Positive thinking scholarly articles,what is my numerology life number,light reading book list,love tarot hermit - Downloads 2016

13.02.2015
Unfortunately, many undergrads do not have critical thinking skills and need multiple opportunities to practice and master their abilities. If used correctly, an online discussion can allow students to take their ideas to the next level with reflection, collaboration, and peer tutoring.
Faculty can create effective online discussions by asking the right questions that focus on analyzing, synthesizing, and evaluating (higher level cognitive domain). Have the students answer the questions by a set date, and then require replies from their peers three days later.
Teaching critical thinking though an online discussion is an important step towards advancing teaching and learning.
Description: In 1507, the copper plates used for the 1490 Rome edition of Ptolemya€™s Geographia were reprinted, together with six new maps, either by the printer Bernard Venetus de Vitalibus or the editor Evangelista Tosinus. Although there had been maps created after these voyages, such as Juan de la Cosaa€™s map of the world in 1500 (based on Columbusa€™ second voyage, #305) and the Cantino world map (circa 1502, #306), these maps were not widely known in Europe outside of the professional circles of mariners and government officials for up to fifteen years.
The oldest printed maps showing America (as opposed to one-of-a-kind a€?manuscripta€? or hand-drawn maps) are the world maps of Giovanni Matteo Contarini (#308), the one produced by Martin WaldseemA?ller (#310) and this map by Ruysch. This map by Ruysch first appeared as an addition to the issue of Ptolemya€™s Geographia, originally published at Rome in 1507 and 1508, together with a commentary written by an Italian monk named Marcus Beneventanus, under the title of Orbis nouo descriptio. Excepting these excerpts, the Orbis nova descriptio of Marcus Beneventanus only contains an exhibition of learning, which is now quite worthless, but which was perhaps necessary, at that time, as an introduction for the new world to her older sisters: Asia, Europe, and Africa.
While Ruysch is believed by some historians to have been with John Cabot on his famous voyage of 1497, his map makes no direct mention of the Cabots. There are several advanced features of this map that are the work of a virtually unknown cartographer.
With the exception of some small maps based on the cosmographical speculations of the ancients, and inserted in the works of Macrobius, Sacrobosco and others (#201), along with the Contarini and WaldseemA?ller maps (#308 and #310), it is one of the first printed maps representing Africa as a peninsula encompassed by the ocean (Note: the Chinese had been displaying Africa in this manner for over 100 years prior to this map, see #227 and #236). Ruyscha€™s map is the first map published in print on which India is drawn as a triangular peninsula projecting from the south coast of Asia and bordered on the north by the rivers Indus and Ganges. Zimpangu [Japan], which was shown prominently in mid-Pacific on the Contarini-Rosselli map is omitted completely by Ruysch.
Ruysch has produced the first printed map on which the delineation of the interior and eastern parts of Asia is no longer based exclusively on the material collected by Marinus of Tyre and Ptolemy more than a millennium previously, but on more modern reports, especially those of Marco Polo. The exaggerated extension given by Ptolemy to the Mediterranean is much reduced here by Ruysch, from 62 to 53 degrees, the actual difference of longitude between Gibraltar and the western coast of Syria amounting to only 41 or 42 degrees. The map of Ruysch is the first map published in print that, following a correction made in the portolanos since the beginning of the 14th century, leaves out that excessive projection towards the east, which characterizes Ptolemya€™s map of the northern part of Scotland. In Northern Europe, the church Sancti Odulfi shown on Ruyscha€™s map, is not the church in VardA?, Finnmark, but the cathedral in Trondheim. Ruysch drew his map as a planisphere on a modified equidistant conical projection with its apex at the North Pole which is another remarkable feature. With respect to the New World, the most notable innovation in Ruyscha€™s map is the representation of the western discoveries. Directly south of Gruenlant the following inscription gives warning of the dangers encountered by fishermen in that region: It is said that those who came formerly in ships among these islands for fish and other food were so deceived by the demons that they could not go on land without danger. Another interesting, but almost illegible, inscription near Gruenlant reads: Hic compassus navium non tenet nec naves quA¦ ferum tenent revertere valent.
The Ruysch map is instructive concerning the location of Greenland on late 15th century maps and those of the 16th century. Some of Ruyscha€™s inland Asian data was extrapolated from Poloa€™s description of his trip from Peking to Bengal, which he says he made as an emissary for Kublai Khan. As regards the continental regions south of Newfoundland, and discovered by the Spaniards and Portuguese, Ruysch was clearly of the opinion that they were entirely distinct from Newfoundland or the pseudo Asiatic country which he had visited and delineated; and that they constituted a new world, as yet imperfectly known, particularly regarding its west coast. Ruyscha€™s map positions a large island in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean between latitude 37 and 40 degrees north. Both Japan and Antilia were described by the influential Italian humanist Paolo Toscanelli in his famous letter of 1474 to King Philip of Portugal, a copy of which Columbus read. This island of Antilia was discovered by the Portuguese, and now when it is sought it is not found. Later, not having been found in the Atlantic, the Seven Cities were sought on the American mainland, where they remained an elusive goal of riches-hungry Spanish explorers through much of the 16th century.
While Ruysch undoubtedly believed that the lands seen by the Cabots and Corte-Reals were part of Asia, he thought that the coasts explored by Columbus, Vincente Pinzon, Cabral, and others belonged to a continent separated from Asia by a stretch of open sea.
The unnamed northwestern continental land in Ruysch is also far less complete than we find it depicted in the Caveri map (#307); and it is certain, from its shape and position, that if Ruyscha€™s prototype had presented a coast line extending, for instance, so far south as 10 degrees north latitude, he would not have cut it off at ten degrees. Most of Ruyscha€™s Asian data comes from Poloa€™s description of his return to the West from China. From Zaiton they travelled a€?1500 milesa€? across a gulf to a country called Chamba, which is plotted here slightly inland as CIAMBA. On the margin of the map, near the North Pole, is another interesting inscription referring to the magnetic pole, which it is said was first located by the English friar Nicolas de Linna, who made a voyage to the north in 1355 and presented to Edward III of England an account of his discovery, with the title, Inventio fortunat. The basis of the entire Ruysch map, according to the historian Henry Harrisse, was a purely Lusitanian planisphere, similar to those of Cantino and Caveri (#306 and #307), but constructed after the former and before the latter; that is, between 1502 and 1504, as we have shown in a comparative description of the continental region which is north of Central America in Portuguese charts.
There are in the section of the map delineating the New World, two very distinct parts, based upon data of similar origin, one of which, however, was modified in a most important respect.
But as Ruysch had himself visited the northern part of Newfoundland on board an English vessel, and acquired from experience positive data concerning the situation of that peninsula, as he calls it: qui peninsulae Terra Noua uocatA¦, without having the same reasons as Gaspar Corte Real to place it in the middle of the Atlantic, within the Portuguese Line of Demarcation, Ruysch, following the charts used by his English companions, brought Newfoundland close to the western continent. Terra Nova, one of the earliest uses of this term for the modern Newfoundland, appears as a large peninsula jutting out from the mainland of Asia, although on some copies of the map, because of wear or creases, it may appear to be depicted as an island. This is sometimes interpreted to be another element of British influence, as the variation of the compass orientation had been noted by Cabot on his second voyage.
Meanwhile, it behooves us to show the Portuguese origin of his geographical data, south of what Ruysch names Terra Nova, which, with him, does not mean the New World, or the country newly discovered, but present-day Newfoundland exclusively; in imitation of the English mariners with whom he visited that island. To that effect, Harrisse compares the nomenclature of the region placed in Ruyscha€™s mappamundi, south of his Terra Nova, with the names inscribed on the northwestern continental land in the Cantino and Caveri maps, both of which are of the Lusitanian map tradition, with no admixture of foreign geographical elements whatever. Ruysch inscribes thirty-six names on his map, but not one of them is to be found either in the de la Cosa map or in any other Spanish map whatever; while thirty-one out of its whole number are duly set forth either in the Cantino (#306), or Kunstmann No. Ruyscha€™s delineations of the South American continent embrace likewise, the coasts of Venezuela and Honduras, which were discovered by Spanish navigators, who, of course, made maps of their discoveries. The configuration of the continental land that corresponds with the northwestern region of the Cantino map is distorted in that map, but perfectly recognizable on Ruyscha€™s. M Polo says that 1500 miles to the east of the port of Zaiton there is a very large island named Sipagu .
In a fascinating example of how a geographic misunderstanding can assume a life of its own, Donald McGuirk has demonstrated how Ruyscha€™s hybrid Hispaniola-Japan was transformed into an atypical representation of Japan four years later by Bernard Sylvanus (#318). In Ruyscha€™s Caribbean there lies a strange triangular landmass, undefined on its western coast, in the position one would expect to find Cuba. This was one of the first printed maps to show any part of the New World and may also be one of the first to include information on that continent from first-hand knowledge. In the state that preceded a€?state onea€? there was a smaller island within this space and it was labeled CVBA.
The southern coastline of Newfoundland continues directly west to the land of Gog and Magog, and thence south to Cathay. Rather than forgetting Cuba, it is obvious that Ruysch deliberated at great length as to how Cuba should be represented. Below Antilia lies LE XI MIL VIRGINE [(Islands of) the Eleven Thousand Virgins], an early reference to the Virgin Islands named by Columbus for the story of St. On South Americaa€™s northern coast is the GOLFO DE PAREAS that Columbus believed lay at the foothills of Paradise. Nearly blocking the entrance to Columbusa€™ fountainhead of Paradise, the Gulf of Paria, is CANIBALOS IN [Trinidad], introducing to maps the cannibalism which Columbus reported about the Carib islanders. In this long inscription in the interior of Terra Sancte Crucis sive Mundus Novus here for the first time, Ruysch describes the inhabitants and natural products of the country following the letters of Vespucci and other sources. Portuguese navigators have inspected this part of this land, and have sailed as far as the fiftieth degree of south latitude without seeing the southern limit of it.
As far as this Spanish navigators have come, and they have called this land, on account of its greatness, the New World. On the east coast of South America is the interesting name Abatia Aµniu sactoru, or All Saints Abbey. Then, where did Ruysch pick up the egregious mistake that transformed A baia de todos Sanctos [All-Saints Bay] into Abatia omnium Sanctorum [AIl Saints Abbey]? Thus far the Spanish sailors have come, and because of its magnitude they call it a new world, for indeed they have not seen the whole of it nor at this time have they explored beyond this limit. The Portuguese, of course, had also a€?come this far.a€? Their discovery of Brazil in 1500 was significant because it was rich in trade potential and because it clearly lay on their side of the papal demarcation line. The Ruysch map is classified by the historian Henry Harrisse as a Type III within the Lusitano-Germanic Group of new world maps (the only specimen that Harrisse places in this Type).
While one of the more widely circulated of all the printed maps from this period, none have exercised so little influence over the cartography of the New World as this mappamundi. As mentioned above, Ruyscha€™s world map more usually appears in the 1508 printing of the Rome Ptolemy. It is evident, from what has already been said, that Ruysch deserves to be placed in the first rank among the reformers of cartography. Beans, George H., a€?The Ruysch World map in its earliest known state,a€? Imago Mundi V (1948), 72. Swan, B., a€?The Ruysch Map of the World (1507-1508),a€? Papers of the Bibliographical Society of America 45 (1951), 219-236. The oldest printed maps showing America (as opposed to one-of-a-kind a€?manuscripta€? or hand-drawn maps) are the world maps of Giovanni Matteo Contarini (#308), the one produced by Martin WaldseemA?ller (#310) and this map by Ruysch.A  While Contarinia€™s and WaldseemA?llera€™s maps, printed as individual sheets, have fallen victim to the ravages of time, and only a single copy of each is known to have survived, a number of copies of Ruyscha€™s map, which was printed as a plate in an atlas, are preserved today.
The question is where is this supposedly larger body of evidence than what you have seen that a peaceful tolerant school of Islam has ever existed? That's why I call on peaceful Muslims to confront these aspects of Islam, and formulate new ways to understand these texts, so as to blunt the force of the jihadist recruitment. If you think a Peaceful Toleranta„? orthodox school of Islam ever existed in the past, or exists today someplace, then you probably underestimate the magnitude of what it would take to reform it, which is theoretically possible. But in almost every case, the Islamic scholars were building on what had been established by Jews, Christians, or others. The reason none of the following examples are on the Tiny Minority of Extremists page is because what they said about IS&J was never accepted by any of the 5 schools. Ibn Sina (Avicenna) (980-1037) - His book The Canon of Medicine was preeminent among European doctors until the 1600s. Sayyid Ahmad Khan (1817-1898) - Indian jurist for the British East India Company and reformer, eldest of the five modernists whose influence on Islamic thought was to shape and define Muslim responses to modernism in the latter half of the nineteenth century.
Adama Dieng (1950- ) - Senegalese, International Law degree from the Hague Academy, was registrar of Supreme Court of Senegal, Secretary-General for the International Commission of Jurists.
The leader of the Muslim Brotherhood, Ma'mun al-Hudaybi, was among the first to welcome and justify the assassination and, and during the trial of the murderers, Azhari scholar and former Muslim Brother Muhammad al-Ghazali testified that when the state fails to punish apostates somebody else has to do it. Mahmoud Muhammad Taha (1909-- 1985) - Sudanese scholar, Reformera„?, often hailed as a Moderatea„? because he was executed for heresy in Sudan in 1985 for proposing a reversal of the rule of abrogation that would make the a€?gentlera€? Meccan verses prevail over the later Medinan. Now he advocates a peaceful understanding of Islam that is compatible with universal human rights and intellectual freedom. Moreover, there is no single approved Islamic textbook that contradicts or provides an alternative to the passages I have cited [advocating jihad violence, misogyny, Jew-hated, enslavement and rape of female war prisoners and the beating of women]. However, despite these positive developments, said Dr Sookhdeo, a€?the essential ideological problems still remained unsolved. Robert Reilly in this interview discusses Mua€™tazilite school and other reformers and efforts, and the debate in Islam on whether the Koran is created or not, and the death of rationalism. In 2007 and 2008 those 3 discussed the weakness of their efforts with Robert Spencer and Bill Warner.
In January 2015 Egyptian President Abdel Fattah al-Sisi gave a remarkable speech to religious leaders in Egypt accusing Islamic thinking of being the scourge of humanitya€”in words that no Western leader would dare utter.
Subliminal Programming is a method used to place pre-arranged thoughts or ideas into the subconscious mind and reinforcing pre-existing information stored in the subconscious or to increase a person’s selective attention. Many scientific studies have proven that if the subconscious mind is intentionally programmed with positive thoughts and ideas, that soon the conscious mind will begin to act with the information it has received and positive results can be easily obtained. Subliminal messages enter the brain at a level high enough for the subconscious mind to see, hear and understand, but low enough so that the conscious mind is not aware and will not block them. It’s not just our conscious thinking though, but also the thinking deep within our subconscious minds that holds the key to our lives.
It is actually the beliefs, thoughts, attitudes and behaviors held at the deepest levels of your mind, as well as your conscious thoughts that make your life what it is today. According to the Cal Poly University Learning Objectives (ULOs), our graduating students need to have this skill. Faculty must model expected behavior and monitor discussions to encourage the students to go beyond their current knowledge by asking for clarification or elaboration. Make sure to inform the students that their replies must have a number of sentences, reference materials, no texting, and use proper capitalization. If you would like to learn more about using the discussion board, please feel free to contact Tonia Malone or Luanne Fose in the CTL for an appointment. In addition to the new regional maps, this rare new map of the world by Johann Ruysch is sometimes found in advance of its normal appearance in the Ptolemy atlas the following year. Only a few copies of these maps survive not simply because they were manuscript rather than printed maps, but also because they were often regarded as state secrets. It is at any rate a remarkable fact that every time Beneventanus deigns to descend from his pedestal of learning, he communicates a fact of great importance to the history of geographical discovery. Johannes Ruysch was born around the year 1460 in Utrecht, which is now located in the Netherlands. Cape Race, which appeared on La Cosaa€™s map (#305) as Cavo de Ynglaterra, on Ruyscha€™s map is called C. Apart from the fact that Ruysch was from Utrecht and sojourned in Cologne, little is known of him.
The southern point of Africa moreover is here placed on a nearly correct latitude, thus giving a tolerably exact form to that part of the world.
Even though it has not yet received its full extension as a peninsula, yet an important deviation from Ptolemya€™s geography is thus made on the map to a part of the world to which almost a privilegium exclusivum of knowledge was attributed to the ancients.
Various new names are here added in Scytia intra Imaum, such as Tartaria Magna and Wolha [Volga], and an immense, quite new territory, an Asia extra Ptolemaeum, or Asia Alarci Pauli Veneti, is added beyond the eastern limits of Ptolemya€™s oikumene [known world]. In its plane state the map appears as an opened fan with the curved, or southern edge, at the bottom. Ruysch depicts the North Polar regions with some geographical basis for the first time and it is believed that the famous Gerhard Mercator was influenced by the map when he prepared the circular inset of the Arctic on his great world map of 1569 (#407).
However, his map is also a mixture of tradition, new information, and misleading conjecture.


An inscription describing nearby islands warns that sailors who had gone to them had been tricked by demons. He labels the waters within the four islands as the Mare Sugenum, and speaks of a violent whirlpool that sucks the incoming waters down into the earth; in addition, his map shows a ring of small, very mountainous islands around the four islands, which numerous islands Ruysch says are uninhabited.
Ruysch judges Poloa€™s TOLMA[N], a region later reincarnated in the New World as part of the Northwest Coast, to lie just south of the realm of Gog and Magog. This coast Ruysch could not admit to be connected in any manner with as he already depicts in detail the eastern Asiatic seaboards, from the point where they merge with his northern regions, to 39 degrees south latitude, which is the termination of the map. In this island are people who speak the Spanish tongue, and who in the time of King Roderick are believed to have fled to this island from the barbarians who at that time invaded Spain. Near the island of Spagnola [Haiti] and south of the island of Antilia is an inscription that tells the story of that island as given on Behaima€™s globe (Book III, #258). Marco, Maffeo, and Niccolo Polo, long detained at the pleasure of Kublai Khan, were allowed to return to Europe when sent as the personal escorts of a bride for Arghun, khan of the Levant [Persia]. Ruysch designates its coast as SILVA ALOE [aloe forest] for the valuable plant which Polo said the king of Chamba offered as part of his annual tribute to the Kublai Khan. However, theses dates are obviously not correct given the notations on the map of the Portuguese discoveries of 1507.
On all other maps of the first half of the 16th century, even on the Cabot map of 1544, it is represented as a group of islands.
More likely, however, the legend originated in a medieval treatise, the same from which Ruysch configured his Arctic region. Harrisse establishes a similar comparison between Ruyscha€™s South America and the latter continent in all of the seven world charts, now known, which circulated in Europe when he constructed his mappamundi. No such designation as the a€?Land of the Holy Crossa€? was ever adopted in Spain for Brazil, or written on any map by the Spanish pilots or geographers of that time.
Glaciato on the eastern coast suggests the work of the Italian editor and Baia de Rockas shows the influence of English associations.
This island lies between 45A° and 55A° east of the coast of Asia, just above the Tropic of Cancer. But a€?Cubaa€? does not appear as such, and historians have long been puzzled by Ruyscha€™s apparent omission of the island.
It has long been recognized that there were corrections to the plates of this map even before the earliest known example, state one - thus the importance of examining an early strike of the map, to better discern these changes.
The vestige of DE CVBA is still discernable, as is part of the coastline of its original (insular?) geography. The stippled lines which represent ocean spill well into the current landmass, both in the north and south.
From the Biblical land of Gog and Magog the people of the Middle Ages expected the coming of destructive races at the last day. Near the island of Spagnola [Haiti] and south of the island of Antilia is an inscription that tells the story of that island as given on Behaima€™s globe (#258).
It has long been recognized that there were corrections to the plates of this map even before the earliest known example, state one. In the state that preceded state one there was a smaller island within this space and it was labeled CVBA. After first choosing to represent it as a small island, he then changed his mind and used the outline of the a€?North Americana€? continental landmass on Portuguese manuscript charts akin to the Cantino map (#306), only in smaller dimensions, to represent Cuba on his map.
This a€?Land of the Holy Crossa€? also contains the term MUNDUS NOVUS, one of the first references to a a€?New Worlda€? on a printed map. Columbus reached this fancy when attempting to explain the variation of the North Star, noted by him near the Gulf of Paria.
It is interesting to note that on State I of the Ruysch map Canibali designated LA DOMINICA [the island of Dominica] instead, which was one of the islands Columbus said was inhabited by that reputably fierce race. This country, which is generally considered another continent, is inhabited in scattered settlements. Not in Spanish charts, certainly, but in a Lusitano-Germanic map, manipulated by a northern cartographer who had read the Latin version of the four voyages of Vespucci, printed at St.
In 1507 the Pacific, still simply the a€?Orientala€? or a€?Chinaa€? Sea, had never been sighted from the American side and had only been cursorily approached from the Asian side. Therefore this map is left incomplete for the present, since we do not know in which direction it trends. There are, both in the Ruysch and Caveri (#307) maps, geographical representations and names showing that their prototypes differed in important respects from Cantino.
We have never seen its configurations reproduced anywhere; and it is only mentioned twice in the first half of the 16th century.
The first of a series on geographical misconceptions,a€? The Map Collector 2 (March 1978), pp. There is little support behind him, much less an overwhelming majority, and his statement does not even oppose the idea of Islamic supremacism, only violence to achieve it. But this cannot be done without actually examining what the texts actually say -- which very thing you claim will make Muslims who abhor jihad violence decide that jihad violence is a-ok.
But in reality, it was founded on pre-IslamicA Greek and Eastern acquisitions in knowledge and innovations.a€? (The Real Islamic Golden Age) You can see evidence of the Andalusian Myth of Islamic Tolerancea„? in the opinions of famous jurists from there. Civilized people owe a debt to Muslim believers like Abu Jaa€™far Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi, whose pioneering seventh-century treatise on algebra, Al-Jabr wa-al-Muqabilah, gave algebra its name and enjoyed wide influence in Europe.
But he was one of the main targets of al-Ghazalia€™s attack on philosophical influences in Islam. He rejected the Cairo Declaration, arguing that the declaration gravely threatens the inter-cultural consensus on which the international human rights instruments are based; that it introduces intolerable discrimination against non-Muslims and women. He criticized the viability of the Islamist project and urged Muslims to reconsider their picture of the past. But he still believed in IS&J, as Andrew Bostom and Fjordman both explained what Taha said in his book. When he started to preach that in mosques, he became a target of Islamic supremacists who had been his friends, forcing him and his family to flee Egypt, eventually to the West. Most counter-Islamist policies are carried out by conservatives who are not prepared to tackle the deeper theological legitimacy which terrorism derives from Classical Islam and the sources. We must avoid wishful thinking, and acknowledge the role of Islam, and Islamic theology in inspiring the Islamists. But he is a military man, and his speech was met with great resistance among theologians as well as the mainstream media. More recently, last week another massively publicized rally of Muslims in support of NYPD anti-terror measures drew 36. In this way, subliminal messages are able to remove negative thoughts, behaviors and habits and to communicate positive suggestions directly to the subconscious.
Most people still believe that their lives are the way they are because of outside factors like background, environment, education, family, economy, fate or luck. The student can provide examples, reasons, evidence, assumptions, implications, and consequences related to the question(s).
It is not enumerated in the table of contents of the 1507 edition and it must be assumed that Ruyscha€™s drawing came into the engraver's hands late in the year, just in time to be engraved and inserted into some of the copies then printed. This situation changed drastically from 1506 to 1507 when three separate efforts to produce world maps were published. This must be noted, as it constrains us to limit our interpretation of the geographical configurations and legends to the map itself. He thus incidentally informs us that the author of this map, which from a geographical point of view marks an epoch in cartography more distinctly than any other that has ever been published in print, had joined in a voyage from England to America. Ruysch may therefore have drawn on first-hand knowledge in producing a map that is independent of the Contarini-Rosselli map of 1506, although there are a number of similar characteristics.
Ruysch also gives on his map a relatively correct place to the Insule ae Azores, Insula de Madera, Ins. The Indian peninsula on the Ruysch map now has significantly more names on both the west and east coasts than the Contarini-Rosselli map (#308) and, further east, Ruysch recognizes that the old Ptolemaic coastline can no longer apply. Here the Chinese river-system is given in a manner indicating other sources for the geography of eastern Asia, than Marco Poloa€™s written words. The first cartographer who adopted Ruyscha€™s reduction, was the celebrated Gerard Mercator. Some of the lettering is also unusual as it appears to have been made by a punch rather than the usual burin engraving tool.
Inland from North America, into Ruyscha€™s a€?Asiaa€? proper, the influence of the medieval imagination is found in the dreaded realm of Gog and Magog from which the Antichrist would spring at Armageddon. South of TOLMA lies the mountainous country of TEBET [Tibet, but actually in present-day Sze-cha€™wan and YA?n-nan], which a€?is terribly devastated, for it was ravaged in a campaign by Mongu Khan . Here dwelt an archbishop with six other bishops, each one of whom had his own particular city. Groves of trees yielding a black wood, which Polo said was used for making chessmen and pen-cases, are noted by Ruysch as SILVA EBANI [ebony forest].
Originally, the region was delineated nearly as we see it in Cantino, and in all the Lusitano-Germanic maps.
The use of the name Insula Baccalauras on the coast of Terra Nova is one of the earliest instances of the appearance on any map of the American coast of that Romance word for codfish, baccallaos. The use of the letter a€?ka€? in this a€?Rocky Baya€? is one of the mapa€™s scant traces of the British flag under which Ruysch is believed to have sailed. Along the Asian coast facing this whirlpool arctic is IUDEI INCLUSI, where the lost tribes of Israel were thought to dwell.
This is shown by the fact that none of his designations for the Honduras, Venezuela, and Guyana coasts are to be found among the fifty names inserted along those sea-boards by Juan de la Cosa, who was one of the discoverers; nor even in the nomenclature of the Ribero map (#346) and other official quantity of cosmographers, who must have followed, in that respect, though it was twenty-five years later, the traditions of the Spanish school.
He depicts no island, whether named a€?Isabellaa€? or otherwise, between that northern continent and Hispaniola. Ruyscha€™s problem was that two of his prime sources of data a€” the recent Spanish expeditions, and Marco Polo a€” both located an island at that spot. In his scholarly work, The Continent of America, John Boyd Thacher made this comment regarding the Ruysch map; a€?The mystery of this map a€” and every early map boasted its mystery a€” is the absence of the island of Cuba from its place in the Caribbean Seaa€?. It is astonishing to think that a map which was published only once, over a period of one or two years, had so many revisions (at least six). Thus the importance of examining an early strike of the map, to better discern these changes. Whether this second configuration represents combined information from Columbusa€™ first two voyages, data gained from Amerigo Vespuccia€™s a€?firsta€™ voyage, an early description of the Yucatan, or some other source has been, and will continue to be, a matter of great debate. Another inherited tradition involving the a€?fairer sexa€? is found in the island of MATININA to the south.
South America is mapped through the Gulf of Venezuela, with the Guahira Peninsula shown as an island (TAMARA QUA). Columbusa€™ association of Paria with Paradise was reinforced by the fact that there he encountered four rivers emptying into the gulf, corresponding to the number of rivers commonly believed to flow from Paradise. While at Dominica on the Second Voyage, a colleague of Columbus wrote that a€?these islands are inhabited by Canabili, a wild, unconquered race which feeds on human flesh.
The name a€?Americaa€? had been suggested only the previous year by WaldseemA?ller (#310), and it is possible that Ruysch had not heard of the suggestion when he made his map or for some reason he did not care to follow it. Die in Lorraine, in May, 1507, and where we see Omnium sanctorum abbatiam, while all the Spanish maps properly inscribe, Baya de todos sanctos (Turin and Weimar charts). Vincent of Vespuccia€™s third voyage (1501-02), hence the name of the mountains shown just inland by Ruysch. The Asiatic coasts are different; the nomenclature presents also a number of names that are in one and not in the other two, and vice versa. The legends on this map are consequently of very high interest, and form a more important contribution to the history of geography than many a bulky volume. He is not an example of the contributions to philosophy Islam made, he is an example of what Islam rejected. In his attempts to re-interpret Islam to accommodate modern Western science, Khan exposed his weaknesses in both domains of knowledge. And that the CDHR uses the cover of the Islamic Shari'a to justify the legitimacy of practices, such as corporal punishment, which attack the integrity and dignity of the human being. Unwilling to argue that: [a] Aggressive texts in the sources should be contextualized, and [b] Sources and models are not applicable to the modern worlda€?.
The enthusiasm greeting both of these sparsely attended rallies was out of all proportion to their actual significance. Subliminal programming is the act of conveying a message directly to the subconscious mind…below the threshold of conscious awareness.
Subliminal programming involves reacting to stimuli that are above your physiological thresholds but below your perceptual thresholds. However, it is not these outside circumstances that ultimately determine our lives that make the difference between happiness and success on one hand, or frustration and failure on the other hand.
An inscription on the map just off Taprobana refers to the voyages of the Portuguese to that area in the year 1507.
The Contarini-Rosselli map of 1506 (#308) and Martin WaldseemA?llera€™s map of the world and globe of 1507 (#310 and #311) were very influential, but not very widely published.
Marcus adds nothing whatever as regards facts and data; instead, his treatise is less complete, considering that he fails to mention either Cuba or the continental land which the map exhibits between Newfoundland and South America. Both maps are on fan-shaped conical projections, engraved on copper in typical Italian style, and select from a variety of Spanish, Portuguese, and earlier sources. In its main features the delineation of eastern Asia, to the south of latitude 60 degrees north, on the map of Ruysch, so nearly resembles Behaima€™s globe (#258), that a common original might have served for both.
On his famous map ad usum Navigantium of 1569 (#406), he gives the Mediterranean Sea a length of 52 degrees. This suggests that the map was prepared for press in a hurry and the punch used as the quickest method of lettering the plate. Ruysch correctly draws Gruenlant [Greenland] as separate from Europe, not connected with Europe by a vast polar continent as some earlier maps indicate. Originally a Biblical saga, the story of these two malevolent creatures developed a rich mythology through medieval lore. In like manner, there is a second peninsula above Norway that usually represents Greenland Island (G) on most maps of the period.
Wherefore this island is called by many a€?seven cities.a€? This people lived most piously in the full enjoyment of all the riches of this time. The historian Varnhagen maintained that it was the land seen by Vespucci on his disputed voyage of 1497. This coast was called a€?Labradora€™s Landa€? as it was first sighted by the Portuguese, JoA?o Fernandes, the a€?llabradora€? or laborer, whom John Cabot had brought with him from the Azores, where he had gone the previous summer to recruit skilled seamen for his crew. This can be seen simply by comparing the eastern profile of the Terra del Rey de portugall (present-day Newfoundland) in Cantino and the King-Hamy (#307.1), with the profile of the Terra Nova of Ruysch, which is exactly the same region.


There is no certain authority for the statement sometimes made that the term was first applied in the west by the Cabots nor for the assertion by Peter Martyr that the word was found by Europeans in use among the natives of Terra Nova. In the Atlantic between Ireland and Greenland lies an island with an inscription stating that this island in the year of our Lord 1456 was totally consumed by fire. But the Spaniards always, and justly, claimed to have discovered that country, as Pinzon had sighted and actually taken possession of the land situated by 8A° 19a€™ south latitude, three months before. For Columbus it was the island of Hispaniola [modern-day Haiti and the Dominican Republic]. Indeed, many scholars of early New World cartography have debated the meaning of this oversight on Ruyscha€™s part. Obviously the printers were taking great care to ensure that it was accurate and up to date. It can be surmised that Ruysch was confused by Columbusa€™ insistence that Cuba was the eastern tip of a continental Asian promontory; Columbus, on his second voyage (1493-94), went so far as to force his officers to make sworn statements that Cuba was such a peninsula, in effect the Aurea Chersonesus or Cattigara of Ptolemy.
This outline continues within the current landmass except to the northwest, where it extends into the ocean as a faint but obvious serpentine line.
No trace of Columbusa€™ fourth voyage (1502-03), in which he stumbled across Central America, is found on Ruyscha€™s map. Pierre Da€™Ailly had declared that there was a€?a fountain in the Terrestrial Paradise which waters the Garden of Delights and which flows out by four rivers,a€? and Columbus himself annotated his copy of the Imago Mundi with a€?Fons est in paradisoa€? [a fountain is in Paradise]. I would be right to call them anthropophagi.a€? That Ruysch, on the later states of his map.
We here obtain notices regarding exploring-voyages undertaken before 1508, of which no other information is met with in the history of geographical discovery. Vespucci said this cape lies eight degrees south of the equator (modern-day Recife), and that thence sailing southwest along the coast they encountered friendly Indians a€?gazing in wonder at us and at the great size of our ships.a€? Vespucci remarked that a few of the Indians, taken a€?to teach us their tongue,a€? volunteered to return to Portugal with them. The caliph Harun al-Rashida€™s son Abu Jafar al-Maa€™mun, who became caliph in 813, established professional standards for physicians and pharmacists. He was severely criticized by the Ulama for the lack of qualifications to interpret the Qura€™A?n and HadA®th.
He has no degree in Islamic jurisprudence, is not recognized as an Ulama scholar by any of the 5 schools. I believe, and I must emphasize that I, Ibn Warraq, alone am responsible for the following observations, that we cannot hope to reform Islam without attacking the fundamental tenets of Islam adhered to by Muslims of all colors and stripes, not just Islamists. Subliminal programming is a method to remove negative thoughts, attitudes, habits and behaviors and communicate positive suggestions directly to the subconscious to affect conscious change to achieve your potential. This enlarged map of the known world constructed from recent discoveries, engraved on copper, is one of the earliest printed maps showing the discoveries in the new world. There is only one original copy of each map in existence today, and both of these copies were discovered in the 20th century. It is even doubtful whether the Celestinian monk, or any of the parties engaged in the publication of the Ptolemy of 1507-1508, had any personal intercourse with Ruysch. By this name he probably designates either the illegitimate son of Columbus, Ferdinand, who sojourned in Europe until his 19th year (1509), or rather the brother of Columbus, Bartholomew, who seems to have been an eminent cartographer.
The African continent on the map is yet another cartographic advance as it breaks with the early tradition which held that there was a land-bridge between eastern African and the peninsula of Southeast Asia. Sri Lanka, under the name of Prilam, is also laid down by Ruysch with about its proper size, and correctly as regards the southern point of India.
Both deviate from Fra Mauroa€™s map of the world (#249), which gives us a representation of these regions much inferior to both Behaim and Ruysch. Ruyscha€™s map is also the first printed map on which, in conformity with the drawings on the portolanos, a tolerably correct direction is given to the northern coast of Africa, by attending to the considerable difference of latitude between the coastlines to the east and to the west of Syrtis, and by giving a proper form to that bay.
So, it was in place long before Ruysch made his map, and to be true, no one knows from what saint it was named. Instead of connected with Europe, he links Greenland with Asia through Newfoundland (Terra Nova). Gog and Magog were traditionally imprisoned behind the Caspian gates by Alexander the Great; belief in the menace was so great that the level-headed Roger Bacon hoped that the study of geography might predict when, and from what direction, their onslaught might come in the days of the Antichrist so as better to prepare to defend against them. Above this is Hyperborea Europa (H) which is a carryover from the Norveca Europa of the de Virga map of 1414 (#240) where it was presumed the Hyperboreans lived near the North Pole. Sailing seven hundred miles south-south-west from Chamba the traveler, says Polo, passes two uninhabited islands, Ruyscha€™s SODVR and CANDVR. Turning north, a€?they had,a€? says Peter Martyr, a€?in a manner continual daylight.a€? The action of the compass in those high latitudes might well cause the alarm expressed in the above inscriptions. By 1506 Portuguese fishermen were hauling so much cod from northern American waters that their monarch sought tariffs on its import. Here the compasses of the ships lose their power, and it is not possible for ships which have iron on board to return.
It is tempting to suggest that this is an epitaph for the fabulous island of Brasil from Irish legend.
The other six originated in Portugal, and were delineated during the first few years of the 16th century. They consequently never accepted its Lusitanian name, and invariably called that region Tierra del Brasil. Henry Harrisse, in his book, The Discovery of North America, states that as early as 1526 Franciscus Monachus criticized the Ruysch map for its depictions in the Caribbean Sea. Apparently much soul- searching was done in the choosing of its delineations, especially in regard to the New World. Within this smaller island, and to the left of the name CORVEO are found the faint letters DE CV Under the small triangle preceding the name CORVEO is the letter B and under the following C the letter A is found.
At the southern end of South America another inscription states that the Portuguese had sailed as far south as 50A° latitude without seeing the southern limit of the land, possibly also a reference to Vespuccia€™s third voyage.
Abu Bakr al-Razi, or Rhazes, wrote lengthy treatises on medicine and alchemy that influenced the development of medical science and chemistry in medieval Europe. What makes change in the beliefs of individuals from the Muslim world difficult is the fact that there is no culture of dissent or free thought, or a tradition of uninhibited exchange of ideas as in the West.
We shall never make progress until we subject the Koran to the kind of analysis and criticism that was applied to the Bible by Spinoza in the 17th Century, and the great German scholars of the Nineteenth Century, such as Julius Wellhausen and Albert Schweitzer.
He is an example of a Muslim who learned what his family taught him from Islam Three, and admits he doesna€™t know as much as Spencer about Islamic theology (Islam Two), and doesna€™t know anyone who wants their kids to become imams. By contrast, Johannes Ruyscha€™s 1508 map of the world was much more widely published and many copies were produced and still exist. Otherwise we would certainly find in the elaborate description that Marcus Beneventanus gives of the transatlantic discoveries of the Spaniards and Portuguese, some statement or name that should have been omitted in the map.
For there is an annotation on a copy of: Paesi nouvamente retrovaetc, Vicentia 1507, at the library Magliabechi, stating that Bartholomew, when visiting Rome in 1505, wrote, for a canon of the church of San Giovanni di Laterano, a narrative of the first voyage across the ocean, to which a map of the new discoveries was appended.
It is thought (see the Beneventanus commentary below) that he accompanied John Cabot on his expedition to North America in 1497 and 1498, or, considering the prevalence of Portuguese names on his 1507 map, a Portuguese ship leaving from Bristol. Ruysch adopts the Portuguese name, Terra Sancte Crucis [Land of the Holy Cross] for South America instead of Tierra del Brazil, the name used by the Spaniards. It is also the first map that shows the Portuguese discoveries and landfalls along the southern and Cape coasts. Taprobana is placed further towards the East Indian peninsula, in which position this geographical remnant from the time of Alexander the Great was retained, down to the middle of the 16th century. Neither is it any reason for thinking that the island above Norway is meant to be Svalbard. In addition, he shows the northern polar regions as a basin with a number of islands, thus prompting the long-held hope for a Northwest passage from Europe to Asia. This threat was quite real to Columbus, who figured himself prominently into the events, believed by him to be close at hand, leading to the end of the world.
Across the vertical ocean or Ginnungagap (GP) is a caption that cautions mariners not to rely upon compass bearings as the compass fails in this region. Among the Polean islands lying further to the south on Ruyscha€™s map is AGAMA, which like TOLMA would later be transposed to the New World as a region of the Northwest Coast.
The evidence that the landfall of the Cabots was Greenland and not Labrador is cited by Biggar. There are forests, mountains and rivers: there is the greatest abundance of pearls and gold. The famous Muslim philosopher Avicenna (Ibn Sina) wrote a medical textbook that was preeminent among European doctors for five centuriesa€”until the 1600s. These two aspects alone place Hamid in a privileged position to comment on radical Islama€?. Individuals remain firmly wedded to their ideologies - abandonment of their beliefs is a far more traumatic affair in the Islamic world - apart from being dangerous. We must embark on a series of translations into Arabic of works of Koranic criticism, of skepticism, of the great books of Western civilization. He opposes the Muslim Brotherhood and what he calls a€?political Islama€?, and is in favor of separation of mosque and State. The few personal details given by the commentator and by Thomas Aucuparius in the preface were most probably conveyed by a letter accompanying the map when it was sent in manuscript from Germany to Rome. His general accuracy in the eastern hemisphere is almost certainly due to contemporary information gained from Portuguese navigators and explorers. Ruysch seems to have had no doubt that Gruenlant was a part of Asia and not of Europe as usually represented on maps of this period.
In the gulf formed by North America and the ominous land of Gog and Magog lies the Spanish Main, the Caribbean, which in Ruyscha€™s mind was really the China Sea. Usually, maps had this caption southwest of Greenlanda€”thus one may be on good grounds for identifying the land here called Grvenlant as Labrador (L). Mixing Polean, Portuguese, and Ptolemaic data, Ruysch charts a JAVA MAJOR and LAVA MINOR, Poloa€™s Java and Sumatra respectively. Ruysch uses the term to designate the entire peninsula of North America, and names its most southeasterly point as C.
Cannibalism had, though, been reported independently by early mainland explorers, such as Vespucci, perhaps rendering the Trindad association more plausible in Ruyscha€™s mind. Unfortunately, however, they were never formally rejected, and are being reasserted today by jihad recruiters who quote Qur'an, Sunnah, and fiqh in order to support their positions. We must support the separation of religion and state, and secularists in the Islamic world. That is of course great to hear from a Muslim but remember - he is not allowed to speak in any American Mosque, his views are not seriously debated, and he has little popular support. According to the historian Henry Harrisse, if Ruysch had supervised the engraving in person, the probability is that the nomenclature would have been entirely in Latin, or according to its original Portuguese form, instead of being so frequently Italianized, as is seen in the pronoun a€?doa€?, everywhere written a€?dea€?, and in the words Terra secca, C. This may be a notice respecting the same map, that Marcus Beneventanus had seen with a€?Columbus Nepos,a€? and which appears to have been partly copied by Ruysch, whose map consequently may be regarded as a direct illustration of the ideas prevailing in the family of Columbus as to the distribution of the continents and oceans of the globe. Off the coast of Gruenlant is the location of an island that was totally consumed by fire in the year of our Lord, 1456. Since most historians have assumed this is simply another frivolous naminga€”we can understand the controversy over whether the Spanish navigator Fernandez (The Labrador) actually discovered Greenland or Labrador. He creates a a€?moderna€? Sri Lanka [PRILAM] from Portuguese sources but exiles the old TAPROBANA, the Sri Lanka or Ceylon of Ptolemy, to the east, giving it both the old and new names (TAPROBANA ALIAS ZOILON), and mistakenly notes the 1507 Portuguese landfall in Sri Lanka by it rather than by Prilam.
Popularly it was also called La terra dagli Papaga [Parrotsa€™ Land], on account of those large and beautiful birds that Gaspar de Lemos brought to Portugal. Then it is more probable that this feature of the map is inspired by the Inventio Fortunatae, or from the fact that the old cartographers wanted the landmasses to be in balance. Then there is whole culture of honor and shame: a change in beliefs would bring shame on their family, tribe, and religion. The very idea would go against over 1300 years of scholarly consensus, so how easy do you think it would really be to separate Mosque from State? Glaciato and Capo formoso, which certainly indicate a translation of Portuguese names, made not by a German, but by an Italian, without being errors of the engraver.
The one inscription to the left of India states that this sea, which on the Ptolemaic maps was represented as landlocked (#119), was shown by the Portuguese to be connected with the ocean. On the other hand, we know that several cartographers identified North American mainland as a€?Greenlanda€? so the label for Labrador on this map is not so unusual. De Fundabril on the peninsula extending toward Spagnola is suggestive of Cuba as that name was given by Columbus, on his second voyage, to a cape on the coast of Cuba which he left the on the 30th of April. He is thought to be the a€?Fleming called Johna€?, a close friend of Raphael who at one point resided with him.
On Taprobane (alias Zoilon), which almost corresponds to the immense island currently called Sumatra, there is a long legend, partly borrowed from Ptolemy, but with the interesting addition that Portuguese mariners arrived there in 1507.
On the scroll upon the west coast of this unnamed land is the inscription: As far as this the ships of Ferdinand have come. South of JAVA MINOR [Sumatra] an inscription refers to an archipelago of precisely 7,448 islands reported by Polo, probably the Philippines but here suggesting Indonesia. BACCALAURAS [codfish island], testifying to that fisha€™s profound influence on early Atlantic exploration. Crvcis, but Cabo de Santa Maria de la Consolacion which is the name given to that cape by Pinzon on January 26, 1500, or Rostro Hermoso, as he also, if not de Lepe, named it.
It has been suggested that he assisted and advised Raphael on his 1509-1510 Astronomia and other frescoes in the Stanza della segnatura.
Another legend on the southeastern parts of Asia alludes to the existence of numerous islands in that part of the ocean, of which notices from Indian merchants seem to have already reached Europe. This term, in its sundry Romance variations, soon became a major place-name associated with North America. Not long after, Ruysch went to work at the Portuguese court as cartographer and astronomer, presumably by recommendation of Julius II who was a friend of Manuel I of Portugal. This Portuguese influence may be due only to the fact that Portuguese charts, while kept in great secrecy, were more numerous than Spanish ones.
This comment, as well as the rivera€™s latitude and its probable origin in the Corte-Real voyages, all suggest that this is the Gulf of St.
The adjacent features also make sense in this interpretation; C GLACIATO (a reference to glacial waters) would be Newfound-land, C DE PORTOGESI would be Nova Scotia, and IN BACCALAURAS would be Cape Breton or Prince Edward Island. This Chinese Li was by the European cartographers confounded with the Italian mile (60 = 1 degree).




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