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Right away there?s a distinction made between a linear and a switch mode power supply, what?s the difference? There are essentially two types of power supply, a ?linear? power supply and a ?switch mode? power supply. Linear power supplies consist of a transformer, rectifier bridge, capacitors, regulation circuit and some protection content to shut down the supply in case the output voltage goes too high or low, or the load short circuits. A switch mode power supply substitutes the larger heavy transformer from the linear supply and replaces it by switching a smaller transformer with a pulsed AC waveform. Each type of supply contains a common component in the Diode Bridge for the Linear and a BD101 designation in this example for the SMPS. The Linear power supply should be relabelled as something else, because what it presents to the AC mains is far from linear as well as for the SMPS, the levels of current distortion, primarily and voltage distortion secondary are created by both power supplies equally. If either power supply is connected to the mains circuit, creation of harmonics adds to the complications. A question often asked by audio enthusiasts which power supply works best with a Mac mini, or PC server.
In effect, you are connecting the protective earth to the equipment the power supply is to drive. If you don't need high currents , you can use a voltage doubler with 2 diodes and capacitors easily .
For example, lets say you have two 12V PSUs and both of them have the negative terminal connected to safety ground.
Need to cut the grounded center tap on the low voltage secondary and to mount the fast rectifier diodes. In order to manually turn on an ATX power supply we only need to pull the PS_ON pins (for each unit) to the ground.
By connecting series the two power supply units to obtain an 24V output, one of the chassis remain connected to the +12V of the second unit, so you need to keep the two power supply units chassis separated, see the attached diagram.
Pulse generator circuit for pulses in sub-nanosecond region » Similar Threads Looking for simple DC-DC Dual Rail PSU with Voltage Regulation (8) PSU voltage monitor with LM3914 (1) How to increase voltage 5-12? The voltage available from a wall outlet is a poorly regulated AC ranged worldwide from 90V to 240V, while most electronic circuits require a well stabilized low-voltage DC.
A PC power supply unit (PSU) is an internal device that converts an input AC to a set of regulated DC voltages needed by personal computer.

Below you will find schematic diagrams, reviews, pinouts, specifications, and other useful information for repair and electronic projects. Don't try to repair a PSU at home unless you are trained in electronics and know how to deal safely with high voltage!
Your use of this website constitutes acknowledgement and acceptance of our Terms & Conditions. RF emissions caused by switching and coupling to earth is achieved by filtering, minimally to comply with IEC noise emission regulations, but doesn?t get rid of the noise into the AC line, totally. Primarily the output specification needs to match the specification drawn by the load, how stable the power supply can provide the voltage and current.
Either method generates crud on the AC mains, at least SMPS can modulate to try and mask the pulsed currents to a degree and offer token efforts of power factor correction. Depending on the nature of the apparatus, there maybe caps in circuit between the 0V and earth to prevent conducted noise to escape, albeit with limited effects. When you connect the positive terminal of PSU A to the negative terminal of PSU B, you are short circuiting PSU A because now both it's positive and negative output terminals are connected to ground.
Conveniently, the PS_ON pin(the green wire) has two GND pins next to it on the same row, so we need to connect the green wire to a black wire. Modern units usually include a PFC front end followed by half-bridge or forward converter (see topologies).
Later on they've added Bronze, Silver, Gold and Platinum labels for higher levels of efficiency (up to 92%) with PF up to 0.95. As far as AC power is concerned, the interaction of the diodes and capacitors is the same because the current drawn from the AC power is in pulses and not a nice constant fashion, like a heater. Pretty much these expectations are readily achievable; the amount of noise on the output and ripple in mV is readily stated, well sometimes. Not loading the outputs up enough will cause the power supply to turn on only briefly and then go back into standby.
Additional "point of load" DC-DC converters step down 12V to the CPU core voltage and to other low potentials needed for motherboard components.
The updated ENERGY STAR Computer Specification Version 5.0 sets similar requirements for internal PSU. The main causes of PSU failure are overheating, voltage surges in the input line, and dried out electrolytic capacitors.

However what happens on the front end AC side is not so clear at all, and has more of a profound impact on the rest of your system. How the noise can be minimised so that it doesn?t harm the rest of your components is how the power quality is resilient enough for the whole system. The US designs do have the plug earth connection to a welded point on a chassis and the outgoing earth on a welded portion of the chassis at a different place.
When buying a replacement unit be sure to match not only its form-factor and net wattage, but individual current ratings of all outputs.
This in turn usually opens the input fuse (see this tutorial for block diagram and theory of operation). The units over 400W are used mainly for servers, industrial PCs and to supply the desktops with high-end video applications.
To check your unit, first of all you need to turn input power off and remove your PC cover.
To meet PCI Express requirements, in the new ATX2 computers the old 2x10 main power connector has been replaced by 2x12 connector. To enable a stand-alone PSU, you need to ground PS_ON# pin (see connection diagram to the left for the test setup).
The PSU for high-end discrete graphics cards have additional 2x3 or 2x4 connectors to supply extra power to the graphics that require more than 75 watts.
Note that some manufacturers, such as Apple, HP and Dell used proprietary non-standard connector sizes and pinouts: see more info here.
After enabling the unit you can turn on the input power and check output voltages one at a time.
If you should decide to open up a PSU, always unplug it first and then wait at least five minutes to let all capacitors discharge. You should not do a troubleshooting unless you have a proper electronics training and know how to work with high voltage circuits.

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