L-asparaginase producing micro-organisms,” Letters in Applied Microbiology, vol. Kafkewitz, “Effect of medium composition on the growth and asparaginase production of Vibrio succinogenes,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. Tresner, “Method for the preferential isolation of Actinomycetes from soils,” Applied Microbiology, vol. Lumyong, “L-Asparaginase production by actinomycetes isolated from some Thai medicinal plant rhizosphere soils,” International Journal of Integrative Biology, vol.
Balagurunathan, “Production and optimization of L-asparaginase from Streptomyces sp (TA22) isolated from Western Ghats, India,” Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research, vol. Kannan, “Studies on L-asparaginase enzyme of actinomycetes isolated from estuarine fishes,” Journal of Environmental Biology, vol.
Lele, “Application of evolutionary optimization technique in maximizing the recovery of L-asparginase from E.
Vijayalakshmi, “L-asparaginase production by Streptomyces albidoflavus,” Indian Journal of Microbiology, vol.

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